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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Ruth M. Mestre i Mestre and Sara Johnsdotter

This chapter discusses adjudication, expertise, and cultural difference as it appears in criminal court cases concerning female genital cutting (FGM) in the EU, as…

Abstract

This chapter discusses adjudication, expertise, and cultural difference as it appears in criminal court cases concerning female genital cutting (FGM) in the EU, as reported in a 2015 comparative overview. It begins with the distinction between typical and atypical FGM cases; a distinction that connects court cases to the cultural realities of the practicing communities, suggesting that the lack of cultural knowledge can cause unnecessary suffering to families and/or individuals who wrongly undergo prosecution in alleged FGM cases. A contrario, the intervention of experts in FGM court cases could be a positive approach to assessing the legitimacy of public intervention in certain cases.

Details

Cultural Expertise and Socio-Legal Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-515-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2022

Vikas Goyat, Tawakol A. Enab, Gyander Ghangas, Sunil Kadiyan and Ajay Kumar

Inverse distance weighted (IDW) functions are utilized to make models of heterogenous materials such as functionally graded materials (FGM) in computer aided design (CAD)…

Abstract

Purpose

Inverse distance weighted (IDW) functions are utilized to make models of heterogenous materials such as functionally graded materials (FGM) in computer aided design (CAD). However, the use of IDW function based FGM for stress concentration reduction is scarcely available in the literature. The present work aims to analyze and reduce the stress concentration around a circular hole in IDW function-based finite FGM panel under biaxial loading.

Design/methodology/approach

Extended finite element method (XFEM) model was prepared using MATLAB to investigate the effect of geometrical and material parameters on the stress concentration factor (SCF). The obtained results of IDW FGM are compared with homogeneous material as well as two different FGMs based on the power-law function.

Findings

It was observed that the IDW function based FGM is simple in material modeling, conformal with all domain boundaries and shows lower stress concentration in comparison with the homogeneous material case. While comparing IDW FGM with power-law based FGMs, it was observed that the IDW FGM has least values of stress concentration for low d/W (diameter of the hole to panel width ratio) and is comparable with power-law based FGMs for high d/W.

Originality/value

It can be stated that IDW FGM is highly suitable for stress concentration reduction in finite panels with d/W = 0.5, which can further be intended for obtaining optimum hole and panel designs.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Supen Kumar Sah and Anup Ghosh

The purpose of this article is to carry out the thermal buckling analysis of power and sigmoid functionally graded material Sandwich plate (P-FGM and S-FGM) under uniform…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to carry out the thermal buckling analysis of power and sigmoid functionally graded material Sandwich plate (P-FGM and S-FGM) under uniform, linear, nonlinear and sinusoidal temperature rise.

Design/methodology/approach

Thermal buckling of FGM Sandwich plates namely, FGM face with ceramic core (Type-A) and homogeneous face layers with FGM core (Type-B), incorporated with nonpolynomial shear deformation theories are considered for an analytical solution in this investigation. Effective material properties and thermal expansion coefficients of FGM Sandwich plates are evaluated based on Voigt's micromechanical model considering power and sigmoid law. The governing equilibrium and stability equations for the thermal buckling analysis are derived based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory (SSDT) and inverse trigonometric shear deformation theory (ITSDT) along with Von Karman nonlinearity. Analytical solutions for thermal buckling are carried out using the principle of minimum potential energy and Navier's solution technique.

Findings

Critical buckling temperature of P-FGM and S-FGM Sandwich plates Type-A and B under uniform, linear, non-linear, and sinusoidal temperature rise are obtained and analyzed based on SSDT and ITSDT. Influence of power law, sigmoid law, span to thickness ratio, aspect ratio, volume fraction index, different types of thermal loadings and Sandwich plate types over critical buckling temperature are investigated. An analytical method of solution for thermal buckling of power and sigmoid FGM Sandwich plates with efficient shear deformation theories has been successfully analyzed and validated.

Originality/value

The temperature distribution across FGM plate under a high thermal environment may be uniform, linear, nonlinear, etc. In practice, temperature variation is an unpredictable phenomenon; therefore, it is essential to have a temperature distribution model which can address a sinusoidal temperature variation too. In the present work, a new sinusoidal temperature rise is proposed to describe the effect of sinusoidal temperature variation over critical buckling temperature for P-FGM and S-FGM Sandwich plates. For the first time, the FGM Sandwich plate is modeled using the sigmoid function to investigate the thermal buckling behavior under the uniform, linear, nonlinear and sinusoidal temperature rise. Nonpolynomial shear deformation theories are utilized to obtain the equilibrium and stability equations for thermal buckling analysis of P-FGM and S-FGM Sandwich plates.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Mathew Nyashanu and Maureen Mguni

It is believed that more than 120 million women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) and more than 2 million young girls are at risk of undergoing FGM. FGM is…

Abstract

Purpose

It is believed that more than 120 million women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) and more than 2 million young girls are at risk of undergoing FGM. FGM is practiced in different parts of the world. With globalisation and the increased movement of people across the globe, FGM is now a global problem. While ending FGM remains a priority, the approaches and strategies being used have generated contested views across the social divide. The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges in combatting FGM as experienced by Black Sub-Saharan African (BSSA) women in Diaspora.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach. Narratives were collected from 40 BSSA women from 20 Sub-Saharan African countries living in the English West Midlands region. A thematic approach underpinned by the four phases of data analysis in the Silences Framework were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The research study found that stigmatisation of survivors, utilisation of graphic images in FGM awareness, exclusion of practising communities’ gatekeepers in FGM interventions, conflation of religion and FGM practice and obsession with securing a conviction were obstacles in combating FGM. Diaspora community-driven studies exploring FGM and contested notions in addressing it from women perspectives are scarce.

Originality/value

This study pulls together the experiences of BSSA women and their perspectives on contested notions in combating FGM in the UK. The debate asserts the growing need to consider gender sensitive radical interventions, which involves educating perpetrators and gatekeepers among FGM practising communities.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2018

Geetanjali Gangoli, Aisha Gill, Natasha Mulvihill and Marianne Hester

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of and barriers to reporting female genital mutilation (FGM) by victims and survivors of FGM to the police in…

8765

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of and barriers to reporting female genital mutilation (FGM) by victims and survivors of FGM to the police in England and Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on 14 interviews conducted with adult survivors and victims of FGM. A combination of 1:1 and group interviews were used, based on the preference of the respondents. Respondents were recruited in collaboration with specialist non-governmental organisations and major stakeholders in the area of honour-based violence and black and minority ethnic communities.

Findings

A key finding in this research was that all victims/survivors the authors interviewed stated that they did not support the practice of FGM, and that they would not follow it for younger women in their own family. Second, the authors found that none of the respondents had reported their experience to the police. Third, they identified key barriers to reporting, which included: their belief that reporting their own experience would not serve any purpose because they had experienced FGM as children, and in another country; and that they did not feel able to report new incidents of FGM in the community because of a lack of trust in the police due to previous negative experiences. Finally, they believed that FGM could be prevented only by work within the community, and not through engagement with the criminal justice system.

Originality/value

This is, to our knowledge, one of the first papers that is based on victims and survivors’ perceptions that explores barriers to reporting cases of FGM to the police, and offers levers for change.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Darlington Mutanda and Howard Rukondo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the context of gender and HIV/AIDS among the Shangani people in Zimbabwe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the context of gender and HIV/AIDS among the Shangani people in Zimbabwe. Broadly, the discussion ais to fcus on how FGM has been used as tool to maintain the subordinate position of women in the Shangani community.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to secondary material, the paper hugely benefited from interviews with Shangani women in order to appreciate the challenges of eradicating FGM in their society. The sources pointed to the fact that in addition to being exploitative, FGM has no direct health benefits to women.

Findings

The paper confirms that eliminating FGM is difficult because it is deeply entrenched in the patriarchal establishment of the Shangani society. As a result of the patriarchal nature of the society, women find themselves subjected to positions of powerlessness as compared to their male counterparts.

Originality/value

The paper confirms that FGM is a widespread practice in many African communities including Zimbabwe. As communities grapple with the challenges of eradicating or minimising the practice, it is important in the meantime to modernise cultural practices like FGM as a way of doing away with the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Indonesia has already taken that route. FGM as a cultural practice exposes young women to HIV infection because of blood conduct.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Aboubakar Seddik Bouchikhi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a numerical investigation used to calculate the J-integral of the main crack behavior emanating from a semicircular notch and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a numerical investigation used to calculate the J-integral of the main crack behavior emanating from a semicircular notch and double semicircular notch and its interaction with another crack which may occur in various positions in (TiB/Ti) functionally graded material (FGM) plate subjected to tensile mechanical load.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose the variations of the material properties are applied at the integration points and at the nodes by implementing a subroutine USDFLD in the ABAQUS software. The variation of the J-integral according to the position, the length and the angle of rotation of cracks is demonstrated. The variation of the J-integral according to the position, the length and the angle of rotation of cracks is examined; also the effect of different parameters for double notch FGM plate is investigated as well as the effect of band of FGM within the ceramic plate to reduce J-integral.

Findings

According to the numerical analysis, all parameters above played an important role in determining the J-integral.

Originality/value

The present study consists in investigating the simulation used to calculate the J-integral of the main crack behavior emanating from a semicircular notch and double semicircular notch and its interaction with another crack which may occur in various positions in (TiB/Ti) FGM plate under Mode I. The J-integral is determined for various load applied. The cracked plate is joined by bonding an FGM layer to TiB plate on its double side. The determination of the gain on J-integral by using FGM layer is highlighted. The calculation of J-integral of FGM’s involves the direction of the radius of the notch in order to reduce the J-integral.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Yussif Nagumse Alhassan, Hazel Barrett, Katherine E Brown and Kayleigh Kwah

Despite numerous studies on FGM, little is known about belief systems that support FGM in the EU. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamic nature of belief…

1137

Abstract

Purpose

Despite numerous studies on FGM, little is known about belief systems that support FGM in the EU. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamic nature of belief systems and enforcement mechanisms that perpetuate FGM among three African migrant communities in the EU.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on data collected through community-based participatory action research in three communities: Eritrean and Ethiopian community in Palermo, Italy; Guinea Bissauan community in Lisbon, Portugal; and Senegalese and Gambian community in Banyoles, Spain. A total of 24 FGDs and 70 in-depth narrative interviews were conducted for the research.

Findings

The research finds that belief systems supporting the practice of FGM among African migrants in the European diaspora are similar to those in their home countries. Beliefs structured around religion, sexuality, decency, marriage and socialisation are particularly significant in perpetuating FGM in the study migrant communities. These are enforced through sanctions and social expectations from the migrants’ home and host communities.

Research limitations/implications

Members of the migrant communities that were the focus of this research are ethnically diverse; therefore it is possible that differences in the practice of and views on FGM by various ethnicities may have been masked. Also, due to close linkages between the migrants and their home countries it was hard to delineate beliefs that are specific to the host countries. In addition, it was difficult to assess the level of education of the migrants and how this may have impacted on their beliefs due to their contrasting and inconsistent educational backgrounds.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence to show that the practice of FGM among migrants in the EU is driven by both social norms and individual (parent) behaviour and therefore there is a need for interventions to focus on individual behaviour change and social norm transformation techniques. It also suggests that beliefs around FGM have remained socially significant among migrants despite their exposure to European culture because such beliefs are used to promote the moral standards of girls, marriageability of women, respectability of families, and the assertion of cultural and religious identity in the migrants’ new environment. The paper further underscores the role of migrants’ European context as well as the home country in strengthening beliefs that perpetuate FGM in the EU.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

V.K. Gupta, Vijay Kumar and S. Ray

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of imposing linear and quadratic composition gradients on the steady state creep behavior of a rotating functionally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of imposing linear and quadratic composition gradients on the steady state creep behavior of a rotating functionally graded Al‐SiCP disc operating under a radial thermal gradient.

Design/methodology/approach

Mathematical model to describe steady state creep behavior in rotating discs made of isotropic aluminum composite containing linear and quadratic distributions of Silicon Carbide (SiCP) in the radial direction has been formulated. The discs are assumed to operate under a radial thermal gradient originating due to braking action as estimated by FEM analysis. The steady state creep behavior of the discs under stresses developing due to rotation has been determined following Sherby's law. Based on the developed model, the distributions of stresses and strain rates have been obtained and compared for various functionally graded material (FGM) discs containing the same average amount (20 vol per cent) of dispersoid. The creep response of a composite disc with uniform SiCP content of 20 vol per cent and operating under a radial thermal gradient has also been computed for comparison with the results obtained for FGM discs.

Findings

The study reveals that the distribution of stresses and strain rates in a rotating composite disc operating under a radial thermal gradient are significantly affected by different particle distributions with in the disc. The creep stresses and steady state creep rates in a rotating FGM disc can be significantly reduced by employing more SiCP particles in the middle compared to the inner and the outer radii.

Originality/value

The study provides an understanding of the required tailoring of composition in order to control creep stresses and creep rates in a rotating FGM disc operating under a radial thermal gradient.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Mengjia Liang, Edilberto Loaiza, Nafissatou J. Diop and Berhanu Legesse

This publication aims to document the most relevant features of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in 23 African and six Arab countries. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This publication aims to document the most relevant features of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in 23 African and six Arab countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple presentation of current levels; the main differences, according to background characteristics; and observed trends in the last 10-15 years. Considering past, current and future demographic dynamics helps identify possible scenarios for elimination.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on FGM have been collected through Demographic Health Surveys since 1990, with about 50 surveys conducted in 23 countries with FGM concentrations, and through Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys since 2000, with about 31 surveys conducted in 18 countries with prevalent FGM. Reliable data on the practice are now available for all African countries where the practice is concentrated, plus Iraq and Yemen. Statistical information is currently not available for countries where FGM has been newly identified, such as India and Indonesia.

Findings

Approximately 130 million girls have undergone FGM in countries where the practice remains prevalent. If programmatic interventions and resources remain the same or decline, over 15.2 million girls will be subject to FGM. However if the 17 target countries attain their respective annual rates of reduction, four million girls will have been protected from FGM. Demographic analysis of FGM demonstrates that it is a practice that occurs within specific socio-cultural parameters, such as place of residence, and reproductive health and status. Interventions focusing on abandonment should take into consideration gender inequalities, how manifest, exacerbating high fertility and very young populations.

Research limitations/implications

Gender equality has a catalytic effect on the achievement of inclusive and progressive human development, good governance, sustained peace, and harmonious dynamics between environments and human populations – all of which are at the centre of sustainable development and human rights.

Practical implications

The case studies focusing on Burkina Faso and Guinea show that characteristics such as the mother’s educational level and whether or not she experienced FGM, religious background and ethnicity provide valuable information in determining who is subject to FGM and defining the milieu in which they live. This information corroborates other studies finding that ethnic and religious background are strong determinants.

Social implications

Presented analysis strongly highlights the importance of data in understanding the context within which FGM programmes operate, especially those that target local communities. Djibouti, with a rapidly growing urban population, should focus on prevention programmes in cities. A highly rural country such as Guinea-Bissau will take a different approach, as only a few ethnic groups practice FGM.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to analyse and have a better understanding of the demographic, social and economic context of the practice. It aims to highlight the population and development issues surrounding the social norms of FGM.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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