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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

C.I. Ezeife, Jingyu Dong and A.K. Aggarwal

The purpose of this paper is to propose a web intrusion detection system (IDS), SensorWebIDS, which applies data mining, anomaly and misuse intrusion detection on web environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a web intrusion detection system (IDS), SensorWebIDS, which applies data mining, anomaly and misuse intrusion detection on web environment.

Design/methodology/approach

SensorWebIDS has three main components: the network sensor for extracting parameters from real‐time network traffic, the log digger for extracting parameters from web log files and the audit engine for analyzing all web request parameters for intrusion detection. To combat web intrusions like buffer‐over‐flow attack, SensorWebIDS utilizes an algorithm based on standard deviation (δ) theory's empirical rule of 99.7 percent of data lying within 3δ of the mean, to calculate the possible maximum value length of input parameters. Association rule mining technique is employed for mining frequent parameter list and their sequential order to identify intrusions.

Findings

Experiments show that proposed system has higher detection rate for web intrusions than SNORT and mod security for such classes of web intrusions like cross‐site scripting, SQL‐Injection, session hijacking, cookie poison, denial of service, buffer overflow, and probes attacks.

Research limitations/implications

Future work may extend the system to detect intrusions implanted with hacking tools and not through straight HTTP requests or intrusions embedded in non‐basic resources like multimedia files and others, track illegal web users with their prior web‐access sequences, implement minimum and maximum values for integer data, and automate the process of pre‐processing training data so that it is clean and free of intrusion for accurate detection results.

Practical implications

Web service security, as a branch of network security, is becoming more important as more business and social activities are moved online to the web.

Originality/value

Existing network IDSs are not directly applicable to web intrusion detection, because these IDSs are mostly sitting on the lower (network/transport) level of network model while web services are running on the higher (application) level. Proposed SensorWebIDS detects XSS and SQL‐Injection attacks through signatures, while other types of attacks are detected using association rule mining and statistics to compute frequent parameter list order and their maximum value lengths.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Chen‐Chung Liu, Shih‐Hsun Fan Chiang, Chih‐Yueh Chou and Sherry Y. Chen

Exploratory learning is regarded as an important ability for developing knowledge from open environments. During the exploration, learners not only need to acquire new information…

Abstract

Purpose

Exploratory learning is regarded as an important ability for developing knowledge from open environments. During the exploration, learners not only need to acquire new information based on their current interests, but also they need to form new perspectives by incorporating new knowledge into their previous knowledge. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, this paper proposes an approach that includes a concept association bank to recommend related concepts in a domain based on the goal of an exploration. By doing so, learners' knowledge can be expanded beyond their current understanding. An experiment was conducted to investigate how the proposed approach facilitated the learners' exploration.

Findings

The results indicated that the concept association bank is a useful mechanism to help learners gain new understanding, including providing exploration directions, reducing complexity and cognitive load, facilitating data‐ and goal‐driven exploration strategies, and commenting on new understanding. The implications of these results are discussed.

Originality/value

Current recommendation systems emphasise a data‐driven strategy, which seeks isolated pieces of information, instead of suggesting directions related to their exploration goal. The problem with such an approach is that learners' exploration will be limited by their existing knowledge. Thus, this paper presents an approach to support both data‐ and goal‐driven strategies.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Preye Edward Gesiye Angaye and David Gwilliam

Purpose – This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the role of corporate governance in developing, emerging and transition economies by focusing on the nature and practice…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the role of corporate governance in developing, emerging and transition economies by focusing on the nature and practice of corporate governance in listed companies in Nigeria – a country which has experienced both economic growth and political turbulence over the past three decades and which too has experienced significant corporate failures in particular in the banking and insurance sectors. It does this against a contextual background which discusses issues of ethnicity, gender and power relationships and their relevance to governance in Nigeria.

Methodology – Archival and documentary analysis supported and underpinned by semi-structured interviews with 20 stakeholders in governance processes in Nigeria.

Findings – The analysis of the interviews highlighted the general support of the interviewees for corporate governance procedures and practices in Nigeria to continue to develop in line with those in more developed economies. However, concerns were expressed as to the inadequacies of aspects of the Nigerian governance regulatory infrastructure, in particular in relation to mechanisms for implementation and enforcement within a framework where there was limited confidence that either voluntary adherence to codes of good practice or market-driven regulation and control would be effective.

Contrary to the researchers’ expectations, the majority of the interviewees articulated the perspective that ethnicity, gender and power relationships were not of significance in the determination of the actuality of practice. However, a minority did identify these considerations to be of key importance, albeit frequently not overtly acknowledged or portrayed as such by parties associated with governance practices.

Research limitation(s) – The interviewees were drawn from a cross section of stakeholders from the business, government, regulatory and academic environment in Nigeria but the exigencies of conducting interview research in Nigeria and the difficulties of obtaining agreement from, and access to, interviewees meant that the potential for self-selection bias has to be considered when evaluating the study findings.

Practical Implication(s) – The research paper provides a platform for policy formulation on corporate governance in Nigeria.

Originality and value of paper – The paper builds on a number of previous studies of governance in Nigeria (for example, Oyejide & Soyibo, 2001; Yakasai, 2001; Ahunwan, 2002; Okike, 2007) in particular by means of the use of semi-structured interviews to provide a rich field of insight into the actuality of practice.

Details

Corporate Governance in Less Developed and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-252-4

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

Christopher Belford, Delin Huang, Yosri Nasr Ahmed, Ebrima Ceesay and Lang Sanyang

Climate change and its imminent threat to human survival adversely impact the agriculture sector. In an impoverished country like The Gambia, economic costs of climate change are…

2011

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change and its imminent threat to human survival adversely impact the agriculture sector. In an impoverished country like The Gambia, economic costs of climate change are colossal. This study aims to establish a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for The Gambia’s agriculture sector to examine the effects of climate change on crops, livestock and sea-level rise.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a CGE model with other climate change impact models to compute the impacts of climate change on The Gambia’s agriculture sector. The social accounting matrix calibrates the results from the various models, thereby generating the baseline results which exemplify a “steady-state” and policy shock results illustrating the medium- and long-term effects of climate change on the country’s agriculture sector.

Findings

The baseline results indicate the status quo showing the neglect of the agriculture sector due to limited investment in the sector. Hence, the sector is the “hardest hit” sector as a result of climate change. When the model factored in climate change in the medium term (2055) and long term (2085), the macroeconomic indicators of gross domestic product, national savings, wages, disposable income and consumer price index deteriorated, elucidating the vulnerability of the economy to climate change. The consumption of groundnuts, cattle and fish will decline by 5%, 5% and 4%, respectively, in the long term. However, the production of all agricultural commodities will decline by an average of 35% for the same period. The results for international trade show that exportation would decline while importation will increase over time. The general price level for agricultural commodities would increase by 3% in 2055 and 5% in 2085. Generally, the results manifest the severity of climate change in the agriculture sector which will have a multiplier effect on the economy. The impact of climate change would result in agriculture and economic decline causing hunger, poverty and human misery.

Originality/value

The caveat of this study revealed the nuances not captured by previous Gambian climate change studies, thus the novelty of the study.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2019

Xiaoning Li, Xinbo Liao, Qingwen Zhong, Kai Zheng, Shaoxing Chen, Xiao-Jun Chen, Jin-Xiu Zhu and Hongyuan Yang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influencing factors of patients’ financial burden through a case study of hospital on public‒private partnerships (PPP) model (Chaonan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influencing factors of patients’ financial burden through a case study of hospital on public‒private partnerships (PPP) model (Chaonan Minsheng Hospital of Guangdong Province) and provide some useful information to policymakers for better development of hospitals on PPP model.

Design/methodology/approach

There are total six indicators that are defined as patients’ financial burden, basing on the policy of “indicators of medical quality management and control on the third level large general hospital (2011 edition),” issued by Chinese Government. In total, 23 potentially influencing factors of patients’ financial burden for hospital on PPP model were chosen from the above policy. The five-year (2007‒2011) data for the above 29 indicators come from statistic department of hospital on PPP model. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to analyze the influencing factors of patients’ financial burden for hospital on PPP model.

Findings

A clear rank of influencing factors of patients’ financial burden is obtained and suggestions are provided from results of GRA, which provide reference for policymakers of hospital on PPP model. The five main influencing factors of patients’ financial burden for hospital on PPP model, in sequence, are rescuing critical ill patients on emergency, rescuing critical ill inpatients, inpatient bed occupancy rate, working days per bed and medical building area.

Originality/value

The study on the influencing factors of patients’ financial burden for hospital on PPP model not only provides decision-making for policymaker of hospital and controlling of medical expenditure but also contributes to release patients’ financial burden for hospitals on PPP model.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2019

Yasser Maghsoudi Ganjeh, Naser Khani and Akbar Alem Tabriz

This paper aims to propose and test a research model that links social media usage with networking capabilities on the commercialization performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose and test a research model that links social media usage with networking capabilities on the commercialization performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The target population of this study consisted of 530 managers and experts in knowledge-based firms in Science and Technology Parks of Isfahan (Iran), which were active in the electronics and electronic engineering, bio, renewable energy, nano and information and communication technologies. To determine the effects of the social media and networking capability on the commercialization performance in knowledge-based firms, this study collected the data through a questionnaire survey with knowledge-based firms and conducted statistical analysis. The unit of analysis is the entire firm. The random sampling method was applied in this study. This study mainly uses the validated existing scales of previous studies on Likert-type scales with response options ranging from 1 to 5. To increase the response rate and accuracy, the researchers in this study also conducted phone and e-mail survey. A total of 230 questionnaires were conducted to remove the questionnaires with inadequate or missing answers, and the final 220 cases were selected as valid samples.

Findings

First, this research confirmed that social media usage can positively improve commercialization performance. Second, this research confirmed the mediating role of the networking capability on the relationship between social media usage and commercialization performance. In fact, social media tools represent a potential vehicle to help firms create better relationships with partners and increase commercialization performance via these mechanisms.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by integrating the domains of social media usage and business networks perspective. Social media has revolutionized the way firms interact with business partners. A salient characteristic of today’s business setting is that partners use social media to nurture and sustain their network relationships with others (Kim et al., 2016). Moreover, based on the dynamic capability theory and business networks perspective, the authors introduce the impression management capability as a networking capability dimension that has been neglected and mentioned only briefly.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Ajeesh A.K. and Rukmini S.

Scholarship on language teacher knowledge and critical digital literacy. Using a grounded theory approach, semi-structured online presentations of students, classroom observations…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholarship on language teacher knowledge and critical digital literacy. Using a grounded theory approach, semi-structured online presentations of students, classroom observations and their responses to multimedia tools such as movies and literature were analysed. As part of the study, 150 students pursuing undergraduate degree in engineering were assigned two assignments involving science fiction movies and hyperreal literature as part of an experiential strategy. A survey was conducted before and after the study to evaluate the change in students’ perception towards the use of technology and multimedia in language classrooms as well as their awareness of technological dependency in the postmodern world. The findings show that student cognition of AI and technological dependency is a complex and emergent system, and that, despite current literacy education scholarship stressing digital literacy as a social and critical praxis, technology is treated in a mostly functional, rather than a critical manner in a standard university language classroom. The results of this study suggest that the disadvantages of a realistic approach to teaching digital composition can be avoided by creating other forms of educational materials that adhere to critical digital literacies sense, such as posthuman literary works and science fiction film.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is primarily qualitative and empirical, focussing on the analysis of student responses to classroom assignments and semi-structured online presentations and responses to multimedia tools such as movies and online literature. A pilot study was performed among the engineering students of Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India, to better understand engineering students’ perceptions and attitudes towards teaching English as a second language using emerging technology, with the aim of improving language abilities, writing skills, imagination and overall personality. One hundred and fifty (150) students were assigned two assignments as part of an experiential strategy. Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, Microsoft Teams was used as the platform for assessment and observation. As part of their learning challenge, students were required to watch the movies “Her”, “Interstellar” and “Bandersnatch” and write a technical report outlining some of the major observations on technology and AI. Secondly, as part of their learning challenge, students were required to read Oliver Sacks’ “The Machine Stops” and comment on his perspectives on technological dependency. This was supplemented by assessment tests and assignments focussing on the digital nature of the global education system. Another survey was conducted at the end of the study to evaluate the change in students’ perception towards the use of technology and multimedia in language classrooms as well as their awareness of technological dependency in the postmodern world. Owing to the posthuman and hyperreal nature of the movies and texts, students were introduced to the theories of Marshall McLuhan and Jean Baudrillard to better understand the chosen works.

Findings

In the posthuman era, where digital technologies are at their peak, English language teachers select appropriate teaching resource materials based on the needs of the students and do their utmost to combine them with technology to make their teaching more engaging and efficient. Thanks to the current craze for Digital Humanities, not just English language teaching but also literature classroom teaching has experienced several paradigm shifts. This has raised the need for English teachers and professionals on the job market. Given this context, and in particular, to raise knowledge among engineering students of their critical position in the literary job sector, two tasks were assigned to students in the Language Classroom. These tasks included integrating technology into language studies and literature, instilling imagination, honing literary skills and facilitating the development of a comprehensive approach to life and potential endeavours.

Originality/value

As evident from the study and literature review, the introduction of emerging technology in Language Classrooms has grown in popularity, but it has yet to be incorporated into Language Classrooms that focus on the comprehensive development of students, especially in India. Furthermore, proof of interactions between digital learning and teaching practices and anticipated results, effects and impacts was gathered to make the Language Classroom more social, inspiring and engaging, but little more. As a result, we see a lot of potential for research in this field, particularly concerning the most recent language studies advancements about Digital Humanities.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Alan Peacock and Rob Bowker

Primary teaching trainees were given a 1‐week placement in environmental science centres, to learn about teaching children in non‐school contexts. The placements were mainly in…

936

Abstract

Primary teaching trainees were given a 1‐week placement in environmental science centres, to learn about teaching children in non‐school contexts. The placements were mainly in the South West of England, and included both residential and day‐visit centres. Evaluation was through written and oral feedback from hosts and students, against a set of criteria. The article provides a rationale for such placements within a PGCE programme, describes how they operated in practice and analyses the feedback to make recommendations for future operation of the programme. It recommends provision of more documentation on placements at the planning stage, and proposes a more structured programme for working with children and materials development. The article makes recommendations for further research into the logistics of such placements, the impact of materials developed by trainees, their role and status during placement, and potential benefits of negotiating their own placements. It concludes by discussing the implications for placements more generally.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Habibeh Mir, Farshad Seyednejad, Habib Jalilian, Shirin Nosratnejad and Mahmood Yousefi

Costs estimation is essential and important to resource allocation and prioritizing different interventions in the health system. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the…

Abstract

Purpose

Costs estimation is essential and important to resource allocation and prioritizing different interventions in the health system. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the costs of lung cancer in Iran, in 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a prevalence-based cost of illness study with a bottom-up approach costing conducted from October 2016 to April 2017. The sample included 645 patients who referred to Imam Reza hospital, Tabriz, Iran, in 2017. Follow-up interviews were every two months. Hospitalization costs extracted from the patient’s record and outpatient costs, nondirect medical costs and indirect costs collected using questionnaire. SPSS software version 22 was used for the data analysis.

Findings

Mean direct medical costs, nondirect medical costs and indirect costs amounted to 36,637.02 ± 23,515.13 PPP (2016) (251,313,217.83 Rials), 2,025.25 ± 3,303.72 PPP (2016) (16,613,202.53 Rials) and 48,348.55 ± 34,371.84 PPP (2016) (396,599,494.56 Rials), respectively. There was a significant and negative correlation between direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, indirect costs and age at diagnosis, and there was a significant and positive correlation between the length of hospital stay and direct medical cost.

Originality/value

As the cost of lung cancer is substantial and there have been little studies in this area, the objective of this study is to investigate the cost of lung cancer and present ways to tackle this.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2023

Michal Müller, Veronika Vaseková and Ondřej Kročil

In societies marked by inequality, organizations use management techniques and business strategies for sustainability, social impact and ethical activities, with stakeholders…

Abstract

Purpose

In societies marked by inequality, organizations use management techniques and business strategies for sustainability, social impact and ethical activities, with stakeholders often promoting education to effectively address these challenges. This paper establishes an original relation between the development of social entrepreneurship and a deep philosophical comprehension of human existence. Going beyond conventional management theories, the authors demonstrate that specific existential ideas and other philosophical underpinnings provide powerful guiding principles, portraying entrepreneurship as a method to address the underlying social and environmental issues driving inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on an analysis of relevant articles and is supported by qualitative research on social entrepreneurship. The stories of social entrepreneurs represent good practice in applying the values and insights discussed in modern approaches.

Findings

Social entrepreneurs are relentlessly seeking innovative pathways to develop their enterprises. Their intrinsic drive for social entrepreneurship and their unwavering commitment to solidarity are undeniably more aligned with philosophical approaches to management than with the confines of traditional positivist foundations.

Practical implications

Leveraging philosophical approaches that intricately resonate with the ethical and value-driven compass of social entrepreneurs, as opposed to the constraints of conventional managerial methods, holds immense potential in shaping the training and skill development of these impactful visionaries.

Originality/value

The authors' study unveils fresh insights into how social entrepreneurs adeptly navigate interpersonal connections, handle uncertainties and address the paradoxical situations intrinsic to their entrepreneurial efforts to confront social issues.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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