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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Fabian Pitter Steinmetz, Gerhard Nahler and James Christopher Wakefield

Hemp-based food products and supplements have gained popularity within recent years in Europe. Apart from the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, these products may…

Abstract

Purpose

Hemp-based food products and supplements have gained popularity within recent years in Europe. Apart from the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, these products may also contain Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which can be of concern for safety and regulatory compliance. In the European Union, the currently accepted limit for THC in hemp is 0.3%. As many hemp-based products have been withdrawn from the German market within recent months/years, this study aims to investigate the current safety limit and potential concerns based on available analytical data.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, a publicly accessible, analytical data set from the German food authority was analysed and complemented by literature data and expert opinions regarding THC in food products. Furthermore, critical exposures have been calculated based on different product types and limits.

Findings

A safety-based limit of 11.9 µg/kg/day is proposed. Importantly, the authors’ examination of hemp seed oils, one of the most common food products, showed that 4 of the 102 samples were identified as having a low-to-moderate risk for inducing impairment – confirming the general need for regulation. For hemp leaf tea and common supplements, calculated exposures to THC were not considered critical. This has been also reflected by the absence of intoxication reports in the scientific literature.

Originality/value

Whilst for most hemp-derived foods safety concerns for the general public are considered low, this may not be the case for some products, suggesting the general need for regulatory compliance. Nevertheless, a more realistic safety limit should be applied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Eduardo Tejedor Tejada, Domiciana De la Fuente Marcos, Maria Jesus Cuesta Lozano, Juana Benedí González, Jesús Moro Aguado and Jesús Miguel Tejedor Muñoz

This study aims to assess the potency and dose of Δ-9-Tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis joints. This will enable better estimates of the degree…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the potency and dose of Δ-9-Tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis joints. This will enable better estimates of the degree of exposure in a user and contribute towards a better understanding of potential harmful effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of intact joints confiscated by law enforcement on the street in the autonomous region of Castilla y León (Spain) during the years 2017–2019.

Findings

This study analysed THC, CBN and CBD in marijuana joints (N = 744). Joints contain cannabis and tobacco (N = 729), had a median net weight 0.69 g (IQR = 0.28); concentration THC median was 6.30%(IQR = 4.51) and THC median dose 42 mg (IQR = 32.75). A total of 35.5% mixed joints contained CBN – median percentage 0.61% (IQR = 0.51). CBD was detected 10.3% of mixed joints – median percentage 0.13% (IQR = 0.12) and median dose 1 mg (IQR = 0.92). CBD/THC ratio presented median value of 0.02 (IQR = 0.02). The samples analysed comprised pure cannabis joints (N = 15), with THC median 11.86% (IWR = 6.30) or median dose of 118 mg.

Originality/value

The study found high values for concentration and dose of THC and CBD in cannabis joints, warning of high exposures for the user and associated potential consequences. The results obtained contribute new perspectives on the definition of a standard cannabis unit.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2010

Anna Waldstein

Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers…

1107

Abstract

Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers whether the trend reflects an increased awareness of and desire for medical marijuana. Determining whether cannabis is a drug or a medicine depends on its objective physiological effects ‐ which may vary from one individual to another ‐ as well as how and why those effects are experienced. The medicinal and mind‐altering effects of cannabis are not easily separable for many cannabis users. The medicinal use of cannabis in Britain has waxed and waned since the early 19th century. Currently, the UK is at the cutting edge of the development of cannabis‐based pharmaceuticals, but criminalises people who choose to self‐medicate with herbal cannabis. We are living in a time of political, social and economic uncertainty, which threatens the stability of national healthcare systems. The broad‐ranging effects of cannabis on the human body and mind, combined with its relatively easy cultivation, make it a sustainable and effective alternative medicine. Research is needed, especially on the experiences of people who use cannabis to benefit, enrich and even prolong their lives.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Mary Mathre

123

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

1 – 10 of 24