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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Wen Chunying

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery for the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research methods used in this paper study the advertisements with city image messages in 13 China Central Television (CCTV) channels that appeared between the year of 2007 to 2010 – a total of 320,653 advertisements. This paper is based on several data sets: advertisement producers, regional distribution of producers, advertisement time slots, types of advertisings, and other such categories. In addition, they have also studied city branding advertisings from international producers in terms of channel selections, program choices, and media outlet choices and so forth.

Findings

Through an analysis of quantity and total duration of city image advertisements, it can be concluded that first‐tier cities have been reducing the broadcasting of city image ads domestically yearly, and third‐tier cities are proving to be a significant power in producing city branding advertisements. Significantly, the eastern littoral region has surpassed the central and west region both in the duration and in growth rate of city branding advertisements. Moreover, between 2007 and 2010, a total of nine foreign cities have produced city branding advertisements on CCTV channels. Unlike cities in China, international cities have scattered their ads widely across different periods of one day.

Practical implications

Finally, based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this author hopes this study can offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

Originality/value

Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this study tries to offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Chung-Shing Chan and Lawal M. Marafa

This chapter explores the concept of branding in a contemporary competitive arena of places. The multi-dimensional interpretations of places offer a variety of…

Abstract

This chapter explores the concept of branding in a contemporary competitive arena of places. The multi-dimensional interpretations of places offer a variety of possibilities to better understand the true essence of destination branding. One of the common interpretations of places is through the study of their images, as destination branding requires a thorough understanding of destination image. The important foundation and relation of destination image are specified and explained. The notion of destination branding has evolved from the fields of marketing and urban studies and has become a cross-disciplinary research area. Thus, the researchers explain that destination branding as well as ‘place branding’ are dynamic concepts that are being continuously being explored in academia for the benefit of practitioners in travel and tourism. This chapter suggests that the use of brand equity is also one of the frontier areas of study in ‘place branding’ as it emphasises the need to thematise destinations (e.g. for their historical heritage, cultural value, natural attractions, etc.) and places for residence (e.g. as green cities, creative cities, smart cities, etc.).

Details

The Branding of Tourist Destinations: Theoretical and Empirical Insights
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-373-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Hui-Ju Wang

With society’s growing environmental concern, developing a green brand identity provides cities with opportunities to enhance their competitiveness. Nevertheless, few…

Abstract

Purpose

With society’s growing environmental concern, developing a green brand identity provides cities with opportunities to enhance their competitiveness. Nevertheless, few studies have explored green city branding and specifically considered the diverse perceptions of multiple stakeholders. Accordingly, this study aims to explore green city branding from the perceptions of multiple stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on associative network theory, the study uses brand concept maps and network analysis approaches to construct and analyze the content and structure of mental models among local residents and foreign tourists for a green city brand. This study further seeks empirical support for the findings via a survey, using the sample case of Yilan County in Taiwan.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that foreign tourists possess a more diverse and heterogeneous brand perception than local residents. Additionally, the study uncovers significant green city brand associations regarding their influences on the behavioral decisions of local residents and foreign tourists.

Originality/value

This research is the first attempt to advance the knowledge of green city branding by empirically exploring the green city brand perceptions of multiple stakeholders based on associative network theory. The results provide brand researchers with different analytical perspectives on the existing knowledge about city brand perceptions and offer strategic information for city managers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Magdalena Florek, Marta Herezniak and Anna Augustyn

The purpose of the study is to verify the theoretical assumptions based on literature review regarding the issue of brand effectiveness evaluation and the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to verify the theoretical assumptions based on literature review regarding the issue of brand effectiveness evaluation and the potential measurement framework, as well as to provide insights into the nature of effectiveness measurement of city brand strategies. The findings are considered important foundations for designing a place branding measurement system, which is the next step and final purpose of the author’s research project.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 12 international academic experts from eight countries (in four continents) were individually interviewed. A semi-structured individual interview was applied as a research method. Sampling was purposive and the respondents represented the fields of marketing, place branding and public management. The standardized set of 19 open-ended questions was categorized into four themes (city brand effectiveness, methodology, measurement process and indicators).

Findings

The measurement of effectiveness of city branding should be treated as a strategic endeavor; however, it is a complex issue where political, social and methodological challenges overlap. Barriers to the development of a well-functioning measurement system include: too narrow understanding of what brand is, lack of knowledge or culture of measurement, conflicting political interests, reluctance to involve internal stakeholders, insufficient funding and complexity of the brand itself. The reliable measurement system should be characterized by attributes such as simplicity and durability, stakeholder inclusion, political rationale, adjustment to the specificity of the city and the independence of the measuring body/institution.

Originality/value

Up-to-date, common standards or universal measurement frames of the place branding measurement system do not exist. No discussion can be found in the literature on how such a system should be designed and implemented. Opinions of the experts interviewed provide important insights into the components and conditions of the reliable measurement system that would meet both methodological standards and practical needs. Further studies and analyses are however necessary to eventually compose the optimal city brand measurement system.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Andrea Lucarelli

The purpose of this paper is to offer a framework for the analysis and evaluation of city brands equity that is firmly anchored to the interdisciplinary characteristics of…

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2300

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a framework for the analysis and evaluation of city brands equity that is firmly anchored to the interdisciplinary characteristics of the city branding research domain.

Design/methodology/approach

The study builds upon a database of 217 articles dealing with the phenomena of city branding retrieved from Lucarelli and Berg.

Findings

City brands are understood by different scholars as being characterized by both intangible and tangible elements, properly researched adopting a mixture of different methods and endowing certain type of outcomes that concern both the more directly related image and identity of the city as well, to a larger extent, the socio‐political and economical aspects.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based only on published English articles in the last 20 years.

Originality/value

The present paper suggests a framework that is based on the individualization of diverse city brand elements and the relations those have with the reported impact and the methodologies applied to reach this purpose. The framework can be used for both analyzing city brand equity research and practices. The paper contributes to the emerging field of city branding by offering a city brand equity framework that goes beyond the previous attempt in its interdisciplinary breath.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Mohammad Mehdi Kalantarzadeh and Mukaddes Fasli

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed…

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed and validated. The data obtained through the questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as structural equation modeling via SPSS and LISREL. The study was done in the city of Shiraz which is a famous tourist destination worldwide and has high capacities in medical tourism as well. Participants included scholars and managerial staff in the fields of medical tourism and city branding. The results confirmed that the four underlying factors of medical tourism include medical facilities and services, doctors and staff, tourism factors and costs. Furthermore, city branding was confirmed to be comprised of three underlying factors including place and facilities, opportunities, and residents and culture. Finally, according to the findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method of assessment branding in shiraz it was found that medical tourism affects directly on city branding.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Elyria Kemp, Carla Y. Childers and Kim H. Williams

The purpose of this research is to investigate how branding theories can be applied to place branding. It aims to examine how internal stakeholders, specifically a city's…

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12698

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate how branding theories can be applied to place branding. It aims to examine how internal stakeholders, specifically a city's residents, are fundamental in the brand‐building process.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model with a theoretical basis in the branding literature is developed to illuminate the antecedents of self‐brand connection and brand advocacy in the context of city branding. The model is then tested using structural equation analysis on a sample of residents from an American city that has taken a cultural/entertainment approach to its branding efforts.

Findings

Findings indicate that brand associations, including attitude toward the branding efforts of the city, perceived quality of the brand and the uniqueness of the brand, are crucial in the branding and positioning efforts of a city to its residents. When strong brand associations exist, residents may develop such a connection to the brand that it becomes reflective of their self‐concepts. When this occurs, a self‐brand connection is formed and residents may become advocates of the brand.

Practical implications

This research has special implications for places and municipalities that are in the process of developing branding strategies for their locales as well as those interested in achieving a competitive advantage with existing brand management systems.

Originality/value

This research provides further insight into the application of branding theory to places and destinations. Implications for developing effective brand management systems that appeal to local residents are enumerated.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Lino Trinchini, Natalia Andreevna Kolodii, Natalia Aleksandrovna Goncharova and Rodolfo Baggio

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of creativity and innovation as important attributes of smartness in cities/destination branding.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of creativity and innovation as important attributes of smartness in cities/destination branding.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual support to the notion of smart destination branding is provided by discussing the relationship between creativity, innovation and technology as determinants for the smartness concept applied to destination branding and marketing. This paper adopts a qualitative and logical-deductive approach. The cases of Milan (Italy) and Tomsk (Russia) are presented and compared as smart cities approach to branding within and outside Europe. The authors emphasise the importance of smart destination branding strategies based on people participation, creativity and innovation as drivers of smart urban development.

Findings

The endogenous ability of cities/destinations to embrace creativity across stakeholders is essential to smart branding strategies relying on advanced information and communication technologies. The entwined connection between smart cities/destinations creative initiatives and innovation underpins innovative branding strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is conceptual and the findings cannot be generalised to other destinations, even if a couple of examples are briefly discussed. The authors intend to provide a basis for future research concerning smart destination branding.

Originality/value

The technological, human and institutional dimensions of smart cities and smart tourism destinations have been increasingly addressed by scholars and practitioners. Despite the reference and attention to human factors is not new, there is still a lack of extensive focus on creativity as crucial driver of innovation in smart destination branding. This paper aims to fill such gap by focussing on the implications of urban smartness driven by creativity and innovation in destination branding and marketing.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Sanja Kovačić, Nemanja Milenković, Iva Slivar and Milica Rancic

The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggestion for the research framework on tourists as target groups for planning city branding strategies with reference to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggestion for the research framework on tourists as target groups for planning city branding strategies with reference to possible differences for tourists having a different country of origin. This framework was applied to analyze and compare the perception of Banja Luka city brand (Bosnia and Herzegovina) by four main target group by country of origin.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested research framework combines qualitative generation of tourist’s city brand associations and brand personality with quantitative measurements of city brand perception (scale developed following the framework of Anholts’ (2006) City Brand Index adjusted to tourists as target groups).

Findings

The developed research framework was demonstrated in the example of Banja Luka main target groups. Three dimensions of city brand which largely coincide Anholt’s (2006) dimensions were extracted: tourist attractiveness, life standard and safe and pleasant atmosphere. Differences between analyzed countries were found in city brand perception, brand associations, brand personality, but also in all other analyzed categories.

Research limitations/implications

Possible limitation of the study is the fact that results were interpreted including both those who have visited Banja Luka and those who are not personally familiar with it.

Practical implications

Practical implications of research findings are demonstrated in form of branding suggestions focused on particular target groups.

Originality/value

The study suggests a research framework on tourists as target groups in the city branding process. Also, it contributes to a very scarce research on differences in city brand perception by target groups by country of origin, but also to the literature related to Banja Luka city brand and tourism development.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Jaime Hernandez and Celia Lopez

Informal settlements are consistent areas in Latin America which exhibit distinctive urban and social dynamics. However, despite their size and impact, these settlements…

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1126

Abstract

Purpose

Informal settlements are consistent areas in Latin America which exhibit distinctive urban and social dynamics. However, despite their size and impact, these settlements have been traditionally overlooked in terms of the contribution that they make to the city and to any place branding strategy. These areas are commonly seen as having nothing more to offer than poverty and constraint. However, literature and research shows their possibilities beyond those traditional limits, and arguably they can actively contribute to branding cities in Latin America. The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the contribution that informal settlements can make to a fairer, more real and authentic branding of cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion is based on two ongoing research projects, one in urban planning and the other one in business, together with a first‐hand knowledge and engagement with informal settlements in Bogotá.

Findings

Informal settlements can contribute positively to branding cities. Trying to “hide” these areas from visitors' views is not only impossible because of their size, but also not desirable because of how they can enrich a branding strategy. However, there are also major downsides which need to be taken into consideration.

Originality/value

The value resides in the attempt to link two themes that traditionally have been nearly opposite (informal settlements and branding cities), and the elaboration on the outcome of this relationship.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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