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Article

Philmore Alleyne, Shantelle Armstrong and Marissa Chandler

This paper aims to examine the capital budgeting practices used by firms in Barbados using contingency theory.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the capital budgeting practices used by firms in Barbados using contingency theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves the use of a self-administered questionnaire sent to the individual responsible for capital budgeting decisions (either the accountant, financial controller or senior manager) in each of the firms selected. In total, 41 completed questionnaires are received; 12 follow-up interviews are conducted with respondents to indicate the reasons for use and non-use of capital budgeting practices.

Findings

Capital budgeting practices are not widely used by firms in Barbados. The payback method (PBM) is determined to be the preferred method of choice because of its simplicity, agility and cultural practices. Based on contingency theory, organisations in Barbados believe that the PBM is a better fit for them. Top management drives the capital budgeting process with crude and non-traditional methods for the acceptance of capital projects. While there are no statistically significant differences in the capital budgeting practices used in different sectors, professional accountants are more likely to use net present value and sensitivity analysis than non-professional accountants.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is small, and consequently, findings may not be generalisable to the population.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the body of literature in emerging countries such as Barbados on the usage of capital budgeting practices and factors that may influence their usage. It further contributes to policymakers, practitioners, organisations and stakeholders of organisations.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article

K.C. Lam, D. Wang and M.C.K. Lam

The purpose of the paper is to report the investigation results of current practices of strategic asset allocation process, which consists of capital budget planning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to report the investigation results of current practices of strategic asset allocation process, which consists of capital budget planning, monitoring, and control of Hong Kong building contractors. The changes of the said practices are compared with the results of the two similar surveys undertaken in the past longitudinally.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 157 questionnaires were sent to about 1,000 approved Hong Kong building contractors (classified as group A, B, C in accordance with their maximum capacities). The total response rate was 30.7 per cent. Statistical techniques, a two‐dimensional contingency table, and discriminant function analysis (DA) were deployed to analyze the survey data via SPSS.

Findings

Only the practice of a regular review of the minimum rate of return of major projects was popular. For monitoring aspect, 100 per cent of surveyed contractors monitor project performance once operational. The result of post‐completion audits on major projects was 63 per cent. For the results of the longitudinal study, 66.7 per cent of group C firms employed the practices of intermediate and long‐term capital budgets and 71.4 per cent of large firms had a formal body for screening investment proposals compared with 54.8 per cent and 63.3 per cent of the same group's practices in 1994 respectively. DA results showed that the patterns within the three different groups (A, B, and C) were very similar, and group A and group B were active in capital budgeting monitoring and control.

Practical implications

Planning was the weakest and data showed that Hong Kong building contractors had tight control of the projects.

Originality/value

This paper reports the investigation results of current practices of strategic asset allocation process, which consists of capital budget planning, monitoring, and control of Hong Kong building contractors.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article

Suk H. Kim and Gregory Ulferts

A quarter of a century has passed since Stonehill and Nathanson (1968) surveyed multinational companies to determine their foreign capital budgeting practices. Since then…

Abstract

A quarter of a century has passed since Stonehill and Nathanson (1968) surveyed multinational companies to determine their foreign capital budgeting practices. Since then, research has not only refined its theoretical base on this subject but also expanded the knowledge of actual practices by multinational companies. This article summarizes the findings of major multinational capital budgeting studies for the last 25 years to ascertain whether companies followed theoretically prescribed approaches. Then, it suggests further research to advance the knowledge on this subject.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Content available
Article

Md. Anhar Sharif Mollah, Md. Abdur Rouf and S.M. Sohel Rana

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current capital budgeting practices in Bangladeshi listed companies and provide a normative framework (guidelines) for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current capital budgeting practices in Bangladeshi listed companies and provide a normative framework (guidelines) for practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a structured questionnaire survey taking from the chief financial officers (CFOs) of companies listed in the Dhaka Stock Exchange in Bangladesh. Garnered data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques.

Findings

The results found that net present value was the most prevalent capital budgeting method, followed closely by internal rate of return and payback period. Similarly, the weighted average cost of capital was found to be the widely used method for calculating cost of capital. Further, results also revealed that CFOs adjust their risk factor using discount rate.

Originality/value

The findings of this study might help the firms, policymakers and practitioners to take a wise decision while evaluating investment projects. Additionally, this study’s findings enrich the existing body of knowledge in the field of capital budgeting practices by providing more reliable and comprehensive analysis taking samples from a developing economy.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

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Article

Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf and Arwiphawee (Sai) Srithongrung

This article highlights key aspects of capital management, including capital planning, capital budgeting, capital financing, decision making and capital spending outcomes…

Abstract

This article highlights key aspects of capital management, including capital planning, capital budgeting, capital financing, decision making and capital spending outcomes. We provide a background discussion of public sector capital management, followed by a summary of the articles that comprise this symposium. Combined, these articles illustrate the complexity of and challenges to capital management at the state and local government levels. We discuss common themes that emerge from reading these articles as a collective symposium, including: (1) modest progress in applying and empirically testing theoretical frameworks; (2) the variety of actors and institutions; and (3) the deteriorating condition and poor performance of public infrastructure. We use the articles to illustrate gaps in the research and offer suggestions for future research on capital management theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article

Lawrence Peter Shao and Alan T. Shao

The purpose of this study is to examine the capital budgeting strategies that are used by foreign subsidiaries of U.S.‐based multinational enterprises. While the results…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the capital budgeting strategies that are used by foreign subsidiaries of U.S.‐based multinational enterprises. While the results indicated a preference for sophisticated capital budgeting techniques as the primary method of analysis, the actual use of sophisticated capital budgeting techniques by foreign managers may not be as widespread as expected by financial theorists. Although it was found that certain environmental and company‐specific factors influenced the level of sophistication of capital budgeting practices used by U.S. foreign subsidiaries, the associations were small and had only minor explanatory significance. The results showed that foreign subsidiaries exposed to high levels of political and financial risk tended to use sophisticated capital budgeting strategies. Subsidiaries characterized by high levels of financial leverage and high cost of capital requirements also employed advanced capital budgeting strategies. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have many options available to them in terms of how they manage their foreign subsidiaries. Traditionally, most major policy decisions were made at the parent firm's headquarter office while foreign subsidiaries had few opportunities to influence major corporate decisions. Today, more companies are using a flexible approach which involves setting strategic goals at the home office and allowing local managers to implement their own specific policies. An important question in this study involved determining how effective local foreign managers were in implementing their capital budgeting processes. As U.S.‐based MNEs continue to expand their operations abroad, there is an increased need to examine which financial decision models are actually used by subsidiary managers to deal with the increased complexity of investing in foreign countries. Unlike traditional capital budgeting analysis, international analysis is a considerably more complex process. These complexities occur for a number of reasons including complicated cash flows estimates, changes in foreign exchange rates, different accounting systems, potential for blocked funds, and political risk considerations. These factors are rarely experienced by traditionally domestic U.S. firms. To maintain a competitive edge, MNEs must continue to use the most efficient approaches available to them. This study provides a detailed analysis of the capital budgeting practices that are actually being used by foreign subsidiaries of U.S.‐based MNEs. The paper is organized in the following manner. Section I provides a brief overview of the theoretical and practical issues of international capital budgeting analysis. Section II focuses on the areas of data collection, questionnaire design, and environment‐specific and company‐specific factors. Section III discusses usage of capital budgeting techniques, adjustment and assessment of project risk, and factors influencing capital budgeting policies. The final section presents some findings from this study.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Mohamed Nurullah and Lingesiya Kengatharan

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate prevailing capital budgeting practices in Sri Lankan listed companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate prevailing capital budgeting practices in Sri Lankan listed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive primary survey was conducted of 32 out of 46 chief financial officers (CFOs) of manufacturing and trading companies listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka. Garnered data were then analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques.

Findings

The results revealed that net present value (NPV) was the most preferred capital budgeting method, followed closely by payback (PB) and internal rate of return (IRR). Similarly, sensitivity analysis was regarded as the dominant capital budgeting tool for incorporating risk and the widely used method for calculating cost of capital was the weighted average cost of capital. Moreover, results revealed that size of the capital budget affects the use of the capital budgeting methods (NPV, IRR and PB) and incorporating risk tool (sensitivity analysis and simulation). Further, results revealed that CFOs had higher educational qualification were preferred to use sophisticated capital budgeting practices dominantly NPV, IRR and incorporating risk tool of sensitivity analysis although they were found to be reluctant in use of accounting rate of return. In a similar vein CFOs with higher experience were preferred using IRR and sensitivity analysis.

Originality/value

This study contributed to academics, practitioners, policy makers and stakeholders of the company. Moreover, this research has proffered a more reliable and comprehensive analysis of capital budgeting practices in Sri Lankan listed manufacturing and trading firms. Since Sri Lanka is an unexplored country on capital budgeting practices, this research was originally contributed to the extant literature per se.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article

Taeyeon Kim, Hongbok Lee, Kwangwoo Park and Doug Waggle

The authors present the results of a survey on how Korean firms evaluate new projects and estimate their capital costs. The authors report how Korean firms’ capital

Abstract

Purpose

The authors present the results of a survey on how Korean firms evaluate new projects and estimate their capital costs. The authors report how Korean firms’ capital budgeting practices compare to other developed countries and to best practices in the field of finance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors survey CFOs of major Korean firms on their capital budgeting practices. The authors then compare the results against the US and European firms and best practices of leading firms and financial advisors.

Findings

The authors find that the capital budgeting practices of Korean firms are as strong as or stronger than firms in developed markets. A majority of Korean firms use best practices techniques such as NPV, IRR and the CAPM for project evaluation and cost of equity estimation. Chaebol affiliation results in somewhat stronger capital budgeting practices. The authors also find that other factors, such as company size, leverage, CEO age and CEO education, impact capital budgeting practices.

Originality/value

This paper is the first article that comprehensively examines Korean firms' capital budgeting practices.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article

C. Correia and P. Cramer

This study employs a sample survey to determine and analyse the corporate finance practices of South African listed companies in relation to cost of capital, capital

Abstract

This study employs a sample survey to determine and analyse the corporate finance practices of South African listed companies in relation to cost of capital, capital structure and capital budgeting decisions.The results of the survey are mostly in line with financial theory and are generally consistent with a number of other studies. This study finds that companies always or almost always employ DCF methods such as NPV and IRR to evaluate projects. Companies almost always use CAPM to determine the cost of equity and most companies employ either a strict or flexible target debt‐equity ratio. Furthermore, most practices of the South African corporate sector are in line with practices employed by US companies. This reflects the relatively highly developed state of the South African economy which belies its status as an emerging market. However, the survey has also brought to the fore a number of puzzling results which may indicate some gaps in the application of finance theory. There is limited use of relatively new developments such as real options, APV, EVA and Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the low target debt‐equity ratios reflected the exceptionally low use of debt by South African companies.

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Article

Il Hwan Chung

Adoption of a separate capital budget in local governments receives little attention in the literature. It is important to look at various capital budgeting practices in…

Abstract

Adoption of a separate capital budget in local governments receives little attention in the literature. It is important to look at various capital budgeting practices in local governments since a separate capital budget as different budget format and structure affects budgetary decisions, thus leading to different levels of investment in public infrastructure. This paper examines factors that facilitate or impede adoption of a separate capital budget by using time series data. Results show that local governments are more likely to adopt a separate capital budget in order to reflect local demands such as growth rate in capital spending.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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