Search results

1 – 10 of 405
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Jonathan A. Jensen, Lane Wakefield, Joe B. Cobbs and Brian A. Turner

Due in large part to the proprietary nature of costs, there is a dearth of academic literature investigating the factors influencing the costs for sport marketing…

Downloads
3207

Abstract

Purpose

Due in large part to the proprietary nature of costs, there is a dearth of academic literature investigating the factors influencing the costs for sport marketing investments, such as sponsorship. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for market intelligence that enables managers to better predict and forecast costs in today’s ever-changing sport marketing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the dynamic and ultra-competitive nature of the athletic apparel industry, this context was chosen to investigate the influence of four distinct factors on sponsorship costs, including property-specific factors, on-field performance, and market-specific factors. A systematic, hierarchical procedure was utilized in the development of a predictive empirical model, which was then utilized to generate predicted values on a per property basis.

Findings

Results demonstrated that both property-specific and performance-related factors were significant predictors of costs, while variables reflecting the attractiveness of the property’s home market were non-significant. Further analysis revealed the potential for agency conflicts in the allocation of resources toward properties near the corporate headquarters of sponsors, as well as evidence of overspending by challenger brands (Adidas, Under Armour) in their quest to topple industry leader Nike.

Originality/value

Though the context of apparel sponsorships of US-based intercollegiate athletic programs limits the generalizability of the results, this study represents one of the few in the literature to empirically investigate the determinants of sponsorship costs, providing much-needed guidance to aid decision making in a highly volatile, unpredictable industry.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Case study
Publication date: 1 May 2011

Rita J. Shea-Van Fossen

This case traces Under Armour from its founding in 1996 through 2008 when the company entered the hyper-competitive non-cleated athletic footwear market. In 1996, with an…

Abstract

This case traces Under Armour from its founding in 1996 through 2008 when the company entered the hyper-competitive non-cleated athletic footwear market. In 1996, with an innovative product and locker room access to college and pro players, Kevin Plank started Under Armour. He turned a struggling t-shirt company into a dominant player capturing 75% of the performance apparel market. In 2006, Under Armour successfully entered the athletic footwear market with a line of football cleats. Under Armour was the first company to disrupt Nike's dominance of the football cleat market by gaining 25% of the market within a year of introduction. In 2008, Under Armour entered the non-cleated athletic footwear market with a cross-trainer sneaker line and a $4.4 million Super Bowl ad. Unlike prior introductions, Nike responded aggressively to Under Armour's move into sneakers. Despite increased sales, Under Armour's costs increased, and profits and stock price decreased. The case concludes by asking students to evaluate Under Armour's next move. An extensive exhibit provides an overview of the athletic footwear industry in 2008.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2017

Sabrina Zajak

This contribution conceptualizes the politicization of MNCs from outside – the processes by which MNCs become confronted with demands for regulation and engage in…

Abstract

This contribution conceptualizes the politicization of MNCs from outside – the processes by which MNCs become confronted with demands for regulation and engage in political contestation with other non-state actors. It compares two global industries, athletic footwear and toys, to show that the dynamics of politicization follow different trajectories, which are only partially to explain with structural differences across industry fields. If politicization leads to increasing political functioning of business or to a depoliticization of criticism depends to a great extend on the agency of business and their capacity to strategically counter mobilization, but also on the difficulties for activist to construct continuing collective action across a diverse range of cultural-institutional settings.

Details

Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-386-3

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Case study
Publication date: 18 May 2016

Mina Saghian and Meghan Murray

In 2013, Under Armour had $2.3 billion in sales yet only $500 million came from its women’s apparel, and the company was ready to expand into the female market segment…

Abstract

In 2013, Under Armour had $2.3 billion in sales yet only $500 million came from its women’s apparel, and the company was ready to expand into the female market segment. The “I Will What I Want” global women’s marketing campaign was the largest Under Armour had ever run. Founder Keven Plank and his team launched the campaign on a multichannel platform, with social media at its core. The campaign’s success surpassed what Plank had imagined, and he is left wondering where to take Under Armour’s advertising and marketing next. This case has been used successfully in a marketing course and would be suited for any class with a focus on interactive media, technology, and multichannel marketing.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Luke Lunhua Mao

Sporting goods retailing is a significant sector within the sport industry with the total revenue of this sector reaching $52.2 billion in 2018. Beset with formidable…

Abstract

Purpose

Sporting goods retailing is a significant sector within the sport industry with the total revenue of this sector reaching $52.2 billion in 2018. Beset with formidable competition, sporting goods stores are compelled to augment their merchandise with service and improve retail quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate retail quality of sporting goods stores (RQSGS).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 27,793 online reviews of 1481 stores in the United States, this study used Leximancer 4.0, a text mining software, to identify critical retail quality dimensions associated with sporting goods stores, and further explored the most salient dimensions among different levels of ratings.

Findings

Customer service and store aspects are the two higher-order dimensions of RQSGS; holistic experience, manager and staff are three themes under customer service, and product, B&M store and online–offline integration are three themes under store aspects. Furthermore, extreme reviews focus more on customer service, whereas lukewarm reviews focus more on store aspects.

Practical implications

Knowledgeable staff, managers and online–offline integration are instrumental in creating superior retail quality. Sporting goods stores should enhance hedonic and social values for consumers in order to ward off online competitions.

Originality/value

This study explored retail quality dimensions that are pertinent to sporting goods retailing utilizing text mining methods. This study to certain extent cross-validated the existing retailing literature that is developed on alternative methods.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Daniel A. Sheinin

Understanding how consumers form beliefs and attitudes about brand extensions is important. However, this process may be complex in brand extensions because beliefs can…

Downloads
10481

Abstract

Understanding how consumers form beliefs and attitudes about brand extensions is important. However, this process may be complex in brand extensions because beliefs can stem from both the parent brand and the extension’s category. In two studies, we examine how positioning may impact brand extension beliefs and attitudes by altering its fit with the parent brand and category. We find position fit alters brand extension beliefs and attitudes, but its effects are moderated by the perceived fit between the extending brand and category. We discuss the results, theoretical and managerial implications, and avenues for future

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Alain d'Astous and Karim Chnaoui

This article reports the results of an experimental study in which four factors were manipulated in the context of an evaluation of two sports garments by 172 consumers…

Abstract

This article reports the results of an experimental study in which four factors were manipulated in the context of an evaluation of two sports garments by 172 consumers: t-shirts and athletic shoes. These factors were intended usage situation (sport versus pleasure), brand name (national versus private brand), price (discount versus no discount), and store name (sports shop versus department store). Some significant interactions were obtained between some of the manipulated factors suggesting the necessity of qualifying the brand name, store name, and price discount effects on consumer perceptions. The results of the study are discussed in light of the existing marketing literature and the implications for sports marketing practice.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Luke L. Mao

In the era of the retail Apocalypse, the surge of e-commerce has transmuted the competitive landscape for many traditional retailers that heavily rely on brick-and-mortar…

Abstract

Purpose

In the era of the retail Apocalypse, the surge of e-commerce has transmuted the competitive landscape for many traditional retailers that heavily rely on brick-and-mortar stores. This study examines the relationship among retail quality, market environment and businesses' survival in the context of the sporting goods retail industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a data set from yelp.com, the authors examine the survival of 1,360 stores within 306 zip codes in the United States using mixed effects logistic modeling.

Findings

(1) Retail quality is positively related to survival, but the relationship is nonlinear; (2) the author find a null relationship between market competition and survival, which is subject to several competing interpretations; (3) 10% of the individual variation in survival is due to systematic differences between zip codes and (4) chain stores and stores with more heterogenous reviews have a higher closure rate.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by offering an empirical testing of the relationship between retail quality and business survival and examining the impact of trading area in the modern marketing milieu. The findings have practical implications for site selection and designing a service quality program.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2015

Jay T. Worobets, Emma R. Skolnik and Darren J. Stefanyshyn

Far infrared radiation (FIR) has been shown to have physiological effects when used as a treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Athletic apparel are currently…

Abstract

Far infrared radiation (FIR) has been shown to have physiological effects when used as a treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Athletic apparel are currently commercially available that are constructed with fabrics that purportedly emit FIR. If apparel with this technology are capable of inducing positive physiological effects, then there may be important implications when worn by an athlete during exercise. The purpose of this study is to examine whether FIR apparel has an effect on oxygen consumption during exercise at submaximal intensities. Twelve male cyclists have completed submaximal incremental cycling tests. Each subject is tested on 4 separate days, twice while wearing a full body Control garment, and twice while wearing a similar garment made out of FIR fabric. Throughout each cycling test, the volume of oxygen uptake is monitored by using a breathing mask and metabolic analysis cart. At lower cycling intensities, the subjects consume statistically significantly less oxygen when wearing the FIR apparel compared to the Control garment, despite performing the same amount of mechanical work. Additional research is required to determine the implication of this effect for a training or competing athlete; however, the results indicate that this apparel technology does elicit a physiological effect.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Anja Zurcher Wray and Nancy Nelson Hodges

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of cognitive‐ versus chronological‐age factors in activewear apparel advertisements targeting female baby boomers in the USA.

Downloads
2861

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of cognitive‐ versus chronological‐age factors in activewear apparel advertisements targeting female baby boomers in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 50 female participants aged 41‐65 were asked to view two print advertisements: one showing activewear apparel worn by a cognitive‐age model and the other by a chronological‐age model. Participants then responded to a four‐part questionnaire that included a measurement of cognitive age, physical activity, response to the advertisements, and purchase intent.

Findings

The responses indicated that the participants view themselves as younger than their chronological age and were more inclined to respond favorably toward the advertisement using the cognitive age model.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study focuses on only one consumer group – US baby boomers – it reveals their current attitudes toward advertisements of activewear apparel as well as their motivations for purchasing activewear apparel. More research on this age demographic and the impact of cognitive age vs. chronological age on their perceptions of advertising is needed.

Originality/value

Currently one of the largest age demographics in the USA, baby boomers are known for having higher amounts of disposable income as compared to other age cohorts and for their interest in physical fitness and leading active lifestyles. The results of this study point to the need to understand the age‐related perceptions of this consumer group in order to successfully market activewear apparel products directly to them.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

1 – 10 of 405