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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2019

Beatriz Maturana, Anthony McInneny and Marcelo Bravo

Within Santiago, Chile's capital city, Barrio is a fundamental urban concept: an identity of place that defines a social space more than the territorial boundary of a…

Abstract

Within Santiago, Chile's capital city, Barrio is a fundamental urban concept: an identity of place that defines a social space more than the territorial boundary of a designated area. Nearly 30 years of sustained, economic growth have positioned Chile, and Santiago with 40% of the country's population, as a tourist, financial and investment centre for South America. After a general decline of the inner-city area during the time of dictatorship (1973-1990), three inner-city residential barrios are being re-defined by their social and urban heritage as part of the “coolest” city of South America. These residential barrios possess the social characteristics of an urban unit within the concept of an ethical city—autonomy, conviviality, connectivity and diversity—and, in form and use, the basis of urban cultural tourism, a living heritage of residential architecture, public space and urban culture. The spatial and economic transformation of these barrios shifts the existing dynamic between the residents' social capital and the barrios' symbolic capital to the question of whose rights and interest should prevail. Through a literature review, policy review and an analysis of morphology and land use of three barrios, this article draws lessons to assist a re-thinking of the development of this urban, social-spatial unit of Chilean cities.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Eveline Dürr, Raúl Acosta and Barbara Vodopivec

The purpose of this paper is to point to the significance of temporally charged imaginaries of neglected places and their residents in the context of slum tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to point to the significance of temporally charged imaginaries of neglected places and their residents in the context of slum tourism research. It examines the way in which tour guides draw on specific temporalities to recast the poverty and stigma of the Mexico City barrio of Tepito and thus design narratives to alter long-held imaginaries of this neighbourhood.

Design/methodology/approach

Two tours are analysed through an anthropological lens using ethnographic methods. Authors took part in the tours, registering the guides’ discourse and interventions, as well as the places and situations observed. The insights of this paper stem from the empirical evidence and reveal how diverse imaginaries are enacted through tour guiding.

Findings

Without necessarily following a single, coherent narrative, tour guides link different moments in time to simultaneously generate and contest slum tour imaginaries. The guides in this case study not only challenge existing stereotypes, but also critically engage political neglect while showcasing Tepito’s potentiality. Even so, the analysed tours seek to recast the barrio as integral to Mexico City’s history and future.

Originality/value

Until now, the importance of temporalities in the generation of imaginaries in slum tourism research has gained only little attention. The case study presented here show how alternative forms of tourism are offering unconventional readings of urban neighbourhoods. These processes, the authors argue, help not only re-imagine disadvantaged districts, such as Tepito, but also to re-think the city as a whole in terms of its past, present and future.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2018

Beau Bradley Beza and Jaime Hernández-Garcia

Placemaking is an established practice and research field. It takes on a spatial dimension created through a socio-political process where value and meaning are assigned…

Abstract

Purpose

Placemaking is an established practice and research field. It takes on a spatial dimension created through a socio-political process where value and meaning are assigned to settings. An emerging concept, sustainability citizenship relies on social actors creating sustainable urban settings by working, sometimes, “outside” formal planning; offering an evolutionary step in the creation and understanding of community realised places. The purpose of this paper is twofold: examine one of Bogotá, Colombia’s informal settlements to explore the placemaking/sustainability citizenship relationship, and use this exploration as a means to argue the appropriateness of sustainability citizenship when investigating/realising settings in Bogotá’s informal settlements.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the paper’s aim, books, journal articles and monographs related to citizen/community participation, placemaking, citizenship (in Latin America and conceptually) and sustainability citizenship were collected and critically reviewed. Identification of these documents was achieved through a literature review of the library database at Deakin University and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and the co-authors of this paper contributing to and reviewing submissions to the 2016 Routledge publication, Sustainability Citizenship. Field observation and engagement with the citizenry living in the informal settlements of Bogotá, Colombia were conducted at various times in 2013, 2014 and 2017.

Findings

Sustainability citizenship and placemaking are linked through their “process-driven” approach to realising places and use of the citizenry to enact change. In Bogotá, Colombia’s informal settlement of Caracoli, public spaces are created outside formal planning processes through alternative path dependencies and the resourcefulness of its citizens. Sustainability citizenship, rather than placemaking, can work outside formal planning and manoeuvre around established path dependencies, which offers an evolutionary step in the creation and understanding of community realised places in the global south.

Originality/value

This paper provides insight into the use of placemaking when explaining the realisation process of Bogotá, Colombia’s informal settlements. The paper’s contents also explore the placemaking/sustainability citizenship relationship, which in terms of the latter is a new citizenry dimension that can be used to provide new insight into the realisation process of public spaces in Bogotá’s informal settlements.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Jaime Hernandez‐Garcia

The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of informal settlements to a tourism strategy and to city branding. It takes the case of Medellin, Colombia, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of informal settlements to a tourism strategy and to city branding. It takes the case of Medellin, Colombia, which in recent years has developed several projects in their barrios using a policy called: “social urbanism”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a case study, that of “social urbanism” in Medellin, and the relationship with what is called slum tourism and city branding. After a brief theoretical exploration about informal settlements in Latin America, slum tourism and city branding; the paper presents the urban and social transformation of Medellin's dangerous and stigmatized barrios with the “social urbanism” policy. Then the relationship between social urbanism, informal settlements and city branding is discussed.

Findings

Medellin, perhaps without noticing or anticipating, has found a role for informal settlements in branding the city, and promoting tourism to those areas. With “social urbanism”, it is also helping to build an image of the city more authentic and distinguishable from other cities in Colombia and Latin America.

Originality/value

The paper explores two themes that are considered nearly opposite: informal settlements and city branding. It discusses how a city in Colombia might have found a way to link them together with interesting results.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

María Dolores Herrero Amo, Chandana (Chandi) Jayawardena and Salomé Laloum Gaultier

This paper aims to find answers to two research questions: What is the perception of the Moravia community on tourism in their neighbourhood? What are the conditions under…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to find answers to two research questions: What is the perception of the Moravia community on tourism in their neighbourhood? What are the conditions under which they can accept slum tourism?

Design/methodology/approach

The foundation of this paper was laid during a field trip to Medellin, Colombia, in March 2018. More than three weeks were spent in the neighbourhood of Moravia, one of Medellin’s “barrios” or slums, where a qualitative study was led. Semi-structured interviews with the local community were done around the neighbourhood.

Findings

The main finding of this research is the positive perception of slum tourism within the Moravia community. The researchers found that the locals are proud when outsiders visit to see their neighbourhood. The locals felt that, it breaks the prejudice surrounding their homes, and tourists are seen as spokespeople for the barrio. There are visible improvements made to the barrio owing to tourism. This research drew attention to the conditions under which this type of tourism can be accepted in the neighbourhood: community participation, interaction between hosts and tourists, education and respect of tourists and the visible improvements to the neighbourhood.

Originality/value

Slum tourism is an understudied topic in Colombia, especially in Medellin. By researching on the host perception on slum tourism, this paper contributes to literature on slum tourism from a new angle.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2006

Jerome Crowder

Since the early 1990s, I have conducted fieldwork in the Bolivian city of El Alto, investigating the effects of urbanization on Aymara migrants who move from the…

Abstract

Since the early 1990s, I have conducted fieldwork in the Bolivian city of El Alto, investigating the effects of urbanization on Aymara migrants who move from the countryside (campo) to the capital in search of employment, education, and a better life. El Alto is perched above La Paz, spreading out across the high plain (Altiplano) and increasing in size by nearly 10% each year. Although neighborhoods (barrios) in El Alto are often defined by geographic boundaries and population density, I argue that the concept of community is based upon trust (confianza). In El Alto, one's lineage eclipses heritage, as residents are more apt to define their “community” as those they trust rather than those who live near them or friends from the campo. For two years, I lived with Alvaro and his extended family at the periphery of El Alto, in the barrio of Huayna Potosí. Over time, he introduced me to other migrants, such as Teófilo, Pablo, and Marcelo, and their families, each of whom originated from different provinces near Lake Titicaca. In essence, migrants have similar bucolic backgrounds and skills which they implement in the city in order to survive, heightening competition for employment and suspicion between neighbors.

Details

Ethnic Landscapes in an Urban World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1321-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

One important element for effective local disaster risk management (DRM) is community participation. However, this is not automatic in Costa Rica. Moreover, communities do…

Abstract

One important element for effective local disaster risk management (DRM) is community participation. However, this is not automatic in Costa Rica. Moreover, communities do not always continue DRM activities after a project or promotional campaign by the government. Indeed, little knowledge exists regarding long-term project sustainability of local DRM activities. Based on this, the present chapter discusses whether and how communities realize long-term DRM activities, an important factor for enhancing local DRM capacity, in a sustainable manner. The study conducts semi-structured interviews in the communities in Cartago City, Costa Rica as a means of evaluation; these are communities where the local DRM project has been implemented for more than ten years.

Details

Local Disaster Risk Management in a Changing Climate: Perspective from Central America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-935-5

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Evandro Bocatto and Eloisa Perez de Toledo

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the notion of “storying collaboration” can benefit democratic participation, collaboration among different social actors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the notion of “storying collaboration” can benefit democratic participation, collaboration among different social actors, and local development.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology relies initially on a hermeneutical epistemological view which also incorporates Aristotelian analysis of speech as a deconstructive tool. Initial findings suggest a further shift in approach towards the assumptions made by critical theory. The basic methodological tool is in‐depth interviews. The level of analysis is the individual who participates in collaborative processes.

Findings

The paper shows how collaboration is unlikely to be successful in situations where certain key conditions are absent. Ultimately, what may be seen as a conversion process reveals a circular sequence of ideals, acts and outcomes in which stories about the future become realities and realities become new stories.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the creation of appropriate environments is required in order for individuals to become aware of their wishes and demands and make conscious choices. If the actors involved are aware of the rhetorical components of speech, then they can utilise them to persuade others. The storyteller must take into consideration which kind of assumptions, intentions and orientations respect individual and social notions of legitimacy and, thus, are likely to succeed.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper lies in the use of a bricolage of methodologies in order to shed light on the role of stories in the collaborative process.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

David A. Badillo

The “change of sovereignty,” the transfer of Puerto Rico to U.S. rule after Spain’s loss in the Spanish-American War of 1898, could not easily erase centuries of Spanish…

Abstract

The “change of sovereignty,” the transfer of Puerto Rico to U.S. rule after Spain’s loss in the Spanish-American War of 1898, could not easily erase centuries of Spanish misrule of its island colony. Nor could it reconstruct an economy based on monocultural agricultural crops. For centuries, ranching and subsistence farming had lured settlers from the coast. Highland towns, founded in the eighteenth century under royal auspices but increasingly isolated and removed from imperial control came to define the peasant, the jı́baro, who though generally slight in stature came to loom large as the cultural backbone of Puerto Rico. Run by ministers of the Spanish monarchy and corrupt and sometimes tyrannical military governors, the island during the 1800s ineptly staggered through sequential agricultural monocultures. Sugar crops tended by coastal workers of mixed African and European backgrounds (with slavery and peonage existing side by side) yielded prominence in mid-century to large-scale coffee plantations in the mountainous interior, attracting capital and labor from the coast as well as from the Spanish homeland. By the mid-1800s U.S. interests had begun to pull on this strategically located military outpost – first through trade and then by conquest and new guardianship.

Details

Race and Ethnicity in New York City
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-149-1

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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2012

Tsuneki Hori and Rajib Shaw

Cartago City is located in the central valley of Costa Rica. Situated at the southern foot of the Irazu volcano and characterized by rugged mountainous topography, the…

Abstract

Cartago City is located in the central valley of Costa Rica. Situated at the southern foot of the Irazu volcano and characterized by rugged mountainous topography, the city in general is exposed to multiple natural hazards including floods, volcanic eruption, and pyroclastic flows. Indeed, the city has experienced catastrophes in 1724, 1861, 1891, 1928, and 1951. The most recent one was a combination of pyroclastic flows and several floods in 1963–1964. This catastrophe caused US$3.5 million of economic damage as well as 20 deaths (ICE, 1966).

Details

Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-868-8

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