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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Samuel Sekyi, Christopher Quaidoo and Emmanuel Agyapong Wiafe

This paper aims to analyze the effects of crop specialization on agricultural productivity and commercialization for farmers who produce high-value crops in the Northern…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the effects of crop specialization on agricultural productivity and commercialization for farmers who produce high-value crops in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the USAID/Ghana Feed the Future (FTF) survey, which collected data on high-value crops (i.e. maize, rice and soya). Data for the analysis consists of 2,903 farm households. The study utilized the three-stage generalized method of moment estimation technique to deal with the potential endogeneity of crop specialization within the context of productivity and commercialization and heteroscedasticity issues in the data.

Findings

The study found that crop specialization positively relates to agricultural productivity and commercialization, suggesting that increased crop specialization in the production of high-value stimulates productivity and opens market opportunities for farm households. These findings imply that crop specialization seems more beneficial to farmers as it significantly improves productivity and commercialization.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana and not the entire country.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have jointly modeled crop specialization, agricultural productivity and commercialization. The main advantage of using this system approach is that it uses more information, thereby providing more precise parameter estimates.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Mozhdeh Taheri and Marina van Geenhuizen

Commercialization of research projects at the university, in particular, its efficiency and performance, have attracted little attention in the empirical literature to…

Abstract

Commercialization of research projects at the university, in particular, its efficiency and performance, have attracted little attention in the empirical literature to date. This despite the fact that commercialization of university knowledge is increasingly seen as a third task of universities and understanding of what enhances and what blocks the processes involved, is virtually lacking, particularly on the project level. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to identify factors that influence the performance of university-driven knowledge projects, including efficiency, in the context of commercialization of knowledge at universities. In this context, the study employs Data Envelop Analysis combined with Rough-Set Analysis on a sample of 42 projects in the Netherlands. The major factors influencing overall performance in commercialization turn out to be years of collaboration with large firms and efficiency in use of resources in the projects, but the affinity of the project managers at university with the market also plays a role. The best overall results in commercialization (introduction to market in a relatively short time) are gained with a longer period of collaboration with large firms (5–10 years) and a medium level of efficiency. There are also some contradictory trends. The chapter concludes with implications of the results, as well as some future research paths.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Angus I. Kingon, Ted Baker and Roger Debo

This chapter addresses the behavioral problems and conflicts observed in multidisciplinary university commercialization teams. We examined 59 commercialization projects at…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the behavioral problems and conflicts observed in multidisciplinary university commercialization teams. We examined 59 commercialization projects at one U.S. university, supplemented by a similar number of projects at other universities in the United States and Europe. We applied well-established ideas about distinctive “thought worlds,” including both cognitive and motivational factors to understand patterns of selective perception and issue prioritization. The resulting analysis allows us to draw tentative conclusions regarding improved management practices aimed at managing the conflicts and improving university commercialization initiatives. We discuss the generalizability of the results.

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Spanning Boundaries and Disciplines: University Technology Commercialization in the Idea Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-200-6

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Aleksandra Szulczewska-Remi and Hanna Nowak-Mizgalska

Consistent with the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, the purpose of this paper is to recognise the complementary entrepreneurial role of knowledge transfer…

Abstract

Purpose

Consistent with the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, the purpose of this paper is to recognise the complementary entrepreneurial role of knowledge transfer intermediary organisations in the context of two Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries: Poland and the Czech Republic.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim was achieved through empirical studies relying on multiple-case study methodology and cross-case analysis covering 21 cases of commercialisation intermediary institutions. It was assumed that institutional and geographical conditions can impact the knowledge-based opportunity exploitation between different national economies.

Findings

Research confirmed that scientists in Poland and the Czech Republic are the central figures of the commercialisation process in terms of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition; however, they need support from intermediary organisations in many other entrepreneurial activities. The history of knowledge commercialisation and its intermediating entities in these countries is relatively young and spin-off company creation is not a common practice. Expertise knowledge, creativity and self-confidence admitted, by the respondents in both countries, can be an optimistic sign for the future efforts in fostering innovativeness of CEE countries. Stronger support of formal institutional framework and policies in those countries is expected.

Originality/value

Science commercialisation has lately attracted much attention, but only a few studies have tried to develop conceptual frameworks considering knowledge-based entrepreneurship and knowledge commercialisation in their relations and subsequential roles. Also, over the past couple of years literature in this area has expanded mainly relying on observations in the USA and Western European countries. Hence, this study allowed to collect findings from CEE countries for which data are still insufficient but can significantly contribute to the theory development. Also, some recommendations for policymakers arise from this study. Further research could validate the results in an extensive quantitative study.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 29 December 2020

Nur Syazwani Suhaimi, Muhammad Abi Sofian Abdul Halim and Hafiza Aishah Hashim

This study examines the perception and attitudes of academicians regarding factors that influence the commercialization of university research.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the perception and attitudes of academicians regarding factors that influence the commercialization of university research.

Design/methodology/approach

The data sample was drawn using a proportionate stratified sampling approach. A self-administered survey was used to obtain data regarding the perception of academicians on the factors that contribute to research commercialization. A total of 131 academicians completed the survey. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that two factors are significant and positively related with commercialization: the academician's behaviour and University-Industry collaboration. Surprisingly, the factors of innovativeness and Intellectual Property management did not have a significant relationship with commercialization.

Research limitations/implications

For future work, researchers should conduct in-depth interviews with the executive management at research universities and at the Ministry of Education Malaysia to complement our quantitative survey. These decision-makers act as funding sources for commercialization and can provide richer evidence regarding important factors affecting commercialization. They can also provide insight on the issues that prevent the commercialization of research from becoming a reality.

Originality/value

Commercialization of Malaysia's university research findings is a critical agenda item in the National Higher Education Strategic Plan. However, in Malaysia, the rate of commercialization of academic research is still unsatisfactory. This study provides important insights regarding intentions behind commercialization by depicting how factors of academic research (i.e. academician's behaviour, innovativeness, Intellectual Properties management, University-Industry collaboration) influence commercialization.

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Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Turkhan Sadigov

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the article explores an understudied side of invention commercialization–the rejection of business as something “dirty” among…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the article explores an understudied side of invention commercialization–the rejection of business as something “dirty” among Russian scientists. As such, the paper contributes to the individual-level explanations of innovation promotion, hence balancing extant literature's excessive focus on institutional explanations. Second, the article suggests that Russian scientists' rejection of business is rooted in broader Russian work ethics rift between “material” and “ideational” aspects of life. As such, the paper shows how dominant collective values refract in the management practice of specific social class, i.e. of scientists.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the rift between material and ideational aspects of Russian scientists' work, the article employs directed content analysis (DCA) of in-depth interviews with 45 Russian scholars. To address credibility bias of the research findings stemming from DCA, I further draw on the survey of existing studies, researches and polls highlighting Russian population attitudes toward the dichotomy between “material” and “ideal” realms.

Findings

This study argues that Russian scientists' likelihood of invention commercialization is positively associated with their ability to integrate in a personal psyche business and science as equally valuable facets of life.

Originality/value

The article identifies the three groups of scientists – opportunity-seekers, idealists and integrators – with different attitudes to invention commercialization. The article shows how policymakers should apply institutional incentives differently to each group of scientists to achieve higher rates of invention commercialization.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Yilia Ponomareva, Timur Uman, Pernilla Broberg, Emmy Vinberg and Karoline Karlsson

The purpose of this study is to explore how the commercialization of audit firms relates to the subjective well-being (SWB) of auditors. Drawing on the conservation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how the commercialization of audit firms relates to the subjective well-being (SWB) of auditors. Drawing on the conservation of resources and social identity theories, the authors argue that the commercialization of audit firms enhances auditors’ subjective well-being in its overall happiness and job-related dimensions through two theoretical mechanisms. First, it constitutes a valuable resource for an auditor, and second, it reinforces the auditor’s identification with a firm. The authors subsequently contend that this relation is contingent on whether auditors are used in Big four or non-Big four audit firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test our hypotheses-based data obtained from a survey of 166 Swedish auditors. The data are explored by means of descriptive statistics, correlation matrixes and linear moderating multiple regression analyzes.

Findings

The authors show that commercial orientation can have a positive effect on auditors’ SWB. The authors also find that the positive relationship between commercialization and SWB is stronger for auditors employed by one of the Big four firms.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the ongoing debate about the normalization of commercialization within the audit profession by theorizing on and providing empirical support for the positive consequences of commercialization.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Luitfred Kissoly, Anja Fasse and Ulrike Grote

Transformation of smallholder agriculture from subsistence to more commercially-oriented production is one of the strategies advocated for improving rural households' food…

Abstract

Purpose

Transformation of smallholder agriculture from subsistence to more commercially-oriented production is one of the strategies advocated for improving rural households' food security and general welfare. The purpose of this paper is to assess potential differential effects of smallholder commercialization intensity on the different dimensions of food security.

Design/methodology/approach

Using household data from rural Tanzania, the study employed Tobit regression and Generalized Propensity Score (GPS) approaches to analyze smallholder commercialization intensity and associated food security effects.

Findings

Results show that smallholder commercialization has heterogeneous effects on the different dimensions of food security. Specifically, lower levels of commercialization are associated with lower food availability, access, utilization and stability. At higher intensities of commercialization, smallholders have higher food availability and access but modest improvements in food utilization and stability. Findings suggests that heterogeneous effects of commercialization on food security and the multi-dimensional nature of food security are important aspects to consider in the design of strategies to improve smallholder agriculture for enhanced food security and welfare.

Research limitations/implications

It is important to point out that while food security is still a complex phenomenon, one that cannot be analyzed easily, so is commercialization. This study has used only one of the many definitions of commercialization.

Originality/value

Most existing literature on smallholder commercialization groups farmers into commercial and subsistence-oriented households. However, smallholders commercialize at various levels of intensity. This paper, conversely, analyzes the potential effects of different levels of commercialization on the various aspects of food security. Further, unlike extensive literature that focus on a narrow definition of food security, this paper expands the evidence of the implications of smallholder commercialization on the different dimensions of food security namely, food availability, access, utilization and stability.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Lihua Li, Maria Estela Varua, Adam M. Komarek, Sriram Shankar and William D. Bellotti

The purpose of this paper is to explore the endogenous relationship between production specialisation and market commercialisation with an empirical study of farmers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the endogenous relationship between production specialisation and market commercialisation with an empirical study of farmers in Northwest China.

Design/methodology/approach

The three-stage least squares were used to address simultaneity and over-identification problems in comparison with two-stage least squares (2SLS). The Durbin-Wu-Hausman test was employed to identify the endogeneity of the commercialisation and specialisation variables. The validity, relevance, and strength of the instruments were tested using the Stock-Yogo weak instrument diagnostics test.

Findings

A two-way interrelationship between specialisation and commercialisation were confirmed, and suggest that farmers’ decisions on farm commercialisation and production specialisation are actually separate and interacting.

Social implications

By demonstrating that a virtuous cycle exists between agricultural commercialisation and on-farm specialisation, policies can be formulated to complement these two effects that may help increase small holders’ income. Farmers’ market participation can be indirectly improved by combining market improvement and risk management tools to encourage production specialisation.

Originality/value

The insights of this study cast further light onto the farm market participation theory by emphasising that higher asset endowments enable small farmers to specialise in production with comparative advantage.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Pernilla Broberg, Timurs Umans, Peter Skog and Emily Theodorsson

The purpose of this paper is to explain how auditors’ professional and organizational identities are associated with commercialization in audit firms. Unlike previous…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how auditors’ professional and organizational identities are associated with commercialization in audit firms. Unlike previous studies exploring the consequences of commercialization in the firms, the study directs its attention toward the potential driver of commercialization, which the authors argue to be the identities of the auditors.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on 374 responses to a survey distributed to 3,588 members of FAR, the professional association of accountants, auditors and advisors in Sweden. The study used established measures of organizational and professional identity and introduced market, customer and firm process orientation as aspects of commercialization. The study explored the data through descriptive statistics, principle component analysis and correlation analysis and tested the hypotheses with multiple linear regression analysis.

Findings

The findings indicated that the organizational identity of auditors has a positive association with three aspects of commercialization: market orientation, customer orientation and firm process orientation. Contrary to the arguments based on prior literature, the study has found that the professional identity of auditors is also a positively associated with commercialization. This indicates a change of the role of professional identity vis-à-vis commercialization of audit firms. The positive association between professional identity and commercial orientation could indicate the development of “organizational professionalism.” The study also found differences between the association between professional identity and commercialization in Big 4 and non-Big 4 firms. While in Big 4 firms, professional identity is positively associated only with the firm’s process orientation, in non-Big 4 firms, professional identity has a positive association with all three aspects of commercialization.

Originality/value

The paper provides insight into how auditors’ identities have influenced commercialization of audit firms and into the normalizing of commercialization within auditing. The study also developed a new instrument for measuring commercialization, one based on market, customer and firm process orientation concepts. This paper suggests that this instrument is an alternative to the observation through proxies.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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