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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Minna Paunova and Blagoy Blagoev

This chapter examines some of the demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as cultural and institutional traditions, that help explain turnover and retention in…

Abstract

This chapter examines some of the demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as cultural and institutional traditions, that help explain turnover and retention in Bulgaria. The case of Bulgaria illustrates that extant theories of turnover and retention may not be well suited to account for macroeconomic and large-scale social processes spurred by globalization. The focus here is on collective turnover at the organizational and particularly at upper levels of analysis (e.g., industry, region), and the authors emphasize four factors that they believe jointly contribute to the high levels of turnover in the country, namely (1) globalization processes affecting the country’s demography (i.e., mass international migration), (2) the economy (i.e., global labor arbitrage), (3) institutions (i.e., patchwork capitalism), and (4) culture (i.e., shifting generational values). To further scholarly progress, management scholars need to be more attentive to turnover – and its determinants – for larger collectives, that is, at levels above the unit and organizational. The authors provide concrete suggestions on how the case of Bulgaria opens up some avenues for future research on turnover and retention.

Details

Global Talent Retention: Understanding Employee Turnover Around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-293-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Mariya Karaivanova and Kristine Klein

The period of transition to democracy in which Generation Z members in Bulgaria grew up was characterised by profound changes in the economic and social system of the…

Abstract

The period of transition to democracy in which Generation Z members in Bulgaria grew up was characterised by profound changes in the economic and social system of the country, with frequent episodes of chaos and instability resulting in a long-term demographic decline. At the same time, the years of their adolescence have been marked by globalisation processes and the rapid development of digital technologies opening countless opportunities for work, study and travel to this group of young people.

Although research on Generation Z in Bulgaria is scarce, in this chapter, we have attempted to draw a portrait of the typical representative of the young generation based on the results of a couple of empirical surveys. Decreasing social orientation, less focus on sustaining interpersonal relationships and lower self-confidence and initiative are among our most remarkable observations making this generation of young people rather different than previous ones. Furthermore, Generation Z members were found to be quite demanding at work requiring stress-free working conditions, good work–life balance, opportunities for competency development and adequate pay from employers. This certainly creates a serious challenge for Bulgarian employers who might have to change their standard human resource practices in order to attract and retain the potential of this new group of employees. Generation Z members could be a source of innovation, meaningfulness and flexibility for the Bulgarian labour market and because of that they certainly need to be studied in more detail.

Details

Generations Z in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-491-1

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 22 February 2018

Bulgaria’s assumption of the EU presidency.

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Svetoslav Georgiev and Seiichi Ohtaki

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following three questions: what influence has the centrally planned economy and Soviet-style manufacturing had on the evolution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following three questions: what influence has the centrally planned economy and Soviet-style manufacturing had on the evolution and implementation of quality management practices in Bulgaria’s manufacturing sector since the end of the communism; have Bulgaria and its businesses been able to embrace modern quality management philosophies such as TQM, which at times preach the exact opposite philosophies of the Soviet-style manufacturing; and if so, how advanced is the quality mindset of Bulgarian manufacturing businesses today – 24 years after the end of communism?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies mainly on qualitative research methods. The authors have opted for exploratory approach. Besides an array of articles from scholarly journals, books, and conference proceedings, the authors have relied on five in-depth, semi-structured interviews and one case study in the form of plant visit and observations. The authors have used a framed analytical approach for interpreting the empirical data.

Findings

The paper argues that the slow and painful transition from a centrally planned to market economy has impeded the evolution and implementation of QM practices in Bulgaria. More precisely, haphazard reforms in education, lack of highly qualified individuals due to the brain drain in the early 1990s, and the workers’ strong resistance to change have been among the main obstacles in the case of the quality movement.

Research limitations/implications

The work presented in this paper is just the beginning of a series of studies on the quality management initiatives in Bulgaria. To go deeper into the topic, the authors realize that further research in a number of different directions is required. The first direction is related to the degree of relevance of Management Sovieticus in the twenty-first century, which somehow has been completely neglected as a research topic in the last decade. The second direction lies in the aspect of the attributes of Bulgarian managers and their perception toward the importance of the role of quality today.

Practical implications

Countries with similar, political, economic, and social backgrounds – former Eastern Bloc members – can profit a great deal from the authors’ work. More than 20 years since the end of communism, both researchers and entrepreneurs, especially those from the West, have been neglecting the legacy of the centrally planned economy, which has been a major reason for the great number of business failures in the region. The authors’ work seeks to awaken those who still believe that two decades are sufficient to eradicate fully the unfortunate legacy of the command economy.

Originality/value

Little, not to say incremental, research on the quality initiatives in Eastern Europe (*except for Russia) has been conducted so far. As to Bulgaria, the investigation reveals no significant studies on quality management, especially ones published in English. Hence, the authors’ work is the first international study on the evolution and implementation of QM practices in Bulgaria.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

David L. Rayome and John A. Stocker

Bulgaria is one of the Eastern European countries attempting to convert from a Central Planned Economy to a free market capitalistic one. Numerous problems have arisen…

Abstract

Bulgaria is one of the Eastern European countries attempting to convert from a Central Planned Economy to a free market capitalistic one. Numerous problems have arisen that have prevented this transition from being completed. These problems parallel many of those faced by other nations attempting this transition. This article investigates Bulgaria's attempt to privatise its commercial and industrial enterprises. The key problems concerning investment and risk are identified. Potential solutions are offered that may allow Bulgaria to accomplish its goal of moving towards capitalism and prosperity.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Keith W. Glaister and Hristina Atanasova

This article examines the nature and role of foreign direct investment in Bulgaria. Set in the context of the transitional economies of the countries of Central and…

4112

Abstract

This article examines the nature and role of foreign direct investment in Bulgaria. Set in the context of the transitional economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the article serves to illustrate the importance of foreign direct investment in bolstering the market system, rebuilding the economy and underpinning the success of the privatisation process. An account of the pattern of foreign direct investment in terms of time period, sector and nationality of the investor is presented from official data sources. Since the collapse of communism the Bulgarian economic and political climate has been one of the least conducive in Central and Eastern Europe to the attraction of foreign businesses; however, recent reforms, and in particular the election of a new government, provide the beginning of a more favourable environment for foreign direct investment in Bulgaria.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 98 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Svetoslav Georgiev and Emil Georgiev

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of top management’s understanding of product quality in Bulgaria since the end of communism. The study examines three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of top management’s understanding of product quality in Bulgaria since the end of communism. The study examines three specific areas: top management’s understanding of the term “quality”; top management’s understanding of the relationship between quality and business performance; and top management’s understanding of the impact of job position on quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on a quantitative research approach by using data from a survey of 186 companies in Bulgaria.

Findings

The paper suggests that senior managers in Bulgaria continue to base their understanding of “quality” on a single approach (*a characteristic of the communist era), with the product-based and the user-based approaches currently being the two most common ones. At the same time, surprisingly enough, this study claims that senior management in Bulgaria is currently well aware of the importance of quality as a dimension of firm’s competitiveness, and is also highly conscious of its roles’ impact on product quality.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are exclusively based on the case of Bulgaria and must be treated with caution in the case of other former communist states from the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) region.

Practical implications

This paper has relevance for both managers and companies doing business in Eastern Europe.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to provide detailed analysis of the evolution of the understanding of “product quality” in CEE since the end of communism. Moreover, this paper applies, for the first time, Garvin’s five approaches to defining quality within a practical context.

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Sonia Varadinova Mileva

The paper is making a preliminary evaluation of dark tourism potential in Bulgaria. Dark tourism is underestimated research topic in Bulgaria – a country with long and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is making a preliminary evaluation of dark tourism potential in Bulgaria. Dark tourism is underestimated research topic in Bulgaria – a country with long and rich cultural heritage, belonging to orthodox religion, with ambiguous impacts from the communist/socialist political regime and nowadays being a typical destination for mass and 3 “S” (sun, sand, sea) tourism. The research topic is approached by starting with an inventory and classification of the main tourist attractions/sites for dark tourism according to the most widely applicable theoretical typologies, inclusively their territorial density, cities location, authenticity and commercialization. The general counterpoint is the non-western approach and the hypothesis that dark places/attractions can be explored as potential tourist resources, diversifying the cities destination supply. The places related to death within the death-tourism framework are explored within the urban landscape. The research applies supply-demand approach and includes semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders from the supply side and a questionnaire accessing the tourist’s perspective and readiness from the demand side. Special attentions is given to the cities as concentrating the major part of the dark sites/attractions in the country, being at the same time integral part of the public areas and urban landscape, with special designation and/or combination of additional recreational functions. The data and results from the conducted research revealed that dark tourism in Bulgaria, in the narrowest sense is relatively unknown, unexplored type of tourism, difficult to distinguish and overlapping with other types of tourism mainly in the cities. The paper also raises the discussion about the necessity to extend the dark tourism research in the cities, taking into account the non-western approach and cultural sensitiveness. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of the research, in its nature, is purely qualitative, widest and most applicable (Biran A., Hyde K., 2013), (Wight, 2006) (Light, 2017) and follows two main stages: inventory, classification and potential of the dark tourism sites/attractions in Bulgaria and supply-demand approach for pilot exploratory study of the reediness of the suppliers and main stakeholders from one side, and the tourist’s perceptions from other side.

Findings

The data and results from the conducted research revealed that dark tourism in the narrowest sense in Bulgaria is relatively unknown, unexplored type of tourism, difficult to distinguish and overlapping with other types of tourism mainly in the cities. The findings challenge the predominant understanding of dark tourism typology, spectrum, and type of places/attractions (Light, 2017). Within the tourism-death relationship framework in the non-western approach with narrow focus in Bulgaria as research area, the author can confirm that the concept of dark tourism research should be extended taking into account the religion (relationship to death), historical development and political regime. The results obtained clearly show that the main difference from the western approach lies in on completely different conceptual basis, which differs from the concept of dark tourism. Tourism is mostly linked with recreation, leisure, and entertainment, while the dark places/sites related to death and suffer are mostly linked to religion, historical or political heritage. Besides being different both create and conduct to a behavior and visit of such places with deserved respect, honor and part of national identity and culture.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s focus is narrow and limited at national level as part of “eastern” (non-western) context of tourism-death relationship framework. The findings resulted from pilot exploratory study provide theoretical and practical insights into understanding of dark tourism and its potential development in Bulgaria by considering the availability of dark sites/attractions, supply (readiness of main stakeholders) and demand side (tourist’s perspective). The paper limits the research in the post-modern context stressing on tourism/leisure and commercial use of death as attractions and places. Other limitations are pilot character of the exploratory study and the limited number of respondents.

Practical implications

The paper delivers practical insights into understanding of dark tourism and its potential development in Bulgaria by considering the availability of dark sites/attractions, supply (readiness of main stakeholders) and demand side (tourist’s perspective).

Originality/value

Most of the research in the field of dark tourism as expression of tourism-death relationship framework are concentrated on the “western way of thinking” (Light, 2017, p. 297) covering countries from West Europe, USA, Australia (Foote, 1997), (Bowman M., Pezzullo P., 2010, p. 188). The use of Western frameworks for understanding the tourism-death relationship in other parts of the world and particularly in Bulgaria as Eastern European and orthodox country may not be appropriate. For the specific research area – the case of Bulgaria, theoretically although incorrect, a parallel is possible between the western post-modern secularism and atheism as official communist policy between 1940 and 1990 (Metodiev, 2013). Darkness of sites/attraction identified within the tourism-death relationship and exploitation of the death is seen supporting and commemorating the sacrifice of the “heroes” of the time keeping them “eternally alive” and as symbols, incarnations of the “sacral” political power.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Nancy M. Bolt and Lisa Cole

Come, Madam But I don't have my shoes on. Come, Madam.

Abstract

Come, Madam But I don't have my shoes on. Come, Madam.

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-024627-4

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Dennis R. Vanden Bloomen and Ivan Purvanov Petrov

Examines the current situation for logistics in Bulgaria. Reviews theprospects for applying logistics concepts with respect to the economicenvironment for privatization…

1494

Abstract

Examines the current situation for logistics in Bulgaria. Reviews the prospects for applying logistics concepts with respect to the economic environment for privatization and investment. Presents the findings. Concludes with some cautions concerning the issue of transferring logistics knowledge in Bulgaria.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000