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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Anne Martensen and Lars Grønholdt

The purpose of this paper is to examine how received word-of-mouth (WOM) influences consumer emotions and, in turn, behavioral attitude and intention.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how received word-of-mouth (WOM) influences consumer emotions and, in turn, behavioral attitude and intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model is developed by extending the theory of reasoned action framework to include WOM and emotions. The conceptual model is operationalized through a structural equation model, and the model is estimated and tested by using the partial least squares method. A survey among 509 consumers in Denmark forms the empirical basis for the study.

Findings

The paper finds that positive and negative WOM has an asymmetric influence on emotions, behavioral attitude and intention, i.e. that consumers respond differently to positive and negative WOM. The paper also finds that positive WOM has a larger impact than the social norm on behavioral attitude and intention and that negative WOM has an impact equal to that of the social norm. Furthermore, the study finds that emotions are an important mediator for both WOM and social norm.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to a large travel agency in Denmark.

Practical implications

This paper has clear implications in terms of measuring the importance of WOM and emotions in consumer decision-making. It may serve as a useful basis for a practical WOM marketing strategy, which is a critical and increasingly applied element of customer-focused companies’ marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This paper provides new insights into how WOM works and the interplay between WOM, emotions and social norm in consumer decision-making.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Anne Martensen, Jens J. Dahlgaard, Su Mi Park‐Dahlgaard and Lars Grønholdt

The purpose of this paper is to examine two approaches to measure and diagnose innovation excellence.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine two approaches to measure and diagnose innovation excellence.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a conceptual model for innovation excellence and a measurement system is developed. A Danish survey forms the empirical basis for the study, where a simple approach (by using stated importance of different innovation activities) and an advanced approach (by using derived importance based on structural equation modelling and PLS estimation) are demonstrated, discussed and compared.

Findings

The findings in this paper indicate good support for the developed model. When comparing the two approaches for identifying and prioritising improvements, both equalities and differences are found and discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study in this paper is limited to one Danish manufacturing company, which is considered to be one of the most innovative and excellent companies in Denmark. However, it is desirable to apply the model in other companies and industries.

Practical implications

This paper offers a model to understand and measure innovation results and its enablers, and the application of the model will give companies a better chance of attaining innovative excellence.

Originality/value

The paper provides a novel model for innovation excellence, which is based on a solid theoretical foundation, has been proven in practice, and can be an effective framework for identifying and prioritising improvements within innovation.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Anne Martensen, Sofia Brockenhuus-Schack and Anastasia Lauritsen Zahid

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how today’s new type of opinion leaders, “Citizen Influencers” (CIs), persuade their followers by exploring which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how today’s new type of opinion leaders, “Citizen Influencers” (CIs), persuade their followers by exploring which characteristics contribute to their persuasiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining theories within opinion leadership, celebrity endorsement, product placement and user-generated content (UGC) five source characteristics – namely, expertise, trustworthiness, likeability, similarity and familiarity – are investigated using fashion as an example. A longitudinal netnographic study of ten CIs and their UGC and six focus groups with followers of specific CIs on Instagram are conducted.

Findings

All five characteristics contribute to the persuasiveness of CIs with trustworthiness as the main contributor. CIs persuasiveness lies in their unique ability to encompass two opposing qualities simultaneously: being attainable and relatable like ordinary consumers; being taste leaders with superior, celebrity-like status.

Research limitations/implications

Only qualitative studies within the fashion category have been conducted, wherefore the relative weight between the two qualities cannot be quantified.

Practical implications

When choosing a CI, managers may consider: the amount of followers per CI as an indicator of influence; similarity between follower and CI as it provides the basis for trust; and the CIs personal universe on their Instagram profile as it leverage the meanings associated with the brand.

Originality/value

The key driver of CIs persuasiveness is their trustworthiness which mediates and amplifies the effect of the other four characteristics. CIs’ persuasive power rests upon the balancing act of being relatable and aspirational.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Anne Martensen and Lars Grønholdt

A strong brand is among the most valuable intangible assets for any company. This paper aims to provide empirical evidence of a brand equity model and illustrates the…

Abstract

Purpose

A strong brand is among the most valuable intangible assets for any company. This paper aims to provide empirical evidence of a brand equity model and illustrates the application of the model on a Danish bank.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model is founded on a customer‐based approach to brand equity. The model links customer‐brand relationships to rational and emotional brand responses, which are in turn linked to six drivers including product quality and service quality. The conceptual model is operationalized by a structural equation model with latent variables and a measurement system. To validate, the model surveys were conducted for four brands in three industries, and the paper presents results from 351 interviews with customers of the largest Danish retail bank. The model is estimated and tested by using partial least squares.

Findings

A high level of explanatory power is obtained, and the results indicate strong support for the proposed model. The estimated model gives performance indexes for each variable in the model and impact scores for the relationships between the variables. The findings are discussed and a brand equity map is developed.

Research limitations/implications

The study in this paper is limited to one brand in the banking sector. However, the model and the measurement system are generic and should be applicable to all types of brands and industries.

Practical implications

The paper provides a model to understand brand equity building. The proposed brand equity map depicting impact versus performance of brand equity drivers may support the brand strategy development process.

Originality/value

The paper provides a brand equity model, which is based on state‐of‐the‐art thinking within branding and includes both rational and emotional brand responses. The model has been applied in practice with good results, and the proposed brand equity map is useful in assessing and developing a brand's strength.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Anne Martensen and Jens J. Dahlgaard

This paper highlights how the European Business Excellence Model can be adapted to innovation when formulating strategies and plans. The Business Excellence Model is too…

Abstract

This paper highlights how the European Business Excellence Model can be adapted to innovation when formulating strategies and plans. The Business Excellence Model is too general to be applied directly to innovation, and the authors find that specific criterion parts have to be supplemented. A cause and effect diagram is formulated showing eight criterion parts to be relevant when formulating strategies and plans for the company’s innovation programme. These eight criterion parts can be combined in an extended PDSA loop, where the first loop reflects the strategy and planning phases for innovations and the second loop reflects the “right” innovative, creative and learning culture that is required when implementing these strategies and plans. The paper goes into details with the first loop, where each of the four phases (PDSA) are discussed and specific areas to address are highlighted.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Anne Martensen

The purpose of this paper is to examine tweens' (8‐12 year‐olds) satisfaction with and loyalty to their mobile phones and the relationship between these.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine tweens' (8‐12 year‐olds) satisfaction with and loyalty to their mobile phones and the relationship between these.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on literature studies, hypotheses about tweens' satisfaction with and loyalty to their mobile phones are developed. A survey in Denmark forms the empirical basis for the study, and the hypotheses are tested and discussed.

Findings

The results indicate that tweens are far more satisfied with their mobile phones than adults are and that the mobile phones fulfill children's expectations to a much higher degree. Still, brands are not able to turn tweens into loyal customers who will recommend their mobile phones to friends. Tweens' loyalty is lower than what is experienced for adults and the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is very weak.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the mobile phone market. The low degree of loyalty in this market may not necessarily be the case in other markets. However, it is believed that many of the arguments share such generic characteristics that they are transferable to other product areas. Another limitation is that this study is based on a survey in Greater Copenhagen in Denmark. Therefore, the results can be influenced by a city effect.

Practical implications

The paper presents findings, which are useful for mobile phone marketers' marketing strategy and promotional plans towards tweens.

Originality/value

The study combines tweens, mobile phones, and customer satisfaction and loyalty theory. Findings on this combination have not been published previously. However, the combination is important due to the growing mobile phone penetration among tweens and the fast development of mobile phones and telecommunication services.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Anne Martensen and Jens J. Dahlgaard

Excellence in innovation requires that organisations have the competencies to react quickly to new market conditions and customer needs, and see the possibilities that can…

Abstract

Excellence in innovation requires that organisations have the competencies to react quickly to new market conditions and customer needs, and see the possibilities that can arise from constantly looking for creative solutions and continuous improvements in products and innovation processes. Today’s companies must continuously adapt, develop and innovate. The principles and disciplines of the learning and creative organisation are a crucial determinant for this. This is the focus of the paper. The European Business Excellence Model can be applied to innovation management by supplementing four new criterion parts related to the company culture, namely creative and learning organisations. An extended PDSA loop for excellent strategy and planning is briefly described. The paper focusses on the culture loop within this framework and highlights what criterion parts and areas to address to include this culture aspect.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Flemming Hansen, Anne Martensen and Sverre Riis Christensen

This paper reports findings from a larger study of sponsors and their relationships to sponsored parties. Rather than evaluating such sponsorships in traditional cognitive…

Abstract

This paper reports findings from a larger study of sponsors and their relationships to sponsored parties. Rather than evaluating such sponsorships in traditional cognitive and conscious effect hierarchical terms, a conceptual Sponsor Value Model is specified as a structural equation model estimated by a partial least squares method (PLS), where the drivers are emotions towards the sponsorship and attitudes towards the sponsorship. It is found that the two classes of variables drive overall value of sponsoring and this is illustrated with one case study.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2003

Anne Martensen and Lars Grønholdt

The most successful companies today are said to have strong brands. But what is a strong brand? What makes a brand strong? How do we build a strong brand? This paper…

Abstract

The most successful companies today are said to have strong brands. But what is a strong brand? What makes a brand strong? How do we build a strong brand? This paper develops a customer‐based brand equity model to help address these important questions. The developed model is a cause‐and‐effect model linking customer‐brand relationships to rational and emotional brand associations, as well as rational and emotional brand evaluations. The customer‐brand relationships are characterized by loyalty, based on both behaviour and attitude. As branding is a very complex concept, it is important to determine which of the many branding elements should be included in the model. This paper discusses why a given aspect is important for a brand’s equity and which relations exist between the included variables from a theoretical perspective. The model provides insight into the creation of a brand’s equity and can thus be used in the brand management process to achieve brand excellence.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2005

Anne Martensen and Lars Gronholdt

It is generally accepted that leadership is the foundation for creation of a company’s business results. However, empirical evidence is lacking. This paper examines the…

Abstract

It is generally accepted that leadership is the foundation for creation of a company’s business results. However, empirical evidence is lacking. This paper examines the relationship between leadership and key performance results based on Return on Leadership Model. The model links Denison’s four leadership traits to people results, customer results, and ultimately key performance results. Further specified, the model is a structural equation model with nine latent variables, each measured by a set of indicators, observed by survey questions. To validate the model, an empirical study was conducted, and 379 managers from medium‐sized and large companies in Denmark participated. The estimation of the model shows that the model structure explains return on leadership very well, and the findings support the developed model. We are able to quantify the relationships from leadership to people results, customer results and key performance results and, in this way, the data presented here provide evidence that leadership is linked to key performance results. Several results and applications of the model are shown. The findings provide new knowledge about how leadership can be linked to performance, and how excellent leadership creates key performance results.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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