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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2023

Julia Muehlhausen, Daniel Spurk, Andreas Hirschi and Anita Sandmeier

Organizational embeddedness of employees who are experiencing their work as a calling is of high relevance. Understanding what promotes staying in organizations can provide…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational embeddedness of employees who are experiencing their work as a calling is of high relevance. Understanding what promotes staying in organizations can provide benefits for individuals with a calling while at the same time helping organizations to retain those valuable employees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how and when experiencing work as a calling relates to organizational embeddedness (OE). Based on assumptions from the theory of work adjustment (TWA), the authors hypothesized a conditional effects model with feedback from others and role clarity as moderating variables.

Design/methodology/approach

For this longitudinal study, the authors collected data at two measurement time points (N = 553). To tests the hypotheses, the authors performed hierarchical regression analysis. Additionally, the authors conducted simple slope tests to calculate the effects of calling on OE, depending on the different levels of the moderators.

Findings

The results indicated that higher levels of experiencing a calling are associated with higher levels of OE 18 months later while controlling for the initial levels of OE. Additionally, the moderation analysis revealed that feedback from others and role clarity strengthened the relationship between experiencing a calling and OE. Interestingly, for individuals with low feedback from others and low role clarity, experiencing a calling was not related to OE.

Originality/value

Addressing recent research calls that highlight more research on boundary conditions and diverse theoretical perspectives, this study contributes to the literature on calling and organizational retention and provides a more individual and career-related view of potential predictors of OE.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Annabelle Hofer, Daniel Spurk and Andreas Hirschi

This study investigates when and why negative organization-related career shocks affect career optimism, which is a positive career-planning attitude. The indirect effect of…

2038

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates when and why negative organization-related career shocks affect career optimism, which is a positive career-planning attitude. The indirect effect of negative organization-related career shocks on career optimism via job insecurity and the role of perceived organizational career support as a first-stage moderator were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave time-lagged data from a sample of 728 employees in Switzerland was used. Time-lagged correlations, an indirect effect model and a conditional indirect effect model with bootstrapping were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

First, this study showed a significant negative correlation between negative organization-related career shocks (T1) and career optimism (T3), a positive correlation between negative organization-related career shocks (T1) and job insecurity (T2) and a negative correlation between job insecurity (T2) and career optimism (T3). Second, findings revealed that negative organization-related career shocks (T1) have a negative indirect effect on career optimism (T3) via job insecurity (T2). Third, perceived organizational career support (T1) buffers the indirect effect of negative organization-related career shocks (T1) on career optimism (T3).

Originality/value

This study provides an initial examination of the relationship between negative organization-related career shocks and career optimism by applying assumptions from the JD-R model and Conservation of Resources theory. Implications about how to deal with negative career shocks in HRM and career counseling are discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

Chunyu Zhang and Andreas Hirschi

Calling is typically associated with more intrinsic than extrinsic work motivation. This could give the impression that employees with a calling do not need or care about external…

1098

Abstract

Purpose

Calling is typically associated with more intrinsic than extrinsic work motivation. This could give the impression that employees with a calling do not need or care about external rewards. To deepen the understanding of the relationship between calling and work motivation, the purpose of this paper is to test how calling is combined with different types of work motivation and how such combinations affect work outcomes differentially.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied latent profile analysis among Chinese employees with diverse occupations (N = 1,290), to identify calling and work motivation profiles and test their relations with work outcomes, assessed four months later.

Findings

Four profiles emerged: externally motivated low calling, moderately externally motivated calling, moderately motivated calling and highly motivated calling. Employees with weaker and stronger callings indicated being extrinsically motivated for work. Employees in the highly motivated calling profile exhibited highest job satisfaction, lowest cynicism and lowest turnover intentions, followed by employees in the moderately motivated calling profile, the moderately externally motivated calling profile and the externally motivated low calling profile.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that employees with a strong calling do care about external rewards and also benefit from external incentives to work.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore the differential relationship between calling and work motivation. Moreover, the findings offer insights regarding the under-researched notion that different types of calling predict work outcomes differently.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Marc Abessolo, Andreas Hirschi and Jérôme Rossier

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

3066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation among work values and protean and boundaryless career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 238 employees aged 16 to 65 years from the French-speaking region of Switzerland completed two different work values scales as well as protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. To assess the relationships among these constructs, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factorial analysis techniques were used.

Findings

Results suggested that protean and boundaryless career orientations were significantly positively related to intrinsic, social, and status work values. A boundaryless-organizational mobility orientation was significantly negatively associated with extrinsic/material work values.

Research limitations/implications

Results have important implications for understanding which work values are typically endorsed by people with a protean or a boundaryless career orientation.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the understanding of protean and boundaryless careers by clarifying the relationships among these career orientations and work values.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Chunyu Zhang, Andreas Hirschi, Anne Herrmann, Jia Wei and Jinfu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to test if the effects of a self-directed career attitude on career and life satisfaction are mediated by a person’s sense of calling and moderated by…

2246

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test if the effects of a self-directed career attitude on career and life satisfaction are mediated by a person’s sense of calling and moderated by job insecurity in a sample of Chinese employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Among a sample of Chinese employees (n=263), in this paper, a moderated mediation analysis with bootstrapping was applied to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that calling mediates the effects of a self-directed career attitude on career satisfaction and life satisfaction. Job insecurity moderated the effect on life satisfaction but not on career satisfaction. The effect on life satisfaction were stronger under higher levels of job insecurity.

Research limitations/implications

These results suggest that a self-directed career attitude may help people develop a calling, which in turn relates to increased subjective career success and well-being. In addition, the notion of a calling may be especially important for well-being in unstable job circumstances.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore a calling and a self-directed career attitude in a sample of Chinese employees. Corresponding to contemporary China’s rapidly changing context of economy and career development, a self-directed career orientation plays an important role in Chinese employees’ calling and subjective career success.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Andreas Hirschi and Sebastian Fischer

Work values are an important characteristic to understand gender differences in career intentions, but how gender affects the relationship between values and career intentions is…

2284

Abstract

Purpose

Work values are an important characteristic to understand gender differences in career intentions, but how gender affects the relationship between values and career intentions is not well established. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender moderates the effects of work values on level and change of entrepreneurial intentions (EI).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 218 German university students were sampled regarding work values and with EI assessed three times over the course of 12 months. Data were analysed with latent growth modelling.

Findings

Self‐enhancement and openness to change values predicted higher levels and conservation values lower levels of EI. Gender moderated the effects of enhancement and conservation values on change in EI.

Research limitations/implications

The authors relied on self‐reported measures and the sample was restricted to university students. Future research needs to verify to what extent these results generalize to other samples and different career fields, such as science or nursing.

Practical implications

The results imply that men and women are interested in an entrepreneurial career based on the same work values but that values have different effects for men and women regarding individual changes in EI. The results suggest that the prototypical work values of a career domain seem important regarding increasing the career intent for the gender that is underrepresented in that domain.

Originality/value

The results enhance understanding of how gender affects the relation of work values and a specific career intention, such as entrepreneurship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Lan Cao, Andreas Hirschi and Jürgen Deller

The authors sought to explain why and how protean career attitude might influence self‐initiated expatriates' (SIEs) experiences positively. A mediation model of cultural…

3709

Abstract

Purpose

The authors sought to explain why and how protean career attitude might influence self‐initiated expatriates' (SIEs) experiences positively. A mediation model of cultural adjustment was proposed and empirically evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 132 SIEs in Germany containing measures of protean career attitude, cultural adjustment, career satisfaction, life satisfaction, and intention to stay in the host country were analysed using path analysis with a bootstrap method.

Findings

Empirical results provide support for the authors' proposed model: the positive relations between protean career attitude and the three expatriation outcomes (career satisfaction, life satisfaction and intention to stay in the host country) were mediated by positive cross‐cultural adjustment of SIEs.

Research limitations/implications

All data were cross‐sectional from a single source. The sample size was small and included a large portion of Chinese participants. The study should be replicated with samples in other destination countries, and longitudinal research is suggested.

Practical implications

By fostering both a protean career attitude in skilled SIE employees and their cultural adjustment, corporations and receiving countries could be able to retain this international workforce better in times of talent shortage.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the scarce research on the conceptual relatedness of protean career attitude and SIEs, as well as to acknowledging the cultural diversity of the SIE population.

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Lan Cao, Andreas Hirschi and Jürgen Deller

This paper aims to provide conceptual clarity by distinguishing self‐initiated expatriates (SIEs) from company‐assigned expatriates (AEs), and skilled migrants; most importantly…

4843

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide conceptual clarity by distinguishing self‐initiated expatriates (SIEs) from company‐assigned expatriates (AEs), and skilled migrants; most importantly, it introduces an overarching conceptual framework based on career capital theory to explain SIEs’ career success.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual framework is based on a review of the relevant literature on SIE, expatriation, career studies, cross‐cultural studies, migration, and other related areas.

Findings

Protean career attitude, career networks, and cultural intelligence are identified as three major types of career capital influencing SIEs career success positively; the predicting relationships between these are mediated by cultural adjustment in the host country. Cultural distance acts as the moderator, which highlights the influence of macro‐contextual factors on SIEs’ career development.

Research limitations/implications

The current paper applied career capital theory and did not integrate the impact of family and labour market situation on SIEs’ career development. Further research should test the proposed framework empirically, and integrate the impact of family‐ and career‐related factors into a holistic approach.

Practical implications

When constructing international talent acquisition and retention strategies, organizations and receiving countries should understand the different career development needs and provide SIEs with opportunities to increase career capital during expatriation. Furthermore, the current framework suggests how to adjust to the host country in order to meet career development goals.

Originality/value

The multi‐level and sequential framework adds value by identifying specific types of career capital for SIEs and providing a conceptual underpinning for explaining how they interact and foster SIEs’ career success. Moreover, the framework embraces SIEs from both developed and developing economies.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2024

Aubid Hussain Parrey and Gurleen Kour

Career adaptability is emerging as an important research area in today's uncertain, volatile world of work created by the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study focuses on career…

Abstract

Purpose

Career adaptability is emerging as an important research area in today's uncertain, volatile world of work created by the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study focuses on career adaptability research post-COVID-19 by scientifically capturing the literature evolution, hotspots and future trends using bibliometric analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The Scopus database, due to its vast and quality literature, was used to search the papers from the period 2020 to 2023. Bibliometric data were extracted and analyzed from the relevant literature. For further scientific mapping, VOSviewer and Biblioshiny software tools were used.

Findings

Findings of the analysis suggest a positive research trend related to career adaptability research post-Covid. Keyword analysis revealed noteworthy clusters and important themes. Bibliometric visual networks regarding authors, sources, citations, future themes, etc. are also presented from the 441 analyzed publications with comprehensive interpretation.

Research limitations/implications

The literature for carrying out the bibliometric analysis was confined to the Scopus database. Other databases in combination with different software can be used for future niche research. From the analysis, future research avenues and practical interventions are presented which have significant implications for future researchers, career counselors and managers.

Originality/value

The study summarizes the recent literature on career adaptability in the aftermath of the pandemic and makes a novel contribution to the existing literature. A reliable study has been provided by the authors using the scientific bibliometric technique. The study highlights emerging research trends post the pandemic. The results are concluded with further suggestions which can guide future research related to the topic.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Akram Al Ariss, Iris Koall, Mustafa Özbilgin and Vesa Suutari

The careers of skilled migrant workers is an under‐theorised field of research. This paper proposes a theoretical and methodological expansion of studies of careers of skilled…

3251

Abstract

Purpose

The careers of skilled migrant workers is an under‐theorised field of research. This paper proposes a theoretical and methodological expansion of studies of careers of skilled migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers a critical review of the literature on careers of skilled migrants from a multilevel approach including individual, organizational, and contextual levels.

Findings

The review leads to two key theoretical and methodological expansions: first, it demonstrates that migrant careers need to be understood as a relational construct that is at the interplay of individual and institutions and as a multi‐layer and multi‐faceted phenomenon. This approach requires the authors to explore careers in temporal and spatial contexts. The second expansion made requires the adoption of relational methodologies, as well as more reflexive methods which encourages researchers to recognize a wider range of vested interests when framing their research questions and designing their studies.

Originality/value

This paper has two key values: first, it questions the central assumptions in the management and organizational literature regarding the topic of international mobility; second, it offers a theoretical and a methodological model for future research on this topic.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

1 – 10 of 21