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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Alok Kumar Mishra, Urvashi Chopra, Vaithiyanathan D. and Baljit Kaur

A low power flip-flop circuit is designed for energy-efficient devices. Digital sequential circuits are in huge demand because every processor has most of the parts of digital…

Abstract

Purpose

A low power flip-flop circuit is designed for energy-efficient devices. Digital sequential circuits are in huge demand because every processor has most of the parts of digital circuit. The sequential circuits consist of a basic data storing element, a latch is used to store single bit data. The flip-flop takes a sufficient portion of the total chip area and overall power consumption as well. This study aims to the low power energy-efficient applications like laptops, mobile phones and palmtops.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a new type of flip-flop that consists of the only 16 transistors with a single-phase clock. The flip-flop has two blocks, master and slave latch. In this design, the authors have focused on only master latch, which includes a level restoring circuit. It is used to help the master latch in data retention process. The latch circuit has two inverters in back-to-back arrangement. The proposed flip-flop is implemented on 65 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology using Cadence Virtuoso environment and compared with other reported flip-flops.

Findings

The proposed flip-flop architecture outperformed the peak percentage, i.e. 79.25% as compared to transmission gate flip-flop and a minimum of 20.02% compared to 18 T true single phase clocking (TSPC) improvement in terms of power. It also improved C to Q delay and power delay product. In addition, by reducing the number of transistors the total area of the proposed flip-flop is reduced by a minimum of 13.76% with respect to 18TSPC and existing flip-flop. For reliability checking the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for thousand samples and it is compared with the recently reported 18TSPC flip-flop.

Originality/value

This work is tested by using a test circuit with a load capacitor of 0.2 fF. The proposed work uses a new topology to work as master-slave. Power consumption of this technique is very less and it is best suitable for low power applications. This circuit is working properly up to 2 GHz frequency.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Alok Kumar Mishra, Vaithiyanathan D., Yogesh Pal and Baljit Kaur

This work is proposed for low power energy-efficient applications like laptops, mobile phones, and palmtops. In this study, P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (PMOS)’s are used…

Abstract

Purpose

This work is proposed for low power energy-efficient applications like laptops, mobile phones, and palmtops. In this study, P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (PMOS)’s are used as access transistor in 7 transistors (7 T) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cell, and the theoretical Static Noise Margin (SNM) analysis for the proposed cell is also performed. A cell is designed using 7 T which consists of 4 PMOS and 3 NMOS. In this paper write and hold SNM is addressed and read SNM is also calculated for the proposed 7 T SRAM cell.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have replaced N-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (NMOS) access transistors with the PMOS access transistors, which results in proper data line recovery and provides the desired coupling. An error is likely to occur, if the read operation is performed too often probably by using the NMOS pass gate. It results in an improper recovery of the data line. Instead, by using PMOS as a pass gate, the time required for read operation can be brought down. As we know the mobility (µ) of the PMOS transistor is low, so the authors have used this property into the proposed design. When a low signal is applied to its control gate, the PMOS transistor come up with the desired coupling, when working as a pass gate.

Findings

Feedback switched transistor is used in the proposed circuit, which plays an important role in the write operation. This transistor is in OFF state and PMOS’s work as access transistor, when the proposed cell operating in read mode. This helps in the reduction of power. This work is simulated using UMC 40 nm technology node in the cadence virtuoso environment. The simulated result shows that, write power saving of 51.54% and 61.17%, hold power saving of 25.68% and 48.93% when compared with reported 7 T and 6 T, respectively.

Originality/value

The proposed 7 T SRAM cell provides proper data line recovery at a lower voltage when PMOS works as the access transistor. Power consumption is very less in this technique and it is best suitable for low power applications.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Vaithiyanathan D., Megha Singh Kurmi, Alok Kumar Mishra and Britto Pari J.

In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits, there is a direct square proportion of supply voltage on dynamic power. If the supply voltage is high, then more…

Abstract

Purpose

In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits, there is a direct square proportion of supply voltage on dynamic power. If the supply voltage is high, then more amount of energy will be consumed. Therefore, if a low voltage supply is used, then dynamic power will also be reduced. In a mixed signal circuit, there can be a situation when lower voltage circuitry has to drive large voltage circuitry. In such a case, P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor of high-voltage circuitry may not be switched off completely by applying a low voltage as input. Therefore, there is a need for level shifter where low-voltage and high-voltage circuits are connected. In this paper the multi-scaling voltage level shifter is presented which overcomes the contention problems and suitable for low-power applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The voltage level shifter circuit is essential for digital and analog circuits in the on-chip integrated circuits. The modified voltage level shifter and reported energy-efficient voltage level shifter have been optimally designed to be functional in all process voltage and temperature corners for VDDH = 5V, VDDL = 2V and the input frequency of 5 MHz. The modified voltage level shifter and reported shifter circuits are implemented using Cadence Virtuoso at 90 nm CMOS technology and the comparison is made based on speed and power consumed by the circuit.

Findings

The voltage level shifter circuit discussed in this paper removes the contention problem that is present in conventional voltage level shifter. Moreover, it has the capability for up and down conversion and reduced power and delay as compared to conventional voltage level shifter. The efficiency of the circuit is improved in two ways, first, the current of the pull-up device is reduced and second, the strength of the pull-down device is increased.

Originality/value

The modified level shifter is faster for switching low input voltage to high output voltage and also high input voltage to low output voltage. The average power consumption for the multi-scaling voltage level shifter is 259.445 µW. The power consumption is very less in this technique and it is best suitable for low-power applications.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 September 2023

Pavitra Mishra and Amit Gupta

This case study is best suited for courses in career management, stress management, work–life management or science of well-being in organization behavior (OB) or human resources…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case study is best suited for courses in career management, stress management, work–life management or science of well-being in organization behavior (OB) or human resources management (HRM). This case study is targeted at the MBA or executive development programs. The learning outcomes of this case study are as follows: to analyze the challenges in balancing Suraj Kumar’s (the protagonist) work–life balance situation and identifying the main causes of such a conflict. What are some strategies that could be used to address these issues? To develop a plan to balance work responsibilities with family and personal life. What specific actions could he take to achieve this balance? To design a training program for employees that addresses work–life balance issues. What topics would you cover in the training, and what methods would you use to deliver the content? To create a proposal for a flexible work arrangement program that an organization could offer to its employees. What would be the benefits of this program, and how would it be implemented and managed? To develop a business case for why an organization should prioritize work–life balance for its employees. What are the potential benefits of doing so, and how can the organization measure the impact of its efforts?

Case overview/synopsis

This case study discusses conflicts due to competitive priorities that people face in balancing the pressures, roles and responsibilities between their professional life (careers) and their personal life, and the trade-offs that they make across these multiple aspects of their lives. This case study revolves around Suraj Kumar, a successful consultant, who was offered a promotion as the executive director for the social sector. This promotion would require extensive travel and time away from his family. Kumar was struggling to balance his work responsibilities with his family life and his involvement with the Smile and Shine Foundation, which supports the education of children from economically weaker sections of society. He was reflecting on his past and present and trying to figure out how to prioritize his commitments while also achieving his personal and professional goals.

Complexity academic level

This research has shown that a case discussion and role-play can be effective for a less experienced audience. Instructors can provide multiple perspectives to stimulate reflection and debate. For executive MBA or executive development programs, a self-reflection exercise is recommended. Participants in these programs may have personal experience dealing with or may know others who have dealt with work–life balance issues, making self-reflection a valuable tool.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 6: Human resource management.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Alok Mishra and Amrita Poonia

This paper aims to review the recent advances in processing and utilization of Madhuca longifolia flowers to address its potential as an industrial ingredient.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the recent advances in processing and utilization of Madhuca longifolia flowers to address its potential as an industrial ingredient.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes the harvesting practices of flowers and recent works on the value addition.

Findings

Mahua flowers are rich source of natural sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.) and hence are deliberately used for liquor production by tribal besides various food products, namely, Mahua ladoo, barfi, kheer, sweet puri and as grain staple. Mahuain medicine has been curing people since ages such as in rakhtpitta, diarrhoea and skin diseases and as aphrodisiac, galactagogue, carminative, antihelmenthic, antibacterial and antioxidant. Mahua candy, cake, ready to serve beverages, toffee, squash, ladoo, bars, etc. have been developed as value-added products. However, such a wonderful nature’s gift remains underused due to post harvest spoilage.

Practical implications

Improvement in storage facilities and processing of flowers after harvesting and drying will lead to enhanced availability of flowers for industrial purposes for food, feed and fodder. More value-added products can be prepared by the preparation of flower-juice concentrate, as well as efforts are made to produce powder from the flowers.

Originality/value

Post-harvest spoilage of Mahua flowers due to improper collection and handling practices, and filthy storage conditions is the major limitation of Mahua flowers to be used as a potential industrial ingredient. An improvement in collection, handling and pre-processing practices can diversify its use from liquor production to various value-added and functional food products at an industrial scale.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2023

Abstract

Details

Fostering Sustainable Development in the Age of Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-060-1

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2022

Vimal Kumar, Ankesh Mittal, Alok Kumar Sharma and Ramli Ahmad

Stress is the most common emotional or mental state that employees experience during their work. The employees in academics and industry are facing increased levels of stress as…

Abstract

Purpose

Stress is the most common emotional or mental state that employees experience during their work. The employees in academics and industry are facing increased levels of stress as they progress through their work. The study aims to investigate the relationship between academic and industry employees’ stress personalities. West Coast psychological consultants Mary Dempcy and Rene Tihista distinguish between the seven various types of stress and offer suggestions to deal with it.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have built a survey questionnaire using a sample of 195 respondents from the industry and academic of North India and analysed their responses to find their stress personalities at work. The Independent sample t-test approach has been applied to analyse the employee stress personality.

Findings

The study finds out that stress is a sophisticated defence mechanism that is unique to each individual and varies depending on the environment. Using employee response of academic and industry, the study covers the essence of seven types of stress for individuals, and that lent good support to the framed hypothesis.

Research limitations/implications

These seven types of stress have importance and different levels to knowing their appropriateness to the individuals and suggest to take necessary action of plan. It shows the individuals feel about stress, how the bodies react to it and how to cope with it are all indicators of the personalities, attitudes and adaptability.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is to apply Mary Dempcy and Rene Tihista’s stress personalities compared with the two respective categories.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Swati Alok, Sudatta Banerjee and Navya Kumar

This study aims to identify demographic characteristics, personal attributes and attitudes and social support factors that adversely or favourably affect the likelihood of career…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify demographic characteristics, personal attributes and attitudes and social support factors that adversely or favourably affect the likelihood of career persistence amongst women workers of the Indian IT sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The research, grounded in the social cognitive career theory, analyses primary data collected from 850 women working in IT via a survey. Based on an original definition of career persistence, the sample was segregated into 427 persistent and 423 non-persistent women. Logistic regression was performed to test for the effect of various determinants on the likelihood of women being career persistent versus non-persistent.

Findings

Being married, having children, as well as high levels of belief in gender disadvantage and work–family conflict lowered the likelihood of career persistence amongst women. While being a manager, possessing high career identity, high occupational culture fit, positive psychological capital and family support boost the likelihood.

Originality/value

The study examines women's actual continuance in an IT career vis-à-vis exit from the workforce/IT field, rather than women's stated intent to persist/quit as previously investigated. It uses logistic regression to identify both hurdles and aids on the path of women's career persistence. The findings can help recognize women more likely to struggle, thus be a first step in targeted organizational interventions to plug a leaky talent pipeline.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Amrita Poonia and Alok Mishra

This review discusses the concept of edible nanocoatings (ENCs), the biomaterials used in the coating matrices, techniques of coating development, applications, challenges and…

Abstract

Purpose

This review discusses the concept of edible nanocoatings (ENCs), the biomaterials used in the coating matrices, techniques of coating development, applications, challenges and safety regulations associated with nanotechnology in food products. These ENCs are capable of imparting increased shelf life, improved appearance, better physiological qualities and bioactive potentials such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. ENCs can be developed using the layer-by-layer method which forms multiple alternative layers adhered together primarily by electrostatic interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Various keywords such as edible coatings (ECs), safety aspects and nanocoatings were used to search the literature from Google Scholar, Research Gate, ScienceDirect, Springer Link, Taylor and Francis and PubMed. After searching enough literature, 113 articles and research papers were examined, which provides the updated overview of different aspects of edible nano-coatings.

Findings

Consumers today are very much aware of the food quality and its safety. They demand food products with longer shelf life, which are minimally processed with natural or no preservatives. ECs based on biopolymers is an alternative technique, which is biodegradable and can be consumed as such without posing any safety risks. The emergence of nanotechnology in food processing has provided new insights to develop ECs at the nanoscale with improved mechanical and barrier properties

Originality/value

ECs are beneficial to consumers and to the environment. ECs have generated significant attention over years as an alternative to fossil-based plastics, considering their renewable and biodegradable features

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

Alok Tiwari

By using exploratory mixed methods, this study aims to present the investigation of the existing situation of private off-campus student accommodation at the University of…

Abstract

Purpose

By using exploratory mixed methods, this study aims to present the investigation of the existing situation of private off-campus student accommodation at the University of Allahabad (UoA) in Prayagraj city.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explored the geographical variability of student’s private rental housing in Prayagraj city of India through 721 responses from an online semi-structured questionnaire, together with 12 interviews. Moran’s I and LISA were used to determine spatial clustering of rents paid by male and female students.

Findings

Results of this study reveal prevalence of unregulated with poor quality of off-campus housing in general and expensive rents in the proximity of UoA.

Research limitations/implications

Obtaining less responses from the female students was one of the important limitations.

Practical implications

A win-win strategy might be formulated with a mix of innovative solutions inclusive of public private partnerships and social economy solutions woven with need-based rental housing, rekindled as the affordable rental housing complexes after COVID-19 pandemic.

Social implications

This study is highly beneficial to improve liveability in the student housing segment.

Originality/value

This paper develops extensive understanding on the potential student housing segment in the Indian cities. Additionally, this paper demonstrates weak coordination between the central government policies, educational administrators and municipal officials.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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