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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Timothy Stapleton and Helen Sumin Koo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of biomotion visibility aids for nighttime bicyclists compared to other configurations via 3D eye-tracking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of biomotion visibility aids for nighttime bicyclists compared to other configurations via 3D eye-tracking technology in a blind between-subjects experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned one of four visibility aid conditions in the form of videos: biomotion (retroreflective knee and ankle bands), non-biomotion (retroreflective vest configuration), pseudo-biomotion (vertical retroreflective stripes on the back of the legs), and control (all-black clothing). Gaze fixations on a screen were measured with a 3D eye-tracking system; coordinate data for each condition were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analyses with supplementary heatmaps. Post-experimental questionnaires addressed participants’ qualitative assessments.

Findings

Significant differences in eye gaze location were found between the four reflective clothing design conditions in X-coordinate values (p<0.01) and Y-coordinate values (p<0.05).

Practical implications

This research has the potential to further inform clothing designers and manufacturers on how to incorporate biomotion to increase bicyclist visibility and safety.

Social implications

This research has the potential to benefit both drivers and nighttime bicyclists through a better understanding of how biomotion can increase visibility and safety.

Originality/value

There is lack of literature addressing the issue of the commonly administered experimental task of recognizing bicyclists and its potential bias on participants’ attention and natural driving state. Eye-tracking has the potential to implicitly determine attention and visibility, devoid of biases to attention. A new retroreflective visibility aid design, pseudo-biomotion, was also introduced in this experiment.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Helen S. Koo and Xiao Huang

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate drivers’ differing psychological perceptions of cyclists’ conspicuity according to active visibility aid configurations on clothing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate drivers’ differing psychological perceptions of cyclists’ conspicuity according to active visibility aid configurations on clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

The flashing light-emitting diodes (FLEDs) were positioned on the major joints (shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles) in eight configurations and pre- and post-surveys were conducted.

Findings

The results indicated that there were significant differences among the eight configurations in observers’ detection and recognition of cyclists, contributions of FLEDs, and visibility of cyclists (p<0.001). Among the eight different configurations on joints, FLEDs on the hips, knees, and ankles were the most detectable, recognizable, and visible.

Originality/value

Most of the previous studies have investigated passive visibility aids and there is a lack of research on FLED configurations on major joints for cyclists. Thus, this study is expected to be beneficial to designers when developing active visibility aid clothing for cyclists.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Philip Stoker, Arlie Adkins and Reid Ewing

Pedestrian injuries and deaths should be viewed as a critical public health issue. The purpose of this chapter is to show how incorporating safety from traffic into…

Abstract

Pedestrian injuries and deaths should be viewed as a critical public health issue. The purpose of this chapter is to show how incorporating safety from traffic into broader efforts to increase walking and physical activity has the potential to have a significant health impact. In this chapter we provide an overview of pedestrian safety considerations having to do with population health and the built environment. The chapter is organised around a conceptual framework that highlights the multiple pathways through which safe walking environments can contribute to improved population health. We review the existing literature on pedestrian safety and public health. Pedestrian safety will remain a vexing challenge for public health and transportation professionals in the coming decades. But addressing this problem on multiple fronts and across multiple sectors is necessary to reduce injuries and fatalities and to unleash the full potential of walking to improve population health through increased physical activity. This chapter uniquely contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between the walking environment and public health.

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

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