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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Ahmed Bekhadda, Ismail Bensaid, Abdelmadjid Cheikh and Bachir Kerboua

The purpose of this paper is to study the static buckling and free vibration of continuously graded ceramic-metal beams by employing a refined higher-order shear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the static buckling and free vibration of continuously graded ceramic-metal beams by employing a refined higher-order shear deformation, which is also the primary goal of this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is able to catch both the microstructural and shear deformation impacts without employing any shear correction factors, due to the realistic distribution of transverse shear stresses. The material properties are supposed to vary across the thickness direction in a graded form and are estimated by a power-law model. The equations of motion and related boundary conditions are extracted using Hamilton’s principle and then resolved by analytical solutions for calculating the critical buckling loads and natural frequencies.

Findings

The obtained results are checked and compared with those of other theories that exist in the literature. At last, a parametric study is provided to exhibit the influence of different parameters such as the power-law index, beam geometrical parameters, modulus ratio and axial load on the dynamic and buckling characteristics of FG beams.

Originality/value

Searching in the literature and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are limited works that consider the coupled effect between the vibration and the axial load of FG beams based on new four-variable refined beam theory. In comparison with a beam model, the number of unknown variables resulting is only four in the general cases, as against five in the case of other shear deformation theories. The actual model represents a real distribution of transverse shear effects besides a parabolic arrangement of the transverse shear strains over the thickness of the beam, so it is needless to use of any shear correction factors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Lothar Haefner and Kaspar J. Willam

A simple beam element is developed for the solution of large deflection problems. The total Lagrangian formulation is based on the kinematic relations proposed by Reissner…

Abstract

A simple beam element is developed for the solution of large deflection problems. The total Lagrangian formulation is based on the kinematic relations proposed by Reissner for finite rotations and stretching as well as shearing of plane beams. The motion is discretized by linear expansions of the global displacement components and the cross‐sectional rotation in two‐dimensional Euclidean space yielding a simple beam element with three degrees of freedom at the two nodes. The shear locking is reduced by selective integration in order to eliminate the spurious shear constraint similar to interdependent variable interpolation. The large rotation formulation is compared with two forms of moderate rotation theories which have been used in the past to develop the geometric stiffness properties for linear stability analysis of the so‐called Mindlin plate elements. The predictive value of different geometric stiffness approximations is assessed with several examples which range from the static and kinetic stability analysis of the classical Euler‐column to the large deflection problem of a clamped beam.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

ZHEFENG SUN and DENYS BREYSSE

Simplified methods are often employed for the analysis of reinforced concrete beams (R‐C beams). A three‐dimensional problem (3D) is often transformed into a…

Abstract

Simplified methods are often employed for the analysis of reinforced concrete beams (R‐C beams). A three‐dimensional problem (3D) is often transformed into a two‐dimensional problem (2D) with some assumptions which are usually established in static. The essential reason for this simplification lies in the fact that the 3D finite element analysis is so expensive that it is impossible to study directly the non‐linear behaviour of R‐C beams in many cases. Our purpose is to present a specific method which allows the direct 3D analysis of R‐C beams with a suitable numerical cost. First, the 3D linear heterogeneous beam theory is briefly recalled as well as the continuum damage model used for concrete. Second, the non‐linear behaviour of concrete is introduced in the 3D beam theory. Several numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

João Paulo Pascon

The purpose of this paper is to deal with large deformation analysis of plane beams composed of functionally graded (FG) elastic material with a variable Poisson’s ratio.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with large deformation analysis of plane beams composed of functionally graded (FG) elastic material with a variable Poisson’s ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

The material is assumed to be linear elastic, with a Poisson’s ratio varying according to a power law along the thickness direction. The finite element used is a plane beam of any-order of approximation along the axis, and with four transverse enrichment schemes, which can describe constant, linear, quadratic and cubic variation of the strain along the thickness direction. Regarding the constitutive law, five materials are adopted: two homogeneous limiting cases, and three intermediate FG cases. The effect of both finite element kinematics and distribution of Poisson’s ratio on the mechanical response of a cantilever is investigated.

Findings

In accordance with the scientific literature, the second scheme, in which the transverse strain is linearly variable, is sufficient for homogeneous long (or thin) beams under bending. However, for FG short (or moderate thick) beams, the third scheme, in which the transverse strain variation is quadratic, is needed for a reliable strain or stress distribution.

Originality/value

In the scientific literature, there are several studies regarding nonlinear analysis of functionally graded materials (FGMs) via finite elements, analysis of FGMs with constant Poisson’s ratio, and geometrically linear problems with gradually variable Poisson’s ratio. However, very few deal with finite element analysis of flexible beams with gradually variable Poisson’s ratio. In the present study, a reliable formulation for such beams is presented.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Litesh N Sulbhewar and P. Raveendranath

Piezoelectric extension mode smart beams are vital part of modern control technology and their numerical analysis is an important step in the design process. Finite…

Abstract

Purpose

Piezoelectric extension mode smart beams are vital part of modern control technology and their numerical analysis is an important step in the design process. Finite elements based on First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) are widely used for their structural analysis. The performance of the conventional FSDT-based two-noded piezoelectric beam formulations with assumed independent linear field interpolations is not impressive due to shear and material locking phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient locking-free FSDT piezoelectric beam element, while maintaining the same number of nodal degrees of freedom.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations are derived using a variational formulation to establish coupled polynomial field representation for the field variables. Shape functions based on these coupled polynomials are employed here. The proposed formulation eliminates all locking effects by accommodating strain and material couplings into the field interpolation, in a variationally consistent manner.

Findings

The present formulation shows improved convergence characteristics over the conventional formulations and proves to be the most efficient way to model extension mode piezoelectric smart beams, as demonstrated by the results obtained for numerical test problems.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no such FSDT-based finite element with coupled polynomial shape function exists in the literature, which incorporates electromechanical coupling along with bending-extension and bending-shear couplings at the field interpolation level itself. The proposed formulation proves to be the fastest converging FSDT-based extension mode smart beam formulation.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Bo Wang, Zichen Deng, Kai Zhang and Jiaxi Zhou

The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic vibrations of embedded double‐walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) subjected to a moving harmonic load with simply supported…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic vibrations of embedded double‐walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) subjected to a moving harmonic load with simply supported boundary conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The model of DWCNTs is considered as an Euler‐Bernoulli beam with waviness along the length, which is more accurate than the straight beam in previous works. Based on the nonlocal beam theory, the governing equations of motion are derived by using the Hamilton's principle, and then the separation of variables is carried out by the Galerkin approach, leading to two second‐order ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

Findings

The influences of the nonlocal parameter, the amplitude of the waviness, the surrounding elastic medium, the material length scale, load velocity and van der Waals force on the nonlinear vibration of DWCNTs are important.

Originality/value

The dynamic responses of DWCNTs are obtained by using the precise integrator method to ordinary differential equations.

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Rabe Alsafadie, Mohammed Hjiaj, Hugues Somja and Jean‐Marc Battini

The purpose of this paper is to present eight local elasto‐plastic beam element formulations incorporated into the corotational framework for two‐noded three‐dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present eight local elasto‐plastic beam element formulations incorporated into the corotational framework for two‐noded three‐dimensional beams. These formulations capture the warping torsional effects of open cross‐sections and are suitable for the analysis of the nonlinear buckling and post‐buckling of thin‐walled frames with generic cross‐sections. The paper highlights the similarities and discrepancies between the different local element formulations. The primary goal of this study is to compare all the local element formulations in terms of accuracy, efficiency and CPU‐running time.

Design/methodology/approach

The definition of the corotational framework for a two‐noded three‐dimensional beam element is presented, based upon the works of Battini .The definitions of the local element kinematics and displacements shape functions are developed based on both Timoshenko and Bernoulli assumptions, and considering low‐order as well as higher‐order terms in the second‐order approximation of the Green‐Lagrange strains. Element forces interpolations and generalized stress resultant vectors are then presented for both mixed‐based Timoshenko and Bernoulli formulations. Subsequently, the local internal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix are derived using the principle of virtual work for displacement‐based elements and the two‐field Hellinger‐Reissner assumed stress variational principle for mixed‐based formulations, respectively. A full comparison and assessment of the different local element models are performed by means of several numerical examples.

Findings

In this study, it is shown that the higher order elements are more accurate than the low‐order ones, and that the use of the higher order mixed‐based Bernoulli element seems to require the least number of FEs to accurately model the structural behavior, and therefore allows some reduction of the CPU time compared to the other converged solutions; where a larger number of elements are needed to efficiently discretize the structure.

Originality/value

The paper reports computation times for each model in order to assess their relative efficiency. The effect of the numbers of Gauss points along the element length and within the cross‐section are also investigated.

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Chunhua Jin and Xinwei Wang

The purpose of this paper is to present a general formulation of the quadrature element method (QEM). The method is then used to investigate the free vibration of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a general formulation of the quadrature element method (QEM). The method is then used to investigate the free vibration of functionally graded (FG) beams with general boundary conditions and different variations of material properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The quadrature elements with arbitrary number of nodes and nodal distributions are established on the basis of two types of FG Timoshenko beam theories. One called TBT-1 takes the cross-sectional rotation as the unknown function and the other called TBT-2 uses the transverse shear strain as the unknown function. Explicit formulas are provided via the help of the differential quadrature (DQ) rule and thus the elements can be implemented adaptively with ease.

Findings

The suitability and computational efficiency of the proposed quadrature elements for the vibration analysis of FG beams are demonstrated. The convergence rate of the proposed method is high. The elements are shear-locking free and can yield accurate solutions with a small number of nodes for both thin and moderately thick beams. The performance of the element based on TBT-1 is better than the one based on TBT-2.

Originality/value

The present QEM is different from the existing one which exclusively uses Gauss–Lobatto–Legendre (GLL) nodes and GLL quadrature and thus is more general. The element nodes can be either the same or different from the integration points, making the selection of element nodes more flexible. Presented data are accurate and may be a reference for other researchers to develop new numerical methods. The QEM may be also useful in multi-scale modeling and in the analysis of civil infrastructures.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Zhenhan Yao, Xiaoping Zheng, Han Yuan and Jinlong Feng

Based on the error analysis, the authors proposed a new kind of high accuracy boundary element method (BEM) (HABEM), and for the large-scale problems, the fast algorithm…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the error analysis, the authors proposed a new kind of high accuracy boundary element method (BEM) (HABEM), and for the large-scale problems, the fast algorithm, such as adaptive cross approximation (ACA) with generalized minimal residual (GMRES) is introduced to develop the high performance BEM (HPBEM). It is found that for slender beams, the stress analysis using iterative solver GMRES will difficult to converge. For the analysis of slender beams and thin structures, to enhance the efficiency of GMRES solver becomes a key problem in the development of the HPBEM. The purpose of this paper is study on the preconditioning method to solve this convergence problem, and it is started from the 2D BE analysis of slender beams.

Design/methodology/approach

The conventional sparse approximate inverse (SAI) based on adjacent nodes is modified to that based on adjacent nodes along the boundary line. In addition, the authors proposed a dual node variable merging (DNVM) preprocessing for slender thin-plate beams. As benchmark problems, the pure bending of thin-plate beam and the local stress analysis (LSA) of real thin-plate cantilever beam are applied to verify the effect of these two preconditioning method.

Findings

For the LSA of real thin-plate cantilever beams, as GMRES (m) without preconditioning applied, it is difficult to converge provided the length to height ratio greater than 50. Even with the preconditioner SAI or DNVM, it is also difficult to obtain the converged results. For the slender real beams, the iteration of GMRES (m) with SAI or DNVM stopped at wrong deformation state, and the computation failed. By changing zero initial solution to the analytical displacement solution of conventional beam theory, GMRES (m) with SAI or DNVM will not be stopped at wrong deformation state, but the stress error is still difficult to converge. However, by GMRES (m) combined with both SAI and DNVM preconditioning, the computation efficiency enhanced significantly.

Originality/value

This paper presents two preconditioners: DNVM and a modified SAI based on adjacent nodes along the boundary line of slender thin-plate beam. In the LSA, by using GMRES (m) combined with both DNVM and SAI, the computation efficiency enhanced significantly. It provides a reference for the further development of the 3D HPBEM in the LSA of real beam, plate and shell structures.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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