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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Haifeng Xiao, Changchun Zhang and Haihong Zhu

This paper aims to systematically investigate the effect of the heat treatment process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the selective laser…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically investigate the effect of the heat treatment process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

The samples with very low porosity were fabricated with optimized processing parameters on a self-developed SLM system. The heat treatment of using the temperature of 170°C∼400°C and the holding time of 0.5∼12 h was studied, and the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloy under direct aging and annealing was investigated and obtained.

Findings

After annealing above 300°C for 1 h, the dendrite Si in the sample occurs spheroidization, and the molten pool contour becomes blurred or even disappeared completely, but low-temperature heat treatment does not change the morphology and size of grains significantly. Except for holding at 200°C for 1 h, all other heat treatment processes cause the tensile and yield strengths of SLM AlSi10Mg alloys to decrease and the elongation to increase. When the annealing temperature is higher than 200°C, the higher the temperature and the longer the holding time, the more obvious this effect is.

Originality/value

The correlation between the mechanical properties and microstructure of SLM AlSi10Mg alloy under different conditions was obtained. According to the characteristics of SLM forming, the direct aging and annealing process are mainly studied, which provided new information for the heat treatment of SLM AlSi10Mg alloy and promoted the engineering application of SLM AlSi10Mg alloy.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

K. Somasundara Vinoth, R. Subramanian, S. Dharmalingam and B. Anandavel

The purpose of this research paper is to find the optimum parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of silicon carbide particles (SiCp), under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to find the optimum parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of silicon carbide particles (SiCp), under which AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites experience minimum wear.

Design/methodology/approach

Wear rate (WR) of AlSi10Mg, AlSi10Mg/10SiC and AlSi10Mg/20SiC was measured using pin-on-disk equipment according to ASTM G99 standards. Response surface method was used to design the experiments, model and analyze the tribological behaviour. Tests were conducted as per Box–Beheken design of experiments. The wear mechanisms were observed using scanning electron microscope. Genetic algorithm was used to find the optimum parameters for minimum WR.

Findings

Wear mechanisms underwent changes with variation in applied load, sliding speed and per cent SiCp. An optimum wear condition was obtained when the process parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of SiCp, were at 4 m/s, 10 N and 20 per cent, respectively. Combined GA-RSM approach was successfully used to predict the minimum WR condition of AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites with an accuracy of 94 per cent.

Originality/value

The tribological behaviour of AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites has been investigated in detail. A statistical WR model is proposed. This paper provides an optimum condition to design the tribo contact between steel and AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2022

Gürkan Tarakçı, Hamaid Mahmood Khan, Mustafa Safa Yılmaz and Gökhan Özer

The present paper aims to systematically investigate the influence of building orientations (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°) and heat treatment processes on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to systematically investigate the influence of building orientations (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°) and heat treatment processes on the macro-/micro-structural, mechanical and electrochemical behaviors of selective laser melting (SLM) prepared AlSi10Mg alloy parts.

Design/methodology/approach

AlSi10Mg samples were produced by the SLM method using standard processing parameters at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° building angles. The effects of building orientations on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the alloy were investigated.

Findings

With the increase in the building orientation from 15° to 75°, the structural defects were found reducing. The effect of step size of inclined geometries was found to significantly influence the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the AlSi10Mg samples. Tensile strength for samples fabricated at lower angles (0°, 15°, 30°) reported a drop of approximately 11% than SLM 0° samples. Moreover, the tensile strength was found to decrease from 412.35 ± 9.568 MPa for the as-built samples to 290.48 ± 12.658 MPa, whereas the fracture strain increases from 3.32 ± 0.56% to 5.6 ± 0.6% when the as-built sample was treated with T6 treatment. This study indicates that the microstructure and mechanical properties of SLM-processed AlSi10Mg alloy can be tailored by a suitable heat treatment or building angle.

Originality/value

Microstructural and mechanical behavior of horizontal or vertically built SLM components have already been demonstrated several times. However, the influence of different building orientations, such as 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, has not been explored in-depth, particularly on corrosion and general mechanical performance. As a result, this work may be of significant relevance to academics and designers, given the varying orientation of internal component of SLM structures.

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Yue Zhou, El Mehdi Abbara, Dayue Jiang, Arad Azizi, Mark D. Poliks and Fuda Ning

This study aims to uncover the multiscale relations among geometry, surface finish, microstructure and fatigue properties of curved-surface AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover the multiscale relations among geometry, surface finish, microstructure and fatigue properties of curved-surface AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigated the high-cycle tensile and bending fatigue behaviors of PBF-built AlSi10Mg parts with curved surfaces. Besides, the surface finish, porosity and microstructure around various curvatures were characterized. Meanwhile, the stress distributions of the fatigue specimens with curved surfaces under the dynamic tensile/bending loading were analyzed via theoretical analysis and ANSYS simulation.

Findings

The results showed that the as-built specimens with the smallest curvature exhibited the best surface quality, smallest grain sizes and thinnest grain boundaries. In addition, the tensile fatigue fracture occurred around the largest curvature position of fatigue specimens, which was consistent with the simulated fatigue safety factor results. Moreover, the bending fatigue specimens with the largest curvature presented the shortest fatigue life due to the highest bending and shear stresses along the loading direction.

Originality/value

So far, most studies have focused on the fatigue behavior of as-built AlSi10Mg parts with planar structures only. The investigation on fatigue properties of as-built AlSi10Mg parts with curved surfaces remains unexplored. This study provides new insights into the characterization and quantification of the fatigue performance of PBF-built metal parts with complex geometries, the knowledge of which can promote their adoption in real industries.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Tingting Wang, Shimin Dai, Hailong Liao and Haihong Zhu

To fabricate high performance parts, this paper aims to systematically study the pores characteristics and their formation mechanisms in selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg.

Abstract

Purpose

To fabricate high performance parts, this paper aims to systematically study the pores characteristics and their formation mechanisms in selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg.

Design/methodology/approach

Cubes of 10 × 10 × 5 mm were manufactured in different laser power, scan speed and scan space. Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) were used to observe morphology of pores.

Findings

Round or irregular pores were found in SLMed AlSi10Mg parts. All the round pores have smooth inner walls and locate in the melt pool. The formation mechanisms of the round pores are contributed to the evaporation of elements in the melt pool, H2O, high laser energy input and hollow powder. Irregular pores have rough inner walls. Big scan space, unevenness of the upper surface, large layer thickness, spatter and oxide are the main reasons of generating irregular pores which outside the melt pool. Instability of keyhole leads to the irregular pores locate in the bottom of keyhole mode melt pool.

Originality/value

Relationship between pores and melt pool were studied systematically for the first time. Researches of pores characteristics and their formation mechanisms in SLMed AlSi10Mg would be a valuable reference for researchers to obtain an important insight into and control the defect in SLMed Al alloy.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2014

Manickavasagam Krishnan, Eleonora Atzeni, Riccardo Canali, Flaviana Calignano, Diego Manfredi, Elisa Paola Ambrosio and Luca Iuliano

The aim of this research is to reach a deep understanding on the effect of the process parameters of Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS) on macroscopic properties…

2140

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to reach a deep understanding on the effect of the process parameters of Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS) on macroscopic properties (hardness and density) of AlSi10Mg parts and resulting microstructure.

Design/methodology/approach

A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was applied to determine the most significant process parameter influencing macroscopic properties of AlSi10Mg parts manufactured by DMLS process. The analysis aims to define the optimum process parameters and deduce the process window that provides better macroscopic properties of AlSi10Mg parts. Optical microscopy observations are carried out to link the microstructure to macroscopic properties.

Findings

Macroscopic properties of DMLS parts are influenced by the change in process parameters. There is a close correlation between the geometry of scan tracks and macroscopic properties of AlSi10Mg parts manufactured by DMLS process.

Originality/value

The knowledge of utilizing optimized process parameters is important to fabricate DMLS parts with better mechanical properties. The present research based on applying experimental design is the first analysis for AlSi10Mg parts produced in DMLS process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2022

Di Wang, Xiongmian Wei, Jian Liu, Yunmian Xiao, Yongqiang Yang, Linqing Liu, Chaolin Tan, Xusheng Yang and Changjun Han

This paper aims to explore a structural optimization method to achieve the lightweight design of an aviation control stick part manufactured by laser powder bed fusion…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore a structural optimization method to achieve the lightweight design of an aviation control stick part manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM). The utilization of LPBF for the fabrication of the part provides great freedom to its structure optimization, further reduces its weight and improves its portability.

Design/methodology/approach

The stress distribution of the model was analyzed by finite element analysis. The material distribution path of the model was optimized through topology optimization. The structure and size of the parts were designed by applying honeycomb structures for weight reduction. The lightweight designed control stick part model was printed by LPBF using AlSi10Mg.

Findings

The weight of the control stick model was reduced by 32.64% through the optimization method using honeycomb structures with various geometries. The similar stress concentrations of the control stick model indicate that weight reduction has negligible effect on its mechanical strength. The maximum stress of the lightweight designed model under loading is 230.85 MPa, which is 61.81% larger than that of the original model. The lightweight control stick part manufactured by LPBF has good printability and service performance.

Originality/value

A structural optimization method integrating topology, shape and size optimization was proposed for a lightweight AlSi10Mg control stick printed by LPBF. The effectiveness of the optimization method, the printability of the lightweight model and the service performance of LPBF-printed AlSi10Mg control stick was verified, which provided practical references for the lightweight design of AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Recep Demirsöz, Mehmet Erdi Korkmaz, Munish Kumar Gupta, Alberto Garcia Collado and Grzegorz M. Krolczyk

The main purpose of this work is to explore the erosion wear characteristics of additively manufactured aluminium alloy. Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this work is to explore the erosion wear characteristics of additively manufactured aluminium alloy. Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing, is the process of manufacturing a part designed in a computer environment using different types of materials such as plastic, ceramic, metal or composite. Similar to other materials, aluminum alloys are also exposed to various wear types during operation. Production efficiency needs to be aware of its reactions to wearing mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, quartz sands (SiO2) assisted with oxide ceramics were used in the slurry erosion test setup and its abrasiveness on the AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy material produced by the 3D printer as selective laser melting (SLM) technology was investigated. Quartz was sieved with an average particle size of 302.5 µm, and a slurry environment containing 5, 10 and 15% quartz by weight was prepared. The experiments were carried out at the velocity of 1.88 (250 rpm), 3.76 (500 rpm) and 5.64 m/s (750 rpm) and the impact angles 15, 45 and 75°.

Findings

With these experimental studies, it has been determined that the abrasiveness of quartz sand prepared in certain particle sizes is directly related to the particle concentration and particle speed, and that the wear increases with the increase of the concentration and rotational speed. Also, the variation of weight loss and surface roughness of the alloy was investigated after different wear conditions. Surface roughness values at 750 rpm speed, 10% concentration and 75° impingement angle are 0.32 and 0.38 µm for 0 and 90° samples, respectively, with a difference of approximately 18%. Moreover, concerning a sample produced at 0°, the weight loss at 250 rpm at 10% concentration and 45° particle impact angle is 32.8 mg, while the weight loss at 500 rpm 44.4 mg, and weight loss at 750 rpm is 104 mg. Besides, the morphological structures of eroded surfaces were examined using the scanning electron microscope to understand the wear mechanisms.

Originality/value

The researchers verified that this specific coating condition increases the slurry wear resistance of the mentioned steel. There are many studies about slurry wear tests; however, there is no study in the literature about the quartz sand (SiO2) assisted slurry-erosive wear of AlSi10Mg alloy produced with AM by using SLM technology. This study is needed to fill this gap in the literature and to examine the erosive wear capability of this current material in different environments. The novelty of the study is the use of SiO2 quartz sands assisted by oxide ceramics in different concentrations for the slurry erosion test setup and the investigations on erosive wear resistance of AlSi10Mg alloy manufactured by AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Baopeng Zhang, Xuesong Han, Changpeng Chen, Wenqi Zhang, Hailong Liao and Baijin Chen

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the strut size and tilt angle on the densification behavior, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the strut size and tilt angle on the densification behavior, surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the selective laser melting AlSi10Mg lattice structure was investigated in this study. In this study, the characteristics such as the density, up-skin and down-skin roughness and dimensional accuracy of selective laser melting forming technology manufacturing (SLMed) AlSi10Mg cellular lattice structure were carried. This work reveals the effect of the strut size and tilt angle on the geometric characteristics of SLMed AlSi10Mg and is benefit for controlling the forming performance of the SLMed cellular lattice structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on AlSi10Mg powder, the influence of the tilt angle changed from 10° to 45° with an increment of 5° were investigated, the influence of the strut size was varied from 0.4 mm to 1.2 mm with an increment of 0.2 mm were investigated. The characteristics such as the density, up-skin and down-skin roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of SLM-ed AlSi10Mg cellular lattice structure was carried.

Findings

Greater than 99% relative density can be achieved for different strut size when optimal process parameters are used. In the optimized process interval, the struts with a tilt angle of 10° can still be formed well, which is higher than the design limit of the inclined angle given in the related literature. The tilt angle has a significant effect on the surface roughness of the strut. The microhardness reached to 157 ± 3 HV, and the maximum compressive strength was 58.86 MPa, with the optimal process parameters.

Originality/value

In this study, the characteristics such as the density, up-skin and down-skin roughness and dimensional accuracy of SLMed AlSi10Mg cellular lattice structure were carried. With the optimal geometric parameters, the authors tested microhardness and compressive strength of the cellular lattice structure. The results of this study provide theoretical and experimental basis for the realization of high-quality manufacturing and optimization design of aluminum alloy cellular lattice structure, which will meet more diversified industrial needs.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Mustafa Safa Yılmaz, Gökhan Özer, Zafer Çağatay Öter and Onur Ertuğrul

This paper aims to investigate the effects of various heat treatments on microstructure, hardness, porosity and corrosion properties of the parts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of various heat treatments on microstructure, hardness, porosity and corrosion properties of the parts.

Design/methodology/approach

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process, various heat treatments and their combinations were applied to the AlSi10Mg parts produced by direct laser metal sintering (DMLS).

Findings

It has been found that the HIP process, which is a post-processing process, reduces the amount of porosity in DMLS-AlSi10Mg material, thus improves corrosion resistance significantly.

Originality/value

In this study, the HIP process and subsequent T6 heat treatments were applied to AlSi10Mg parts produced by the DMLS technique. The study aims to increase the corrosion resistance of AlSi10Mg parts by reducing porosity with the HIP process and by altering the microstructure with the T6 process.

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