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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Robert Boostrom, Siva K. Balasubramanian and John H. Summey

Researchers often attempt to assess how different features and content will improve the experience of web site users. One assessment technique is to measure the attitude

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers often attempt to assess how different features and content will improve the experience of web site users. One assessment technique is to measure the attitude toward the site. A common version of this measure is the Chen and Wells attitude toward the site scale. The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is a difference in performance between that scale and the less used Bruner and Kumar scale so that researchers might use the better of the two related, but different, published scales.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis is done on survey data from an experiment utilizing three different experimental groups that all completed surveys with both the Chen and Wells and the Bruner and Kumar attitude toward the site scales. Scales are assessed for loading and reliability, as well as measures compared for equivalence within groups and used within partial least squares (PLS) models to compare overall model fit.

Findings

In all tests, the Bruner and Kumar scale is better than, or equivalent to, the Chen and Wells scale in each comparison.

Research limitations/implications

The research implication is that the Bruner and Kumar scale would be a better choice when selecting scales for future research projects.

Originality/value

Although Bruner and Kumar had previously performed comparisons of the two scales, in a follow‐up article, this is the first paper to compare the two scales between three different groups and demonstrate how the two different scales would perform within the same conceptual model using PLS structural equation modeling. It will help researchers select the best scale for attitude toward the site.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Amjad Shamim, Zulkipli Ghazali and Pia A. Albinsson

The purpose of this research is to develop a scale for measuring customer value co-creation attitude (CVCCA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop a scale for measuring customer value co-creation attitude (CVCCA).

Design/methodology/approach

Scale development procedures are used for item generation, item purification and validation. Two studies are conducted. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is used to generate and confirm the factorial structure of the CVCCA construct. Study 2 validates the scale on a large field sample.

Findings

The study develops a new scale for measuring CVCCA. Results suggest that CVCCA is a higher-order construct comprising three dimensions: interaction attitude, knowledge sharing attitude and responsive attitude. Additionally, experiential value significantly predicts CVCCA, which subsequently leads to customer value co-creation behaviour confirming nomological validity of the scale.

Research limitations/implications

The CVCCA scale should be of interest for researchers in exploring factors and outcomes of CVCCA. The scale is useful to managers who are interested in measuring their customers’ co-creation of value attitude and their willingness to engage in value co-creation behaviour.

Originality/value

This is the first scale using the service logic of marketing lens. The scale is found to be a valid and reliable tool to measure customer attitude to engage in value co-creation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Jagdish Kaur and Sangeeta Arora

This paper aims to develop, refine and validate a multidimensional scale for measuring students’ attitude toward educational debt for higher studies in Punjab (India) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop, refine and validate a multidimensional scale for measuring students’ attitude toward educational debt for higher studies in Punjab (India) and the impact of this attitude on the satisfaction of students.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses interview and survey approach. The sample comprises 417 students from four public and four private universities of Punjab (India). Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis have been used to develop and validate students’ attitude toward education loan scale (Morgado et al., 2017). Further, structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to analyze the impact of factors of students’ attitude on their satisfaction.

Findings

The scale has been tested for both reliability and validity. Analysis has revealed six factors of students’ attitude toward educational debt, namely, economic empowerment, social empowerment, utility, procedural requirements, risk and stress. These, six independent variables and one dependent variable, i.e. students’ satisfaction, were entered into structural equation model. The structural equation model shows that procedural requirements, economic empowerment and utility have a positive, whereas stress has a negative and significant impact on the students’ satisfaction.

Practical implications

Education financing is a gigantic problem nowadays due to the high cost of self-financing courses in Punjab. To make higher education accessible to all students, education loan plays a vital role. Thus, the attitude of students is of great importance to policymakers to bring reforms in education loan scheme.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the foremost study for developing a validated tool to measure the students’ attitude toward educational debt in India.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Rama K. Jayanti, Mary K. McManamon and Thomas W. Whipple

Memory impairments in the elderly have been widely studied in the past. This study focuses on the effects of these memory impairments on the ability of mature consumers to…

Abstract

Memory impairments in the elderly have been widely studied in the past. This study focuses on the effects of these memory impairments on the ability of mature consumers to respond to brand attitude scales. An experimental study investigates the impact of age and type of measurement scale on responses to brand attitude scales. Groups of seniors within the elderly market (55‐65, 66‐75, and over 75) are investigated as opposed to contrasting two extreme points on the continuum, namely the elderly versus the young. Three commonly used attitude scales were manipulated to determine how age interacts with the form of scale to generate response bias. Three types of response bias; extremity response, acquiescence, and item non‐response were investigated. Results indicate a significant interaction between age and type of scale. Implications of these results for those involved in marketing to seniors are highlighted.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2013

Teresa Vallet‐Bellmunt and Pilar Rivera‐Torres

This work has two main objectives: to obtain a set of scales for measuring the patterns, attitudes and practices of integration that can be extrapolated to different…

Abstract

Purpose

This work has two main objectives: to obtain a set of scales for measuring the patterns, attitudes and practices of integration that can be extrapolated to different scopes (both internal and external) and participants (supplier and customer) within the supply chain; and to evaluate the relations between the different components of integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on previous literature on the content, measurement and scope of the concept of integration, a model is presented and tested using structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 450 enterprises from the Spanish construction materials sector.

Findings

The authors' results suggest that integration is a multidimensional concept that covers the different organisational levels of the company: corporate through attitudes; strategic through patterns; and operative through practices. These components have a different structure and, although attitudes and patterns behave similarly, practices do not, and so there is no single dimension of integration that includes the three levels. With regard to scope, internal and external integration are related but do not constitute one single concept of integration. It therefore cannot be measured as a single dimension in order to relate the integration of the firm with its (corporate, logistic or marketing) performance.

Research limitations/implications

From a methodological point of view, data were collected from a single sector, in a single moment in time and with a single respondent in each company.

Practical implications

Patterns and attitudes have a complete, corporative and strategic content, whereas practices are independent from each other and have a more operational vision.

Originality/value

Unlike studies that analyse integration and its relationship with outcomes, this work focuses on the concept of integration itself by analysing its three components. Thus, it extends the study of internal and external integration and focuses on the behaviour of the enterprise with two different members of the supply chain (suppliers and customers), thereby extending the analysis beyond the dyad.

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Maura J. Mills, Satoris S. Culbertson, Ann H. Huffman and Angela R. Connell

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 800 participants completed an online survey, with 546 completing a second survey one week later. Recommended scale development procedures were utilized throughout in order to design and test the proposed instrument.

Findings

Item analyses determined a final set of most effective items, while exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the eight‐item, two‐dimensional (female stereotypes, male stereotypes) scale (Gender Role Stereotypes Scale – GRSS). Additionally, internal consistency and test‐retest reliabilities were acceptable, as was the construct‐related validity. This study also finds that gender role stereotypes are best examined as a two‐factor construct (male, female), rather than conceptualized as two poles of a unidimensional continuum.

Practical implications

The GRSS has advantages over similar measures, including that it assesses attitudes toward both men and women with only eight items, and includes items that are easily understandable, cross‐culturally appropriate, and modern. Practitioners can use the GRSS to assess potential gender role stereotypes held by management. If managers are found to have highly traditional gender role stereotypes, organizations may be able to intervene before stereotypes affect performance ratings or task assignments.

Originality/value

This paper yields an updated and sound measurement scale to replace outdated scales assessing similar constructs and/or assessing only one gender role stereotype (male or female, versus both). The GRSS allows for the parsimonious, comprehensive, and effective measurement of gender role stereotypes in research and practice alike.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Sunil Hazari

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor patronage, sports enthusiasm, and social media consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using an online survey of 265 participants. Questions regarding demographics, viewing habits, sports participation, enthusiasm, attitude toward Olympic events were included in the survey. The four sub-scales were sponsorship attitude, sponsor patronage, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that social media consumption is positively related to attitude toward event and sports patronage. There was a significant gender difference on attitude toward event, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm. Predictors for making a purchase as a result of seeing a social media advertisement were gender, playing competitive sport, and social media consumption.

Practical implications

This study will add to the body of academic and practitioner research on sponsorship outcomes, and provides an opportunity for marketers to leverage social media networks for sponsorship communication.

Originality/value

As the use of social media networks has increased over the past few years, no previous study has investigated association of sports enthusiasm, gender, or social media consumption toward sponsor patronage which relates to consumers seeking out sponsors and being influenced to make a purchase as a result of marketing communication of sponsors.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Lia Zarantonello, Marcello Formisano and Silvia Grappi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different relationship that brand love, compared with brand attitude, has with actual brand performance in a cross-national and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different relationship that brand love, compared with brand attitude, has with actual brand performance in a cross-national and cross-category context.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted in the USA, Russia and Indonesia to develop and validate a short but comprehensive measure of brand love. A brand attitude measure derived from the company’s tracking studies and behavioural measures derived from panel data were used to examine the different relationship of brand love and brand attitude with brand performance.

Findings

The findings show that consumers in the USA, Russia and Indonesia share a similar concept of brand love. They also show that brand love, compared with brand attitude, is more strongly related to growth in behavioural loyalty, whereas brand attitude, compared with brand love, is more strongly related to the brand size in the present.

Research limitations/implications

The paper combines psychological and behavioural data from different sources. Future research may collect both types of data from the same sample of consumers. Besides, the paper uses brand love and brand attitude data related to loyal consumers and users, respectively. Future research may consider both types of consumers simultaneously.

Practical implications

The paper clarifies why brand love measures should be integrated in a company’s brand measurement system, and their specific contribution compared with brand attitude.

Originality/value

This paper is the first that examines brand love in a cross-national and cross-category context and that shows the relationship of brand love vs brand attitude with actual brand performance using company/industry-derived data.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Jeananne Nicholls, Kurt Schimmel, Dean Manna, Norman Schnurr and Steven Clinton

Sports’ team websites are the front door to their relationship management programs with teams’ fan bases. As such, consumer attitudes toward these websites are a vital and…

Abstract

Purpose

Sports’ team websites are the front door to their relationship management programs with teams’ fan bases. As such, consumer attitudes toward these websites are a vital and important measure for the success of a team's CRM program. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptualization and development of a four‐item unidimensional measure of attitude toward the Website.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected via a pen and paper survey at a professional hockey event in the USA. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using generalized structural component analysis GeSCA www.sem‐gesca.org/. The scale's face, convergent, predictive and discriminant validity are all empirically demonstrated via regression and correlation.

Findings

The measure is shown to meet the four criteria for validation for positivist research in information systems set by Straub, Boudreau and Gefen in 2004. The internal consistency is assessed by Cronbach's alpha (0.917) as is the unidimensionality, which was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The study develops a four item measure, attitude toward the website, that addresses both the affective and cognitive components of attitudes. The scale is shown to have predictive and discriminant validity.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected via a convenience sample at one professional sporting event and represents the fan base and the attitude toward that team's website. The significant implication is that it provides researchers with a unidimensional measure of attitude toward the website. The scale is parsimonious and will benefit researchers exploring the impact of attitudes toward websites on a variety of constructs such as brands, sales and site visits.

Originality/value

The paper is important because it provides a new measure of attitude toward the website and because it demonstrates the use of generalized structural component analysis.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Vincent J. Webb and Chris E. Marshall

Undertakes research in Omaha, Nebraska on factors found to be predictors of attitudes toward the police (ATP). Addresses the question of whether ATP are primarily a…

Abstract

Undertakes research in Omaha, Nebraska on factors found to be predictors of attitudes toward the police (ATP). Addresses the question of whether ATP are primarily a function of police‐citizen interaction or if they derive from the transmission of cultural values. If the former, strategies to modify police and citizen behavior are required; if the latter, an impact on socialization may be needed to improve ATP. Summarizes the nature and measurement of ATP. Finds, in common with earlier research, that although age, gender and police contact have significant effects, race variables have the greatest effect. In contrast with other research, finds that social class has some influence on ATP. Compares Hispanic, black and white respondents’ ATP. Suggests that neighborhood is an important influence on ATP. Recommends further studies on the development of ATP in youth.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

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