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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Alan M. Saks

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement…

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Abstract

Purpose

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to try and address some issues that have arisen during the last ten years and to assess the generalizability of his findings and model using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Additional analyses was conducted using the data from Saks (2006) including measures of each job characteristic, the use of the UWES measure of work engagement, and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement. In addition, a review of engagement research was conducted as well as research that used Saks’ (2006) measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Findings

The results indicate that skill variety is the main job characteristic that predicts job engagement. The results of the analysis using the UWES measure of work engagement found that job characteristics and perceived organizational support are significant predictors of work engagement, and work engagement predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and intentions to quit and mediates the relationship between the antecedents and the consequences. Similar results were found using the single-item measures of job engagement and organization engagement. A review of the engagement literature indicates general support for the Saks (2006) model of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and for his measures of job and organization engagement. A revised and updated model is provided with additional antecedents and consequences.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations can drive employee engagement by focusing on skill variety as well as providing social support, rewards and recognition, procedural and distributive fairness, and opportunities for learning and development. In addition, organizations can assess employee engagement more frequently and easily by using single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Originality/value

This paper provides an update and revision of the Saks (2006) model of employee engagement and suggests that the main findings are similar when using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Alan M. Saks, Jamie A. Gruman and Qian Zhang

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much less attention has been given to organization engagement, which is a distinct but related target of employee engagement. In this paper, we review the research on organization engagement and identify how it has been measured, its antecedents and consequences and how it compares to job engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a narrative review of 40 studies that have measured organization engagement. Most of these studies have been published in the last five years, and they come from 20 different countries. The majority of studies also measured job or work engagement.

Findings

Most studies used Saks' (2006) measure of organization engagement. Many antecedents have been found to be related to organization engagement; however, those most often studied and consistently related to organization engagement are organizational-related resources such as perceived organizational support (POS), justice perceptions, corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizational structural factors, organizational climate and HR practices. Organization engagement has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), job performance and organizational performance and negatively related to intention to quit. Organization engagement has also been found to partially or fully mediate the relationship between antecedents and consequences. In comparison to job engagement, organization engagement scores tend to be lower, and there are meaningful differences in the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and job engagement. A number of studies found that organization engagement was more strongly related to several of the consequences than job engagement.

Practical implications

The results of this review indicate that organization engagement is as important if not more important than job engagement when it comes to its relationship to some of the consequences of employee engagement. Organizations should include a measure of organization engagement in employee surveys and focus on improving organization engagement by providing a supportive work environment, ensuring that employees have positive perceptions of justice, increasing CSR initiatives, providing a variety of human resources (HR) practices and improving organizational climate.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first comprehensive review of research on organization engagement and offers a new model of the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and compares organization engagement to job engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2018

Alan M. Saks and Jamie A. Gruman

Although work engagement has become an important topic in management, relatively little attention has been given to newcomers’ work engagement in the socialization…

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3217

Abstract

Purpose

Although work engagement has become an important topic in management, relatively little attention has been given to newcomers’ work engagement in the socialization literature. The purpose of this paper is to explain how newcomers’ work engagement can fluctuate during the first year of organizational entry and the role of organizational socialization in developing and maintaining high levels of newcomers’ work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the socialization literature indicates that uncertainty reduction theory has been the basis of research on socialization tactics and newcomer information-seeking both of which function by providing newcomers with information to reduce uncertainty. Socialization resources theory is used to develop a new pathway to newcomer socialization which focuses on providing newcomers with resources during the first year of organizational entry and socialization.

Findings

The uncertainty reduction pathway to newcomer socialization is narrow and limited because it primarily focuses on minimizing and reducing the negative effects of job demands rather than on providing newcomers with resources that are necessary to facilitate work engagement and socialization.

Practical implications

Organizations can use newcomers’ work engagement maintenance curves to map and track fluctuations in newcomers’ work engagement during the first year of organizational entry and they can conduct an audit of socialization resources to determine what resources are required to develop and maintain high levels of newcomers’ work engagement.

Originality/value

This paper describes newcomer work engagement maintenance curves and explains how socialization resources can be used to develop and maintain high levels of newcomers’ work engagement. A model of a new pathway to newcomer socialization is developed in which socialization resources, personal resources, and job demands influence newcomers’ work engagement and socialization outcomes.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Alan M. Saks and Jamie A. Gruman

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between socialization tactics and newcomer engagement and the mediating role of person‐job (PJ) and…

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7393

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between socialization tactics and newcomer engagement and the mediating role of person‐job (PJ) and person‐organization (PO) fit perceptions, emotions, and self‐efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was completed by 140 co‐op university students at the end of their work term.

Findings

Institutionalized socialization tactics were positively related to PJ and PO fit perceptions, emotions and self‐efficacy, but not newcomer engagement. Socialization tactics were indirectly related to newcomer engagement through PJ fit perceptions, emotions, and self‐efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

Socialization tactics might be too broad and general to predict newcomer engagement. Future research should measure more specific socialization practices and job resources.

Practical implications

Organizations that want to engage new hires should use social socialization tactics to create positive emotions, develop higher PJ fit perceptions, and strengthen newcomers' self‐efficacy beliefs.

Social implications

Organizations can contribute to the well being of individuals and society by designing socialization programs that will engage new hires.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine relationships between socialization tactics and newcomer engagement and to study engagement as a socialization outcome.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Simon L Albrecht, Arnold B Bakker, Jamie A Gruman, William H Macey and Alan M Saks

The purpose of this paper is to argue in support of a model that shows how four key HRM practices focused on engagement influence organizational climate, job demands and…

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34786

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue in support of a model that shows how four key HRM practices focused on engagement influence organizational climate, job demands and job resources, the psychological experiences of safety, meaningfulness and availability at work, employee engagement, and individual, group and organizational performance and competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual review focuses on the research evidence showing interrelationships between organizational context factors, job factors, individual employee psychological and motivational factors, employee outcomes, organizational outcomes and competitive advantage. The proposed model integrates frameworks that have previously run independently in the HR and engagement literatures.

Findings

The authors conclude that HRM practitioners need to move beyond the routine administration of annual engagement surveys and need to embed engagement in HRM policies and practices such personnel selection, socialization, performance management, and training and development.

Practical implications

The authors offer organizations clear guidelines for how HR practices (i.e. selection, socialization, performance management, training) can be used to facilitate and improve employee engagement and result in positive outcomes that will help organizations achieve a competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The authors provide useful new insights for researchers and management professionals wishing to embed engagement within the fabric of HRM policies and practices and employee behaviour, and organizational outcomes.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Helena D. Cooper-Thomas, Jessica Xu and Alan M. Saks

The purpose of this paper is to apply and test a theory specifying which resources are most important for employee engagement. Specifically, this paper draws on resource…

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4956

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply and test a theory specifying which resources are most important for employee engagement. Specifically, this paper draws on resource theory to outline six resources (love, status, services, information, goods, money) provided by the organization that employees will exchange for engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s main focus is theoretical, outlining how resource theory provides a more nuanced classification and understanding of the workplace antecedents of engagement. Specifically, engagement is proposed to represent love as a resource, since engagement represents the whole-hearted investment of oneself. Thus, employees will exchange engagement for employer resources that similarly denote individual warmth and caring. The resource classification is assessed using engagement data from IBM NZ (n=13,929).

Findings

The theoretical analysis identifies eight workplace resources, five of which are proposed to be exchanged for engagement: mission, vision and values; opportunities for development; supportive leadership; job resources; and teamwork. Subsequent empirical analysis of IBM NZ data identified three similar constructs, with two being stronger predictors of employee engagement: learning and development; and vision and purpose. This provides some initial support for the application of resource theory to engagement.

Practical implications

Resource theory enables the identification of specific resources that will more strongly facilitate engagement: those which demonstrate warmth and caring for the employee.

Originality/value

Resource theory adds specificity in identifying which workplace resources will be exchanged for engagement, and therefore extends existing models of engagement, and is valuable for future employee engagement research and practice.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Jamie A. Gruman and Alan M. Saks

From the start, organizational socialization has been all about learning. In fact, most definitions of organizational socialization are very explicit about this and the…

Abstract

From the start, organizational socialization has been all about learning. In fact, most definitions of organizational socialization are very explicit about this and the general notion that socialization involves learning “the ropes” of a particular organizational role (Fisher, 1986). Socialization has been described as a sense-making and learning process in which newcomers acquire a variety of types of information and knowledge to become effective members of the organization (Klein & Weaver, 2000).

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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368

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

This research paper concentrates on updating the model of employee engagement formed by Saks in 2006. Based on subsequent studies the original model remains valid, but can be expanded by adding causal factors of engagement such as transformational leadership and a shared positive mood, as well as engagement effects such as health and well-being and task performance. Assigning intrinsically varied work that draws on a number of skills is a good starting point for managers who wish to stimulate employees toward optimal performance.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Alan M. Saks

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied…

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121288

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement.

Findings

Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Originality/value

This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Abstract

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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