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The study constructs a composite indicator to rank macroeconomic performance of countries and a separate composite indicator to rank countries by inequality using the…
The study constructs a composite indicator to rank macroeconomic performance of countries and a separate composite indicator to rank countries by inequality using the TOPSIS methodology of Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Analysis. The intuitive idea of TOPSIS is to formulate an ideal solution with respect to each individual policy variable; the relative rank of any country is then determined, using a suitable distance metric, such that the best performer simultaneously has the shortest distance from the ideal solution and the farthest distance from the non-ideal. It uses the composite indicator based rankings together with the KOF Globalization Index and sub-indices based rankings to examine the overall relationship between globalization and macroeconomic performance of countries and reduction in inequality; the impacts of trade and financial globalization for 1990–2018 across countries and groups of the globe. It shows that though highly correlated with growth, globalization may not necessarily lead to an improvement in overall macroeconomic performances of countries when one also takes into account unemployment and inflation. Economic globalization is seen here to mostly coincide with rise in income inequality. Observations also support the fact that countries, even if they are not highly integrated may reap sufficient benefits of globalization for macroeconomic performance and inequality diminution given supportive policies.
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the countries, their people, their businesses, and their governments. It is a change driven by…
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the countries, their people, their businesses, and their governments. It is a change driven by international trade, implemented by various policies and aided by modern technology. It has impacts on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development and prosperity, and human physical well-being in societies around the world. But there can be some negative impacts as well. One possible outcome of globalization of all sorts can be the income inequalities. Objective of this chapter is to search for any such connection. Gini coefficient, unemployment rate, Below Poverty Line (BPL) is taken to understand the extent of inequalities in different countries. Outcome shows some countries do not show any association between globalization and income inequalities; some do. Therefore, there are some other variables which influence the above relationship. This chapter tries to identify all such background factors. It reveals that factors like level of development, demographic structure, urbanization, adult and tertiary level of education and government expenditure share in higher education play important roles. All these have different magnitudes of impacts on change in income distribution due to the initial process of globalization.
My framework is based upon a grounded analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) of a review of the existing social science and education literature regarding globalization and…
My framework is based upon a grounded analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) of a review of the existing social science and education literature regarding globalization and peace from approximately 1960 to the present. My review consisted of identifying emergent themes in the literature and from these identifying conceptual categories and the relationships among them that could explain some of the ways in which globalization, peace, and educational processes are linked. I approached the literature as a “cache of documents” (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), that is, as bodies of literature reflecting certain sensibilities regarding globalization and peace. My framework is based upon an analysis of how these sensibilities have influenced the reproduction of inequalities through the education sector as a socialization and policy context.
Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social…
Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social exclusion. In the recent work, a significant attention has been accorded to understand how globalisation has impacted on job security and thereby human security in many developing countries. The literature revolves around two opposing effects of globalisation on the human security in a country: firstly, the efficiency hypothesis posits that globalisation tends to reduce the size of the government of a country to enable the country to attain comparative advantage for gainfully trading in the global economy. A reduction in the capacity of the government is argued to lead to a decline in public employment and, hence, a decline in human security with rising globalisation. Secondly, the compensation hypothesis argues that the size of government, and hence public employment, will increase with globalisation mainly to suitably manage a domestic economy in a complex global setting with an increased role of government for creating social stability and social security. Depending on the relative strengths of the mutually opposing forces of globalisation on public employment, the impact of globalisation on the human security of a country is ambiguous. A gap in the existing literature is a lack of documentation of the Indian experience. In this work, the authors seek to empirically test if globalisation has increased, or decreased, job security in India.
The potential benefits of globalization – seen as progressive worldwide economic integration – have been touted by many economists, government officials and journalists…
The potential benefits of globalization – seen as progressive worldwide economic integration – have been touted by many economists, government officials and journalists, but the obstacles to its acceptance are seldom assessed against its putative advantages. Some opposing observers, protest groups and a few governments have warned about the inequities and burdens of globalization. However, few have focused on the multiple obstacles to, or on the necessary policies and attitudes for, successful moves to globalization. International Business researchers need to encompass the multiple aspects in the political, social and cultural realms that are affected by, and involved in, the process of globalization and require acceptable treatment. A fundamental reconciliation is required between socio-economic systems based on relationships and those based primarily on market signals in order to reduce conflicts and achieve the necessary community of interests.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is not new in the industrial society, as every corporation has embedded the philosophy of doing good and doing well in its business…
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is not new in the industrial society, as every corporation has embedded the philosophy of doing good and doing well in its business ethics for different motives. Literature established that CSR policies, theories and practices differ across countries, cultures and civilisations. The globalisation wave forced on global corporations a unified understanding of theories and practice of CSR from the perspective of developed countries of America and Britain. Britain's exit from the European Union and America's egocentric national policies launched by President Donald Trump are evidence of an increased leaning toward isolationism, and strong cases of anti-globalisation have been established by these nations. The purpose of this theoretical research is to investigate within the raging Globalisation and Anti-Globalisation debates, the key factors that motivate corporations from different contexts to initiate CSR programmes and the focus of programmes. This research adopts a qualitative research method, leveraging previous scholarly works, working papers, case studies and relevant internet resources. Insightful information from afore-mentioned sources were critically discussed from which useful findings were derived to support the subject of inquiry (factors that motivate CSR programmes and focus of programmes). It was found that similar factors motivate corporations with globalisation and isolation mindsets to embrace CSR programmes, but the focus of CSR programs of corporations differ, yet the programmes oscillate around economic, social and environmental dimensions of CSR. The gap left by the chapter is for future researchers to carry out an empirical investigation on the research.
The author argues that international business carries within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Globalization and attendant international business activities tend to…
The author argues that international business carries within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Globalization and attendant international business activities tend to trigger countervailing political forces, resulting in de-globalization. Scholars have documented this pattern for the past, and it will likely repeat itself in the future. International business thus seems to constitute a self-limiting, oscillating system that triggers its own crises. The author reviews and applies theories accounting for the role of international business in (de-)globalization and discusses measures to prevent or at least dampen future oscillations.
As globalization has influence on social sustainability mainly due to its effects on income distribution as well as labor share and profile at the local and global levels…
As globalization has influence on social sustainability mainly due to its effects on income distribution as well as labor share and profile at the local and global levels, sustainable development and globalization need to be examined from the social sustainability point of view. Social sustainability aspect of development and globalization is mainly affected by the income distribution and labor aspects. Labor share, degree of equality in the income distribution, labor competence, degree of elimination of child labor, degree of labor intensiveness in the production, labor's level of competence and productivity are among the main factors which can be influenced by globalization, its opportunities, and challenges as well as by its transformation into the postglobalization phase. These factors can influence social sustainability. In other words, there is a link and relationship among sustainable development, globalization, and postglobalization, income distribution and labor. Enhancing welfare of the societies and social sustainability necessitates focusing on the ways to achieve equality in the income distribution, and enhanced working conditions at the local and global levels across countries and industries. Based on an in-depth literature review, this chapter aims to assess and rethink sustainable development and globalization from the income distribution and labour aspects. Furthermore, this chapter covers and examines effects of globalization on low-income and developed countries. This chapter provides suggestions and recommendations on how to enhance welfare of the society at the local and global levels in the post-growth phase. This chapter is expected to be useful to policy makers, researchers, and academics.
In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about…
In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about mechanisms affecting diversity distinguished by van Vught (environmental conditions, competition for resources and academic norms) remain the same, but the initial conditions have changed. Governmental policy, in particular, affects the degree of openness of higher education systems (positively or negatively), either through (de-)regulation or by affecting higher education institutions’ strategies for internationalisation. Thus, we add as a fourth proposition that increasing institutional autonomy increases system diversity in the context of globalisation.
Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization…
Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization. This paper investigates the relationship between these two processes.
Methodology/Approach – I use fixed-effects models, and comprehensive measures of globalization and earnings inequality to scrutinize the relationship between the two in 18 affluent democracies. Although past studies concentrate on worker displacement, I examine how globalization affected earnings inequality before and after controlling for manufacturing employment and unemployment as indicators of displacement.
Findings – Initial evidence suggests net migration and investment openness have moderate positive effects, but trade openness has larger, more significant positive effects. In full models, only trade openness remains robustly significant. For a standard deviation increase in trade openness, earnings inequality should increase by between 1/5th and 2/5th of a standard deviation.
Originality/Value of paper – Beyond displacement, this study encourages investigation of power relations (e.g., class capacities of employers vs. workers) and institutional change (e.g., practices of firms) as mechanisms by which globalization contributes to inequality.