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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Kalyanaram Gurumurthy and Avinandan Mukherjee

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges in terms of understanding its unique characteristics of transmission and predicting…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges in terms of understanding its unique characteristics of transmission and predicting its spread. The purpose of this study is to present a simple, parsimonious and accurate model for forecasting mortality caused by COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented Bass Model is compared it with several alternative existing models for forecasting the spread of COVID-19. This study calibrates the model for deaths for the period, March 21 to April 30 for the USA as a whole and as the US States of New York, California and West Virginia. The daily data from the COVID-19 Tracking Project has been used, which is a volunteer organization launched from The Atlantic. Every day, data is collected on testing and patient outcomes from all the 50 states, 5 territories and the District of Columbia. This data set is widely used by policymakers and scholars. The fit of the model (F-value and its significance, R-squared value) and the statistical significance of the variables (t-values) for each one of the four estimates are examined. This study also examines the forecast of deaths for a three-day period, May 1 to 3 for each one of the four estimates – US, and States of New York, California and West Virginia. Based on these metrics, the viability of the Bass Model is assessed. The dependent variable is the number of deaths, and the two independent variables are cumulative number of deaths and its squared value.

Findings

The findings of this paper show that compared to other forecasting methods, the Bass Model performs remarkably well. In fact, it may even be argued that the Bass Model does better with its forecast. The calibration of models for deaths in the USA, and States of New York, California and West Virginia are all found to be significant. The F values are large and the significance of the F values is low, that is, the probability that the model is wrong is very miniscule. The fit as measured by R-squared is also robust. Further, each of the two independent variables is highly significant in each of the four model calibrations. These forecasts also approximate the actual numbers reasonably well.

Research limitations/implications

This study illustrates the applicability of the Bass Model to estimate the diffusion of COVID-19 with some preliminary but important empirical analyses. This study argues that while the more sophisticated models may produce slightly better estimates, the Bass model produces robust and reasonably accurate estimates given the extreme parsimony of the model. Future research may investigate applications of the Bass Model for pandemic management using additional variables and other theoretical lenses.

Practical implications

The Bass Model offers effective forecasting of mortality resulting from COVID-19 to help understand how the curve can be flattened, how hospital capacity could be overwhelmed and how fatality rates might climb based on time and geography in the upcoming weeks and months.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the efficacy of the Bass Model as a parsimonious, accessible and theory-based approach that can predict the mortality rates of COVID-19 with minimal data requirements, simple calibration and accessible decision calculus. For all these reasons, this paper recommends further and continued examination of the Bass Model as an instrument for forecasting COVID-19 (and other epidemic/pandemic) mortality and health resource requirements. As this paper has demonstrated, there is much promise in this model.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Avinandan Mukherjee and Rosita Nuñez

Management is sometimes challenged by investors to justify the financial benefits of voluntary disclosure and transparency related to corporate social responsibility…

Abstract

Purpose

Management is sometimes challenged by investors to justify the financial benefits of voluntary disclosure and transparency related to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Researchers have found inconsistent results when examining the relationship between CSR reporting and financial performance. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between voluntary CSR reporting and financial performance. Specifically, this paper addresses three questions. First, is there a significant difference in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting level for firms in a high environmental risk sector compared to those in a low environmental risk sector? Second, does GRI reporting level significantly influence financial performance measures, such as the risk ratios and information ratio? And third, does the relationship between GRI reporting level and financial performance measures differ significantly based on sector environmental risk? These questions are particularly relevant to the Indian business environment, where CSR is not just voluntary but mandated by regulation since 2013. The Indian Government is the first to do so and is ahead of many nations in collaborating with businesses to address not just environmental impacts but also social effects of industry on the community.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the relationship between GRI reporting level and financial performance for 173 firms with different levels of environmental risk. ANOVA and MANOVA were used to examine for differences in GRI reporting level and financial performance for firms from the various sectors and also to determine if there were significant relationships between GRI level and certain financial risk ratios.

Findings

Results indicate that firms in sectors with high environmental risk adopt GRI framework at a higher level than firms with low environmental risk. There is no significant relationship found between GRI reporting and financial performance at an aggregate level. However, environmental risk is found to moderate the relationship between GRI reporting and financial reporting, such that firms with high risk experience a more significant relationship between the GRI level that is adopted and financial performance.

Originality/value

CSR is quickly becoming a pathway to sustainable competitive advantage for businesses today. Such CSR efforts can lead to both reputational and financial performance implications. Organizations not only adopt CSR in response to regulatory requirements, but also frequently do so voluntarily to address stakeholder concerns. This study sheds valuable insight on the positive effects of CSR reporting, which provides important implications for Indian organizations.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Naz Onel and Avinandan Mukherjee

Environmental behavior studies suggest that knowledge, in addition to other psychological and social factors, can play an important role in consumers’ environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental behavior studies suggest that knowledge, in addition to other psychological and social factors, can play an important role in consumers’ environmental behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship between knowledge and various psychological factors which encourage consumers’ participation in pro-environmental behaviors. The relationships that link an individual’s attitudes toward science, environmental values, different types of knowledge (i.e. scientific facts, environmental facts, and subjective environmental knowledge), environmental risk perception, and willingness to pay (WTP) for the environment with pro-environmental behavior were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically guided hypotheses and model were formulated and tested with multiple linear regression models. The study was based on measures and data obtained from the large-sample secondary database of the 2010 General Social Survey (n=2,044).

Findings

Results indicated that while attitudes toward science had direct effects on knowledge of scientific facts and knowledge of environmental facts, environmental values showed effects on knowledge of environmental facts and subjective knowledge on environmental issues. The results also indicated that from different types of knowledge, subjective knowledge on environmental issues had effects on both environmental risk perception and WTP for the environment. Knowledge on environmental facts, on the other hand, was able to predict only environmental risk perception. The scientific factual knowledge did not show an effect on mediator of pro-environmental behavior. Also, subjective knowledge indicated indirect effects on pro-environmental behavior through environmental risk perception and WTP for the environment.

Originality/value

Although research on understanding factors influencing pro-environmental behaviors and potential relations to individual knowledge has grown in recent years, there has been very little attempt at distinguishing between different types of knowledge and investigating their potential roles in the context of environmentally relevant behaviors. This study will help understand the functioning of different types of consumer environmental knowledge and their impacts on pro-environmental behaviors more in depth.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Avinandan Mukherjee and Yam Limbu

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Abstract

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Avinandan Mukherjee

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Pawan S. Budhwar, Arup Varma, Neeru Malhotra and Avinandan Mukherjee

Increasing turnover of frontline staff in call centres is detrimental to the delivery of quality service to customers. This paper aims to present the context for the rapid…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing turnover of frontline staff in call centres is detrimental to the delivery of quality service to customers. This paper aims to present the context for the rapid growth of the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector in India, and to address a critical issue faced by call centre organisations in this sector – the high employee turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a triangulation approach, two separate empirical investigations are conducted to examine various aspects of high labour turnover rates in the call centre sector in India. Study one examines the research issue via 51 in‐depth interviews in as many units. Study two reports results from a questionnaire survey with 204 frontline agents across 11 call centres regarding employee turnover.

Findings

This research reveals a range of reasons – from monotonous work, stressful work environment, adverse working conditions, lack of career development opportunities; to better job opportunities elsewhere, which emerge as the key causes of increasing attrition rates in the Indian call centre industry.

Research limitations/implications

The research suggests that there are several issues that need to be handled carefully by management of call centres in India to overcome the problem of increasing employee turnover, and that this also demands support from the Indian government.

Originality/value

The contributions of this study untangle the issues underlying a key problem in the call centre industry, i.e. employee turnover in the Indian call centre industry context. Adopting an internal marketing approach, it provides useful information for both academics and practitioners and suggests internal marketing interventions, and avenues for future research to combat the problem of employee turnover.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Avinandan Mukherjee

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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