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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Alan M. Saks, Jamie A. Gruman and Qian Zhang

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much less attention has been given to organization engagement, which is a distinct but related target of employee engagement. In this paper, we review the research on organization engagement and identify how it has been measured, its antecedents and consequences and how it compares to job engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a narrative review of 40 studies that have measured organization engagement. Most of these studies have been published in the last five years, and they come from 20 different countries. The majority of studies also measured job or work engagement.

Findings

Most studies used Saks' (2006) measure of organization engagement. Many antecedents have been found to be related to organization engagement; however, those most often studied and consistently related to organization engagement are organizational-related resources such as perceived organizational support (POS), justice perceptions, corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizational structural factors, organizational climate and HR practices. Organization engagement has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), job performance and organizational performance and negatively related to intention to quit. Organization engagement has also been found to partially or fully mediate the relationship between antecedents and consequences. In comparison to job engagement, organization engagement scores tend to be lower, and there are meaningful differences in the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and job engagement. A number of studies found that organization engagement was more strongly related to several of the consequences than job engagement.

Practical implications

The results of this review indicate that organization engagement is as important if not more important than job engagement when it comes to its relationship to some of the consequences of employee engagement. Organizations should include a measure of organization engagement in employee surveys and focus on improving organization engagement by providing a supportive work environment, ensuring that employees have positive perceptions of justice, increasing CSR initiatives, providing a variety of human resources (HR) practices and improving organizational climate.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first comprehensive review of research on organization engagement and offers a new model of the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and compares organization engagement to job engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Alan M. Saks

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement

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3177

Abstract

Purpose

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to try and address some issues that have arisen during the last ten years and to assess the generalizability of his findings and model using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Additional analyses was conducted using the data from Saks (2006) including measures of each job characteristic, the use of the UWES measure of work engagement, and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement. In addition, a review of engagement research was conducted as well as research that used Saks’ (2006) measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Findings

The results indicate that skill variety is the main job characteristic that predicts job engagement. The results of the analysis using the UWES measure of work engagement found that job characteristics and perceived organizational support are significant predictors of work engagement, and work engagement predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and intentions to quit and mediates the relationship between the antecedents and the consequences. Similar results were found using the single-item measures of job engagement and organization engagement. A review of the engagement literature indicates general support for the Saks (2006) model of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and for his measures of job and organization engagement. A revised and updated model is provided with additional antecedents and consequences.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations can drive employee engagement by focusing on skill variety as well as providing social support, rewards and recognition, procedural and distributive fairness, and opportunities for learning and development. In addition, organizations can assess employee engagement more frequently and easily by using single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Originality/value

This paper provides an update and revision of the Saks (2006) model of employee engagement and suggests that the main findings are similar when using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Dwi Suhartanto and Anthony Brien

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of multidimensional engagement (job engagement and organization engagement) on retail stores’ performance directly and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of multidimensional engagement (job engagement and organization engagement) on retail stores’ performance directly and indirectly through job performance and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from frontline retail store employees. A variance-based structural equation modeling (PLS) is used to examine the relationships between multidimensional engagement, job performance, job satisfaction, and store performance. The bootstrap method was applied to examine the mediation role of job performance and job satisfaction.

Findings

This study supports the existence of a multi-dimension engagement consisting of job engagement and organization engagement and the relationship between these engagements. Further, this study reveals that job engagement and organization engagement are important determinants of store performance.

Practical implications

This study provides an avenue for retail store managers to increase their store performance through the development of employee engagement. To improve the store performance, this study suggests that store managers provide a challenging job and encourage employees to use their creativity in serving customers. It is also important to store managers to support employees in performing their jobs, including procedural fairness in stores.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to examine the effect of multidimensional engagement on organization performance at a business unit level (retail store).

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2007

Richard McBain

Dr Richard McBain of Henley Management College’s HR Centre of Excellence discusses the findings of research into current employee engagement practice at 10 organizations

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9540

Abstract

Dr Richard McBain of Henley Management College’s HR Centre of Excellence discusses the findings of research into current employee engagement practice at 10 organizations and puts forward a resulting model of engagement and commitment. He argues that while employee engagement is a desirable goal, it should not become an end in itself ‐ organizations need to keep it within a strategic context.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Yeunjae Lee

This study aims to examine the effects of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the two types of communicative behaviors of employees, namely, scouting and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the two types of communicative behaviors of employees, namely, scouting and advocative behaviors. Guided by social exchange theory, the study also explored the mediating role of social exchange relationships between an organization and its employees and employee engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted with 405 full-time employees in the USA across industry sectors.

Findings

Results show the following: internal CSR practices, including employment stability, working environment, skill development, workforce diversity and work–life balance, improve social exchange relationships and employee engagement; social exchange relationship mediates the positive association between internal CSR and engagement and advocative behavior; and employee engagement also mediates the association between internal CSR and the scouting and advocative behaviors of employees.

Originality/value

This study is among the first attempts to explore the effectiveness of organizations’ internal corporate social responsibility practices on employees’ informal communicative behaviors, information seeking and transmitting within and outside of their organization.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Ameer A. Basit

Political skill is a valued resource employees use to achieve success. Earlier research has mostly focused on the effect of political skill on others rather than on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Political skill is a valued resource employees use to achieve success. Earlier research has mostly focused on the effect of political skill on others rather than on the self of the politically skilled individuals. Specifically, there is disconnect between political skill and employee engagement research as both these fields have been growing in isolation. Drawing from theories of engagement and conservation of resources, this study bridges this gap in knowledge by investigating how political skill leads to job and organization engagement of politically skilled employees via impacting their self-evaluations of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and organizational identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey method, data were obtained from 188 employees who worked in three private schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.

Findings

This study found that individuals who used political skill by practicing social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking and sincerity rated themselves high in OBSE and organizational identification. As a consequence, high OBSE enhanced their job engagement, whereas high organizational identification increased their organization engagement.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first studies to present political skill as a driver of job and organization engagement. It reveals that the self-evaluations of OBSE and organizational identification mediate the political skill–engagement relations in unique manners.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Elaine Farndale, Susanne E. Beijer, Marc J.P.M. Van Veldhoven, Clare Kelliher and Veronica Hope-Hailey

To date, work engagement has been the domain of academics whilst organisation engagement has been the focus of practice. The purpose of this paper is to address the…

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2735

Abstract

Purpose

To date, work engagement has been the domain of academics whilst organisation engagement has been the focus of practice. The purpose of this paper is to address the growing divide by exploring the construct clarity and discriminant validity of work and organisation engagement simultaneously, providing insight into how these constructs relate empirically, as well as investigating the nomological network of each.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected through online surveys from 298 employees in two multinational companies. Respondents were primarily managerial and professional employees. The survey included measures of work and organisation engagement, as well as work outcomes and organisation performance.

Findings

The findings indicate that work and organisation engagement are distinct constructs, and have differential relationships with important employee outcomes (commitment, organisational citizenship behaviour, initiative, active learning, job satisfaction), and organisational performance.

Practical implications

The findings provide opportunities for practitioners to explore the potentially unique ways in which different types of engagement may add value to jobs and organisations.

Originality/value

The study takes important steps in bridging the academic/practitioner divide: the paper clearly demonstrates how the two concepts of work and organisation engagement relate to and complement each other as useful constructs for research and practice.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Reimara Valk and Sandra Hannon

The purpose of this paper is to explore engagement of flexpatriates on rotational and regular field assignments in the energy industry, theoretically grounded in the “Four…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore engagement of flexpatriates on rotational and regular field assignments in the energy industry, theoretically grounded in the “Four Fundamental Pillars of Engagement”.

Design/methodology/approach

In an exploratory case study within a global organisation in the energy industry, in a post-merger/acquisition integration stage, the authors interviewed 24 rotational and regular field assignees of seven different nationalities, residing at nine different global locations.

Findings

The results of the case study show that the following newly identified drivers within the “Four Fundamental Pillars of Engagement” are crucial for engagement of flexpatriate rotational and regular field assignees in the energy industry: information, communication and technology; training, learning and growth; support from colleagues and line managers (“capacity to engage”); job ownership/control; respect, recognition and appreciation (“reason to engage”); freedom to be creative and innovative; pride and promises; client satisfaction (“freedom to engage”); alignment between the organisation and the individual (“alignment to engage”), especially in a post-merger and acquisition (M&A) organisational context during a downturn in the oil and gas industry.

Research limitations/implications

The case study focused on rotational assignees from one particular organisation in the energy industry, which restricts the generalisability of the findings on engagement of rotational assignees to other organisations, industries and geographies.

Practical implications

Organisations in the energy industry that actively promote engagement of rotational assignees, especially during the post-M&A integration stage and economic turmoil, will strengthen their sustainable global competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is that it presents a refinement and expansion of the drivers of engagement within the “Four Fundamental Pillars of Engagement”, conceptualised in an international post-M&A organisational context during a downturn in the oil and gas industry.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Mary Welch

The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to corporate communication theory by considering the evolution of employee engagement and the role of communication in…

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29153

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to corporate communication theory by considering the evolution of employee engagement and the role of communication in enhancing employee engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Despite its importance for organisation leaders, there is considerable confusion about the meaning of employee engagement. This paper aims to provide a degree of clarity on the concept by identifying stages in its evolution and discussing its definition.

Findings

Surprisingly, corporate communication literature has not yet adequately considered the concept. This may be due to confusion concerning the concept, and to concerns about overlaps with other constructs such as commitment. This paper tackles the gap in the literature with a proposed model of the role of internal corporate communication in enhancing employee engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The article discusses linkages between engagement and communication which suggest research potential for the communication disciplines.

Practical implications

There are practical implications of the model proposed here since it encourages communicators to consider potential engagement effects of communication strategies and tactics.

Social implications

The paper encourages communicators to consider the communication needs of employees.

Originality/value

This conceptual paper provides an overview of employee engagement literature with a novel contribution identifying evolutionary waves in the development of the concept. It suggests a definition of organisation engagement as a dynamic, changeable psychological state which links employees to their organisations, manifest in organisation member role performances expressed physically, cognitively and emotionally, and influenced by organisation‐level internal communication.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Alan M. Saks

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied…

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121316

Abstract

Purpose

Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement.

Findings

Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Originality/value

This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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