Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2009

Caitriona Higgins and Carol Ireland

This study explored the attitudes of prison officers, forensic staff and members of the public towards and male and female sex offenders. Participants were provided with a…

Abstract

This study explored the attitudes of prison officers, forensic staff and members of the public towards and male and female sex offenders. Participants were provided with a vignette depicting a specific sexual offence committed against either an adult or a child, by either a male or a female perpetrator, and were then asked to complete a scale assessing attitudes to sex offenders based on the offender depicted in the vignette. Forensic staff emerged as having the most positive attitudes to sex offenders, viewing them as individuals who could be rehabilitated. Prison officers emerged as having the most negative attitudes, in that they were supportive of harsh and untrusting attitudes. Overall, females emerged as viewing sex offenders in more positive terms, whereas males were more supportive of harsh attitudes to sex offenders. Respondents did not have a more negative attitude to female sex offenders than to male sex offenders.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Alesa Liles and Stacy Moak

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to highlight recent research addressing theories of female offending and the context of female perpetrated homicides. Women have…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to highlight recent research addressing theories of female offending and the context of female perpetrated homicides. Women have often been omitted in research and theory development, thus gendered interventions and treatments lag behind. Additionally, female perpetrated homicides are rare, consequently research examining the context of the events and the events leading up to the homicide are inadequate.

Design/methodology/approach – The approach is to examine the historical research on female offenders, the context of female violent offenses particularly homicide offenses, and emerging theories of gendered experiences into criminal activities for women.

Findings – Findings indicate that gender matters when explaining theories of female offending and when examining the context of female perpetrated homicides.

Originality/value – Females have different life events from males, and these life events create distinct pathways into criminal offending, including the ultimate offense of homicide. Based on these differences, theory development as well as intervention and prevention strategies must be designed that are gender specific.

Details

Homicide and Violent Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-876-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Venessa Garcia

Purpose: Drawing on research in crime and media studies, this research examines media images and stereotypes of criminals within the popular television crime drama series…

Abstract

Purpose: Drawing on research in crime and media studies, this research examines media images and stereotypes of criminals within the popular television crime drama series Bones. Methodology/approach: All 24 episodes of Season 9 were examined. Through a content analysis offender gender, race, age, offense type, and motive were examined. Findings: This research revealed that most of the images do not reflect the reality of crime and criminals. Gendered and racialized images were revealed. While male minorities’ victimization was more accurately portrayed, White females were cast in the stereotype as the emotional offender and minority females’ criminality was portrayed as similar to male criminals.

Details

Mass Mediated Representations of Crime and Criminality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-759-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Ciara Staunton, Sean Hammond, Derek Perkins and Sharon Lambert

The purpose of this paper is to review the status of biosignal measures of female sexual arousal with a view to examining the feasibility of such procedures in a forensic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the status of biosignal measures of female sexual arousal with a view to examining the feasibility of such procedures in a forensic context. Although adult women represent the minority of sexual offenders, female perpetrated sexual abuse has been gaining increasing attention in the forensic psychological literature as criminal justice is confronted with female offending populations to a greater extent than previously recognised.

Design/methodology/approach

Psychological assessments of sex offenders have tended to be over-dependent on the use of self-report measures (i.e. an individual's appraisal and report of their emotional state of sexual arousal). There is a dearth of empirical knowledge concerning the psychophysiological assessment of female sexual interest in general and especially so for female sex offenders. Physiological measures are those that rely on directly observable physiological responses of the individual in order to identify patterns of sexual interest or arousal.

Findings

Because deviant sexual interest (in children or the use of violence) as assessed by penile plethysmography, has been established as one of the strongest predictors of recidivism in male sex offenders (and as a viable alternative to self-report methodologies), an analogue measurement approach for female sex offenders is desirable. This paper considers: first, theoretical problems (e.g. what does female physiological arousal mean in terms of sexual arousal/desire?; second, technical measurement problems (e.g. reactivity of the measure in within subject designs); and third, procedural/ethical problems (e.g. invasiveness of the application).

Originality/value

While a number of physiological assessment devices are considered in this paper, the paper discusses the labial photoplethysmograph as a promising method for female sexual offender populations.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Paul Bonny, Sigi Goode and David Lacey

This paper aims to present the findings of a study examining fraud in the workplace setting, principally in the Australasian context. Although prior research into…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the findings of a study examining fraud in the workplace setting, principally in the Australasian context. Although prior research into occupational fraud is conceptually rich, there is a lack of empirical evidence of this important but elusive problem.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on investigative data from 14 participating firms, the paper provides insights into the gender breakdowns and stated motivations of offenders. The paper also provides evidence of the number of investigations, interviews and reports to law enforcement in these firms.

Findings

The study finds that genders are evenly balanced for most firms, with females significantly outnumbering males in banking firms. Self-imposed financial hardship was the most popular motivator. Of the number of admissions to wrongdoing, only half were subsequently reported to law enforcement.

Research limitations/implications

Particularly complex or advanced types of occupational fraud may go unreported or undetected: as a result, the figures presented in this study may be incomplete. Reported figures are based largely on historical data provided by respondents, and the authors are unable to report accurate details of the respondent firms. This makes it difficult to determine the frequency of offending against the background population.

Practical implications

Investigators should continue to look for changes in the life circumstances of their staff. Such changes will give an indication of instances of staff living beyond their means and the sudden financial pressures that can compel occupational fraud. Instead of trying to supervise staff to an impractical degree, managers and proprietors would be well advised to be alert to the kind of pressures that their staff might experience.

Social implications

Social control and detection measures are likely to be easier to implement and less invasive than technical controls. The study provides additional pressure to update traditional conceptualisations of the male white collar offender. While male offenders were responsible for larger losses per case, females were more numerous in the summary offence data.

Originality/value

Gaining insights into the problem of employee fraud and white collar crime is difficult. The authors’ contribution in this paper is to provide empirical insights into the makeup of white collar offenders, including insights on gender.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Jared S. Rosenberger, Valerie J. Callanan and Darcy Sullivan

Purpose: This study examines representations of criminal victims and offenders on television’s Law and Order, which ran for 20 years. Law and Order was praised by viewers…

Abstract

Purpose: This study examines representations of criminal victims and offenders on television’s Law and Order, which ran for 20 years. Law and Order was praised by viewers as a realistic and lifelike representation of the criminal justice system. Given its popularity and perceived realism, Law and Order was likely a major source of information about the criminal justice system, victims of crime, and criminals. Methodology/approach: Utilizing an ethnographic content analysis of 50 episodes of Law and Order, the data include demographic and contextual information on over 1,500 characters. The analyses in this study focus on the sociodemographic characteristics of victims and offenders in total and across time. Findings: Results find that Whites, women, and those from middle- and upper-classes were disproportionately presented as victims. Offenders were disproportionately White, male, older, and from the middle- or upper-classes. People of color were underrepresented in all roles, and Latinx characters were more likely to be portrayed in a negative light. Research limitations: The study lacks qualitative data, which would have contributed to a deeper understanding of victim and offender representations. Originality/value: The study represents the most robust content analysis of one of the most popular crime series of all time. Given the popularity and long running success of the show, it is likely that Law and Order is at least partially accountable for misconceptions and reinforcement of viewer’s misperceptions of what it means to be a “victim” and an “offender.”

Details

Mass Mediated Representations of Crime and Criminality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-759-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Eric Blaauw, Gytha Strijker, Yentl Boerema, Eric Veersma, Margreet van der Meer-Jansma and Gabriel Anthonio

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of psychopathology including substance use disorders in a sample of detained female systematic offenders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of psychopathology including substance use disorders in a sample of detained female systematic offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

All case files of female systematic offenders who had been subjected to a special court order for systematic offenders in the period 2004-2014 were studied. A total of 81 fairly complete case files were selected for the study. These were all systematic offenders as they had been sentenced for at least 25 offences with an average of 102 offences over a period of 17.5 years.

Findings

All except one woman were addicted to substances in the past year, with an average duration of addiction of 21 years. In addition, 53 per cent were diagnosed with another DSM Axis I disorder and 73 per cent were diagnosed with a personality disorder. Furthermore, 32-59 per cent were found to have intellectual dysfunctions. In total, 12 per cent had one type of the above disorders, 43 per cent two types, 31 per cent three types and 14 per cent all four types. The prevalence rates of these disorders were higher than those reported in other prison studies.

Research limitations/implications

It is concluded that female systematic offenders can be characterised as problematic in many respects. Even in such a problematic group treatment can be provided.

Originality/value

The present study is the only study that provides prevalence data of mental disorders among female systematic offenders.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Carol Ireland, Rebecca Ozanne and Jane Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to consider the current knowledge in regard to females who engage in sexually harmful behaviour (HSB).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the current knowledge in regard to females who engage in sexually harmful behaviour (HSB).

Design/methodology/approach

This is a brief paper, reviewing current literature.

Findings

This paper argues the continual limitations in fully understanding this population. However, it suggests the importance of progressing to discuss patterns of offending as opposed to typologies.

Practical implications

This argues the importance of effective formulation and consideration of patterns when understanding HSB in females.

Originality/value

This is a current brief review of the literature, summarising key thinking in this area, and some suggested ways forward for further progression.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Natalie Smith, Jenny Tew and Prina Patel

– The purpose of this paper is to outline the development, structure and implementation of the Choices, Actions, Relationships and Emotions (CARE) programme.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development, structure and implementation of the Choices, Actions, Relationships and Emotions (CARE) programme.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper will present some of the background to the programme, its aims, structure and delivery methods and the nature of the treatment population to date. It will also reflect on some of the lessons learnt through the development and implementation of the programme and the challenges faced in evaluating its impact. Plans for its future evaluation and development are discussed.

Findings

Female offenders represent a distinct group with particular treatment and responsivity needs. These have traditionally been accommodated in programmes developed for male offenders, adapted slightly to meet their needs. CARE represents a distinct approach, designed specifically for the needs of female offenders with a history of violence and complex presentations.

Originality/value

CARE is a relatively new programme and this is the first paper to outline its structure and content.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Kirpal Kaur Sahota

Transgender sex offenders are a small, complex and atypical group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues in relationship to the assessment of gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Transgender sex offenders are a small, complex and atypical group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues in relationship to the assessment of gender dysphoria in transgender sex offenders and approaches to risk management.

Design/methodology/approach

Clinical and research experience as a Gender Specialist and Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist who has managed sex offender populations has informed this publication.

Findings

Little is known about the relationship between gender dysphoria and criminality. More research is required to develop a typology of transgender sex offenders and develop actuarial risk instruments. Protective factors in relation to gender affirmative care are also important to understand.

Research limitations/implications

There is little empirical research to guide gender specialists and criminal justice professionals in the management of gender dysphoria and address risk and recidivism in transgender offender populations. The treatment of gender dysphoria could result in improved well-being and better psychosocial adjustment but cannot be relied to reduce future recidivism.

Practical implications

There is no evidence that treatment of gender dysphoria reduces risk and recidivism in transgender sex offenders and that research is required to identify specific gender related dynamic risk factors.

Social implications

Recommendations are directly relevant to the work of prison and probation staff, community supervisors and gender identity specialists.

Originality/value

As far as the author is aware it is the first paper on the assessment and management of gender diverse sex offenders integrating approaches to gender dysphoria assessment and treatment and risk management. It has implication for gender identity specialists, criminal justice professionals, research and policy.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000