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Visibility aid cycling clothing: flashing light-emitting diode (FLED) configurations

Helen S. Koo (Department of Design, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States.)
Xiao Huang (Department of Consumer and Design Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States.)

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology

ISSN: 0955-6222

Article publication date: 1 June 2015




The purpose of this paper is to investigate drivers’ differing psychological perceptions of cyclists’ conspicuity according to active visibility aid configurations on clothing.


The flashing light-emitting diodes (FLEDs) were positioned on the major joints (shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles) in eight configurations and pre- and post-surveys were conducted.


The results indicated that there were significant differences among the eight configurations in observers’ detection and recognition of cyclists, contributions of FLEDs, and visibility of cyclists (p<0.001). Among the eight different configurations on joints, FLEDs on the hips, knees, and ankles were the most detectable, recognizable, and visible.


Most of the previous studies have investigated passive visibility aids and there is a lack of research on FLED configurations on major joints for cyclists. Thus, this study is expected to be beneficial to designers when developing active visibility aid clothing for cyclists.



Koo, H.S. and Huang, X. (2015), "Visibility aid cycling clothing: flashing light-emitting diode (FLED) configurations", International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp. 460-471.



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