Search results

1 – 10 of 146
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Lingxi Li, Wensen Niu, Yaobin Chen, David Good, Chi-Chih Chen and Rini Sherony

To support the standardized evaluation of bicyclist automatic emergency braking (AEB) systems, test scenarios, test procedures and test system hardware and software tools…

Abstract

Purpose

To support the standardized evaluation of bicyclist automatic emergency braking (AEB) systems, test scenarios, test procedures and test system hardware and software tools have been investigated and developed by the Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. This paper aims to focus on the development of test scenarios and bicyclist surrogate for evaluating vehicle–bicyclist AEB systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The harmonized general estimates system (GES)/FARS 2010-2011 crash data and TASI 110-car naturalistic driving data (NDD) are used to determine the crash geometries and environmental factors of crash scenarios including lighting conditions, vehicle speeds, bicyclist speeds, etc. A surrogate bicyclist including a bicycle rider and a bicycle surrogate is designed to match the visual and radar characteristics of bicyclists in the USA. A bicycle target is designed with both leg pedaling and wheel rotation to produce proper micro-Doppler features and generate realistic motion for camera-based AEB systems.

Findings

Based on the analysis of the harmonized GES/FARS crash data, five crash scenarios are recommended for performance testing of bicyclist AEB systems. Combined with TASI 110-car naturalistic driving data, the crash environmental factors including lighting conditions, obscuring objects, vehicle speed and bicyclist speed are determined. The surrogate bicyclist was designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of the real bicyclists in the USA. The height of the bicycle rider mannequin is 173 cm, representing the weighted height of 50th percentile US male and female adults. The size and shape of the surrogate bicycle were determined as 26-inch wheel and mountain/road bicycle frame, respectively. Both leg pedaling motion and wheel rotation are suggested to produce proper micro-Doppler features and support the camera-based AEB systems.

Originality/value

The results have demonstrated that the developed scenarios, test procedures and bicyclist surrogate will provide effective objective methods and necessary hardware and software tools for the evaluation and validation of bicyclist AEB systems. This is crucial for the development of advanced driver assistance systems.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Timothy Stapleton and Helen Sumin Koo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of biomotion visibility aids for nighttime bicyclists compared to other configurations via 3D eye-tracking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of biomotion visibility aids for nighttime bicyclists compared to other configurations via 3D eye-tracking technology in a blind between-subjects experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned one of four visibility aid conditions in the form of videos: biomotion (retroreflective knee and ankle bands), non-biomotion (retroreflective vest configuration), pseudo-biomotion (vertical retroreflective stripes on the back of the legs), and control (all-black clothing). Gaze fixations on a screen were measured with a 3D eye-tracking system; coordinate data for each condition were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analyses with supplementary heatmaps. Post-experimental questionnaires addressed participants’ qualitative assessments.

Findings

Significant differences in eye gaze location were found between the four reflective clothing design conditions in X-coordinate values (p<0.01) and Y-coordinate values (p<0.05).

Practical implications

This research has the potential to further inform clothing designers and manufacturers on how to incorporate biomotion to increase bicyclist visibility and safety.

Social implications

This research has the potential to benefit both drivers and nighttime bicyclists through a better understanding of how biomotion can increase visibility and safety.

Originality/value

There is lack of literature addressing the issue of the commonly administered experimental task of recognizing bicyclists and its potential bias on participants’ attention and natural driving state. Eye-tracking has the potential to implicitly determine attention and visibility, devoid of biases to attention. A new retroreflective visibility aid design, pseudo-biomotion, was also introduced in this experiment.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Narelle Haworth and Jacqueline Fuller

Purpose – Bicycle riding provides a sustainable and affordable solution to many of the significant problems associated with motorised transport and physical inactivity…

Abstract

Purpose – Bicycle riding provides a sustainable and affordable solution to many of the significant problems associated with motorised transport and physical inactivity. The provision of infrastructure plays an important role in encouraging people to begin and subsequently continue to ride bicycles and to do so safely.

Methodology – This chapter describes different types of on- and off-road infrastructure and reviews studies of their effects on rider numbers and safety. In addition, it looks at the roles that end-of-trip facilities and bikeshare programs can play in contributing to bicycle use and general transport sustainability.

Findings – Infrastructure characteristics can influence both perceived and objective levels of safety. It is important to identify and avoid treatments that increase perceived safety but are actually less safe. The type of infrastructure needed or desired differs between current and potential riders and according to trip purpose. Well-designed marked bicycle lanes on roads can reduce crash rates. Safety at intersections can be improved by: advanced green lights for cyclists, short cuts for right-hand turns, brightly coloured bicycle paths and advanced waiting positions for cyclists. Off-road facilities are generally safer, but intersections with roads must be carefully treated. Shared paths and footpaths are risky for older pedestrians (and older cyclists).

Implications – In many countries the provision of more infrastructure that increases the perceived safety of riding is needed to encourage cycling, particularly transport cycling and cycling by women.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2016

Jaehoon Chun and Myungsu Lee

Bicycles are not only an environmentally friendly means of transportation but are also easily accessible exercise equipment for health. Thus the number of bicycles is…

Abstract

Purpose

Bicycles are not only an environmentally friendly means of transportation but are also easily accessible exercise equipment for health. Thus the number of bicycles is gradually increasing. This study aims to develop a ‘Smart Enjoy Interact Light (SEIL)’ bag utilizing LED display and smartphone apps. By transmitting desired information or images with LEDs, a SEIL bag can protect bicyclists, and also allow wearers to communicate with others.

Design/methodology/approach

A SEIL built-in bag was developed in the form of a backpack to support all outdoor activities. It can show traffic signals using a wireless controller. Features of design are: ordinary fabric for IT devices; thick and stiff canvas fabric for flexible LEDs; a thin and air-permeable mesh for the LED light; a flexible PCB dashboard for absorbing various shocks; a PVC hard case for the LED display devices; UV coating for waterproofing and durability.

Findings

A SEIL bag for bicyclists can be useful in a variety of outdoor sports and in commercial applications as well, such as advertising or displaying products. The detachable part can be utilized as a hip sack or a pouch.

Originality/value

A SEIL bag not only protects bicyclists from traffic accidents, but with which they can express information or images in real time. A SEIL bag is interactive fashion item that emphases communication, thus it will contribute to development of smart-wear.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Land Use and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044891-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Sarah Bundy Kirkpatrick

Bicycling enthusiasts have been organizing community events in US cities to demonstrate how bicycles may be of use in the aftermath of a disaster event. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Bicycling enthusiasts have been organizing community events in US cities to demonstrate how bicycles may be of use in the aftermath of a disaster event. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived value of these events and levels of engagement in the same amongst emergency managers, community organizers and bicycling advocates.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through 21 in-depth, telephone interviews with emergency management officials and bicycling advocates in bicycle-friendly jurisdictions in the USA and analyzed using initial and focused coding, analytic memos and theoretical sorting.

Findings

The study found that event organizers and other bicycle advocates widely embraced the concept as a means to change societal perceptions of bicycles as viable modes of transportation, indicating at least some level of interest in taking an active role in its pursuit. Emergency managers were generally receptive to the idea, but they largely saw the value as restricted to raising public awareness about hazards and individual preparedness measures; and they mostly envisioned for themselves a minimal role in event planning and execution.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that when operating in a resource-poor environment with limited public and political support, there are innovative partnerships and ideas that can be successfully leveraged to advance multiple purposes.

Originality/value

Almost no empirical research has looked at the disaster relief trial concept, given the relative newness and novelty of the idea. An examination of perceived value of disaster-oriented community bicycling events seems warranted as such events continue to grow in existing locations and emerge in new locales each year.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

1 – 10 of 146