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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kashif Munir and Ayesha Kanwal

The objectives of this study are threefold: firstly, to measure the impact of educational inequality on income inequality, and per capita income; secondly, to measure the impact…

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Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this study are threefold: firstly, to measure the impact of educational inequality on income inequality, and per capita income; secondly, to measure the impact of gender inequality in education on income inequality, per capita income and educational inequality; and lastly, to test the Kuznets inverted U-shape hypothesis between inequality in education and average year of schooling.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has adopted the Marin and Psacharopoulos (1976) model of human capital in which income earned by an individual can be estimated as a function of number of year spent in schooling or education. Gini coefficient is used as a measure of income inequality, while inequality in education is measured by Gini index of educational inequality. Gender inequality in education is measured by the difference between male and female enrolment ratios as a proportion of male enrolment. The study utilizes the data of six South Asian countries, i.e. Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka from 1980 to 2010 at five-year average and employs fixed effect model (FEM) and random effect model (REM) for estimation.

Findings

Result suggests that educational inequality and average year of schooling have positive and significant impact on income inequality. Primary (basic) education and tertiary (higher) education reduce income inequality, while secondary education widens income inequality. Negative relationship exists between educational inequality and per capita income. Unequal distribution of education among boys and girls at primary level increases income inequality, while reduces income inequality at tertiary level. Gender inequality in secondary and tertiary level of education reduces per capita income, while unequal distribution of education among boys and girls further increases the educational inequality. Kuznets inverted U-shape hypothesis does not hold between education expansion and educational inequality, while weak U-shape relationship exists in South Asian countries.

Practical implications

Government has to provide free education in poor regions and makes employment programs to reduce the income and educational inequality respectively, while to remove gender inequality in education it is necessary to build more schools especially for girls. Government has to launch different online education programs for expansion in education at all levels.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by analyzing whether the inequality in income increases (decreases) due to increase (decrease) in educational and gender inequality in South Asian countries. This study contributes in the existing literature by developing a measure of educational and gender inequality in education in South Asian countries.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-04-2020-0226.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2023

Ayesha Zahid and Shazia Nauman

Building on the conservation of resources theory, this research explored the processes underlying the association between perceived workplace incivility and deviant behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the conservation of resources theory, this research explored the processes underlying the association between perceived workplace incivility and deviant behaviors. Specifically, we tested a mediating mechanism, an interpersonal conflict that has received less consideration in the workplace incivility literature. The authors also tested the organizational climate (i.e. a resource) as a moderator in the perceived workplace incivility–employees’ deviant work behavior relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged research design was followed to explain the relationship of variables. Survey data were collected at time 1 and time 2 from 220 service sector working professionals to test the proposed model.

Findings

The findings suggest that intrapersonal conflict partially mediates the workplace incivility–deviant work behavior relationship. Further, the authors found that the harmful effects of workplace incivility on employees’ deviant work behavior attenuate in the presence of organizational climate as a resource. The results shed light on the beneficial consequences of organizational climate on employees’ work behavior by attenuating workplace incivility and mitigating their deviant work behaviors.

Originality/value

Overall, the study contributed to understanding the mediating role of interpersonal conflict and the moderating role of organizational climate in explaining the workplace incivility–deviant work behavior relationship.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Shahid Adeel, Fazal-Ur Rehman, Ayesha Amin, Nimra Amin, Fatima Batool, Atya Hassan and Meral Ozomay

This study aims to observe the coloring efficacy of coffee-based natural brown colorant for cotton dyeing under microwave (MW) treatment.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to observe the coloring efficacy of coffee-based natural brown colorant for cotton dyeing under microwave (MW) treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

The colorant extracted in particular (neutral and acidic) media was stimulated by MW treatment up to 6 min. Dyeing variables were optimized and 2–10 g/100 mL of sustainable anchors (mordants) have been used to get colorfast shades.

Findings

It has been found that un-irradiated acidic extract (RE) containing 5% of table salt at 80 °C for 50 min has given high color yield onto MW-irradiated cotton fabric (RC = 2 min). The utilization of 2% of Fe, 10% of tannic acid and 10% of sodium potassium tartrate before bio-coloration, whereas 4% of Fe, 10% of tannic acid and 6% of sodium potassium tartrate after bio-coloration has given good color characteristics. In comparison the application of 6% of pomegranate and turmeric extracts before bio-coloration and 6% of pomegranate and 10% of turmeric extracts after bio-coloration have given good color characteristics. New bio-mordants can be added to get more new colorfast shades.

Research limitations/implications

There is no research limitation for this work. New bio-mordants can be added to get more new colorfast shades.

Practical implications

This work has practical application for artisans, textile industry and handicrafts. It is concluded that colorant from coffee beans can be possible alternative of synthetic brown dyes and inclusion of MW rays for extraction and plant molecules as shade developers can make process more green.

Social implications

Socially, it has good impact on eco-system and global community because the effluent load is not carcinogenic in nature.

Originality/value

The work is original and contains value-added product for textiles and other allied fields.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 52 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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