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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil and Eman Hanye Mohamed Nasr

The study aims to analyze the development of Omani heritage legislation against the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 and WHC Operational Guidelines (WHC-OGs…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyze the development of Omani heritage legislation against the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 and WHC Operational Guidelines (WHC-OGs) to predict the possible effects of the recent developments on the management of the World Heritage Site in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses the development of the heritage protection legislation in Sultanate of Oman since 1970; it analyses the Omani Cultural Heritage Law 35/2019 against the recommendations of the UNESCO WHC as well as the requirements of the World Heritage Operational Guidelines. Moreover, the research investigates the possible effects of the recent heritage legislation developments on the management of Bahla Fort and Oasis in Oman, which is the first Omani World Heritage Site and the only site with special management regulations.

Findings

The paper outlines the effects of both the Omani Cultural Heritage Law 35/2019 and the Special Management Regulations 81/2019 on the implementation of the Bahla Management Plan. Additionally, the research establishes how the customization of heritage legislation as a special heritage management regulation facilitates the implementation of national legislation to solve specific local problems.

Originality/value

The study establishes the significance of developing comprehensive legislation to protect and manage the rich Omani cultural heritage and World Heritage Sites in alignment with the WHC and the WHC-OGs.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Ona Vileikis, Giorgia Cesaro, Mario Santana Quintero, Koenraad van Balen, Anna Paolini and Azadeh Vafadari

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application of documentation and recording techniques for World Heritage conservation using the case studies of the Petra…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application of documentation and recording techniques for World Heritage conservation using the case studies of the Petra Archeological Park (PAP) in Jordan and the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Information System (CHRIS) in Central Asia. In the PAP case study, these techniques could aid in the assessment of risks faced by World Heritage properties and threats to the integrity of the Outstanding Universal Values (OUV). With respect to the Silk Roads CHRIS case study the Geospatial Content Management System (Geo‐CMS) proposed aims to improve information management and collaboration among all stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrated surveying techniques and information management systems together with active stakeholder participation can be used as conservation and management tools. In the case of PAP, using a systematic documentation tool (MEGA‐J) to conduct site condition and risk assessment of cultural heritage and combining photographs, maps and GPS measurements within a GIS platform allows for identifying the location and intensity of risks, and the degree of vulnerability within the PAP boundaries and buffer zone. In the Silk Roads CHRIS project the Geo‐CMS brings together data from different fields, e.g. geography, geology, history, conservation, to allow for a holistic approach towards documentation, protection and management of a number of diverse sites to be combined in serial transnational World Heritage.

Findings

The study provides insight into how digital technologies can aid in heritage documentation and conservation, including stakeholder involvement and training. Moreover, by means of the two case studies it can be shown that a combination of digital technologies allows for an efficient mapping of buffer zones and risks and how a Geo‐CMS can form a common platform to manage large quantities of information of different origin and make it accessible to stakeholders in transnational projects.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the use of digital technology and the participation of stakeholders in heritage conservation and documentation when dealing with complex World Heritage properties, e.g. serial transnational and archaeological ensembles at high risk.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Rand Eppich and José Luis García Grinda

There are many threats to cultural heritage including armed conflict and natural disasters such as earthquakes, fire and flooding. It is understandable that these dramatic…

Abstract

Purpose

There are many threats to cultural heritage including armed conflict and natural disasters such as earthquakes, fire and flooding. It is understandable that these dramatic events frequently capture the world’s attention. However, a far more considerable danger is inadequate management a lack of financial resources to conduct continuous conservation and maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of the current state of financial sustainability at a limited selection set of tangible immovable cultural heritage sites and investigate why this critical aspect is deficient. Case studies have been identified where management improved, and a level of financial sustainability is achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the conservation of tangible immovable cultural heritage sites, a specific definition of financial sustainability is required, which significantly differs from the management of for-profit activities and even other non-profit cultural institutions such as museums, and takes into account the special requirements for conservation and education, additional values, site access and the wide variety of places that range from archaeological sites to single structures. The methodology began with researching the definition of financial sustainability from non-profit institutions then refining through the application it to a defined and limited selection set of World Heritage properties. World Heritage properties were selected, given the wealth of data readily available. Following this larger selection, several evaluation case studies were selected for further investigation including an analysis of the management circumstances and how greater financial sustainability was achieved. The investigation initially relied on secondary sources including academic articles, thesis, management plans, nomination dossiers, reactive monitoring mission reports, newspaper articles, periodic reporting and required State of Conservation Reports. The case study investigation relied on primary sources including observational site visits and interviews using an informal questionnaire. Findings were later verified by follow up interviews.

Findings

The research led to a definition of financial sustainability specifically for tangible cultural heritage sites that included five components, namely, management planning, revenue identification, expenditure analysis, administration and strategic planning, and, most importantly, alignment and support of cultural, educational and conservation mission. A majority of World Heritage properties in this study fall short of this definition of financial sustainability and do not sufficiently address this issue. Research revealed that there is a need for more dialogue with informed data on the financial aspects of managing tangible cultural heritage sites as most locations studied are not able to efficiently manage funds or take full advantage of possible opportunities. However, a few sites have achieved greater financial sustainability. The research describes the identified five critical circumstances in further defining financial sustainability: a conducive and open planning environment, knowledge and education, positive perceptions concerning the importance of finance, managerial autonomy and public interest. These circumstances permitted better management of existing funding and an environment for innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations during the initial study included a hesitation or unwillingness to discuss financial details, a general lack of statistics, a lack of knowledge related to finance, a prejudice against the topic and a concern over the commodification of cultural heritage. However, as the case studies identified achieved greater financial sustainability, this was less of a limitation. Additional limitations included the necessity to conduct interviews via telephone and in European languages, English, Spanish and Italian. The final limitation was that this study only focused on single tangible cultural heritage sites and excluded larger sites such as entire cities and intangible or movable cultural heritage.

Practical implications

The circumstances, which comprise the definition, identified during the research lead to a number of possibilities for improving the financial sustainability. The first is not to place emphasis on a management plan but in fostering an environment that encourages financial planning. The second circumstance is to improve the knowledge and education of finance for site managers. Third, a positive perception of finance, standard business practice and surplus generating activities must occur. Fourth, financial management must be devolved to individual sites. Finally, the public must be involved to ensure financial sustainability. There must be initiatives to frequently include the local community and encourage participation.

Social implications

Most cultural heritage sites are financially dependent upon the state, and this will likely continue, but it is improbable to expect full financial support ad infinitum. Overdependence on highly variable top-down funding leaves cultural heritage vulnerable and open to uncertainty. While it is unrealistic to expect most sites to become financially self-sufficient or that managers will suddenly become entrepreneurs, it is reasonable to expect some improvement. The goal should not be to create a business from cultural heritage but to improve financial management for greater sustainability. Financially sustainability ensures that sites are conserved and maintained for future generations.

Originality/value

The need to preserve cultural heritage is widely recognized by many different segments of society. However, the availability of financial resources to sustain conservation is often deficient or overlooked. Without taking measures for continued financial support, tangible cultural heritage is at risk as preventive maintenance is ignored and essential personnel and their skills are lost. Commodification of cultural heritage is of great concern and, when used as a means of generating income, it can compromise other values. Thus, a critical balancing act must be achieved by those who care about the historic, aesthetic and scientific values.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Lesley‐Ann Wilson and Emily Boyle

This study aims to identify the extent of intended interorganisational collaboration in the implementation of management objectives at World Heritage Sites (WHSs). These…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the extent of intended interorganisational collaboration in the implementation of management objectives at World Heritage Sites (WHSs). These sites represent a unique management challenge in terms of the number and diversity of organisations involved both in terms of ownership and in the interface between the site and the wider tourism environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on content analysis of 12 management plans. Analysis focuses on the types and frequency of organisations involved in the joint implementation of sustainable tourism objectives. Ratio analysis is used to develop a ratio of collaboration which provides a measure of the numbers of organisations involved and the level of collaborative activity across sites.

Findings

There is higher commitment towards interorganisational collaboration at complex sites, comprising a range of attractions, compared with single‐focus sites. This was unsurprising, given that complex ownership of sites necessitates collaboration. However, when data relating to site owners was eliminated to reveal a truer picture of collaboration, the findings indicated that single‐focus sites were committed to jointly implementing a higher proportion of objectives compared with complex sites organisations. A number of mechanisms are in place to facilitate collaboration, but again, these are more prominent in the management plans of complex sites. The findings indicate that interorganisational collaboration is currently underutilised in the strategic management of WHSs.

Research limitations/implications

The study is exploratory, given that this is the first time that World Heritage Sites have had published management plans. Measuring comparative activity using ratio analysis is one‐dimensional. The research is also based on intended activity over the next five years and would need to be followed up by further research based on the reality of implemented objectives.

Originality/value

The study assesses the extent of intended interorganisational collaboration in the public‐sector context of WHSs and contributes to the literature in both areas of study.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Tao Wang and Luca Zan

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the main UNESCO sites in China. The cases under study offer some insight into the complexity of the management of Chinese…

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1652

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the main UNESCO sites in China. The cases under study offer some insight into the complexity of the management of Chinese cultural organizations, as well as the problem of the presentation of China's heritage in a new global context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on field research in 2008/2009 on the Chinese sites on UNESCO's World Heritage List (WHL). While details of the research will be provided in a later stage, some interesting findings and patterns are emerging.

Findings

Building on the evidence of several case studies, a preliminary evaluation of the costs, the benefits and the negative outcomes of the listing process is presented in the second section. In a nutshell, the process appears to be increasingly expensive for local government and, despite the expectations for successful inscription onto the WHL, results in terms of increased tourism income are not always guaranteed. On the one hand, being listed raises the awareness of heritage protection among the general public but, on the other, there are also risks connected to tourism overexploitation.

Originality/value

From a methodological point of view the study points out the scarce quality of basic data regarding visitors and financial issues among Chinese World Heritage sites. This is particularly critical for sustainable development if it is considered that a World Heritage site should be accountable to the international audience. In the final section of the paper some open questions concerning sites' management models are presented.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Mavis Thokozile Macheka

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site has contributed to the sustainable development of the local people who live…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site has contributed to the sustainable development of the local people who live in its vicinity. What is critically important to underscore is the value of the site to society.

Design/methodology/approach

The relevant data were collected through questionnaires, personal interviews and site visits.

Findings

The paper reveals that cultural heritage has affected sustainable development of local communities living in its vicinity in social and cultural terms. There is promotion of Shona traditions through exhibitions and selling of curios by local people at community projects such as the Shona Village and the Great Zimbabwe Nemanwa Craft Centre. The two projects also generate revenue to the local communities. However it was established that a number of benefits from the site such as employment creation are temporary and unsustainable. The main challenge for effecting sustainable development to local communities is lack of community participation.

Originality/value

Most researchers are arguing that sustainability of cultural heritage is much more difficult compared to natural heritage but the findings reflect that cultural heritage through Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site could be an essential engine and valuable resource for sustainable development.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2019

Anna Maria Colavitti and Alessia Usai

In last year, the innovations in shipbuilding and logistics have opened the walled towns of Mediterranean port cities to cruise tourism and other culture-led regeneration…

Abstract

Purpose

In last year, the innovations in shipbuilding and logistics have opened the walled towns of Mediterranean port cities to cruise tourism and other culture-led regeneration strategies. Thus, walled towns in Mediterranean port cities have a particular development potential which questions about the opportunities and risks connected to any comprehensive regeneration strategy with a cultural and tourist purpose, especially for fortified systems whose continuity has been undermined. The paper aims to provide some guidelines for policy-makers and planners in port cities which have decided or are deciding to develop a comprehensive strategy and a knowledge framework for the walled town similar to those already adopted for fortified sites in the World Heritage List.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper investigates on the opportunities and risks connected to any comprehensive regeneration strategy with a cultural and tourist purpose for the walled towns through a comparative analysis of four Mediterranean seaport cities, selected as case studies. Cities which have developed an integrated strategy to inscribe their walled towns to the UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

Findings

On the base of the case studies’ analysis, the paper proposes a critical reflection upon the management strategies for the UNESCO’s walled towns and supports a better understating of context factors as a way to strengthen the HUL approach when applied to Mediterranean seaport cities.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on the application of the historic urban landscape approach to the walled towns of Mediterranean seaport cities. The paper is original because it provides: guidelines for policy-makers and planners in walled towns of Mediterranean seaport cities which have decided or are deciding to develop a comprehensive regeneration strategy for the city centre in line with those adopted in UNESCO’s fortified sites; a critical reflection upon the context factors which can strengthen the HUL approach when applied to Mediterranean seaport cities; criteria to update the HUL approach by UNESCO in analysing the conservation state, the managerial aspects, the participation and social aspects of walled towns.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Heike Oevermann

The purpose of this paper is to identify criteria and examples of good practice in heritage management within the specific field of UNESCO industrial heritage sites. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify criteria and examples of good practice in heritage management within the specific field of UNESCO industrial heritage sites. The paper is part of a transfer-of-knowledge project between Humboldt Universität and the Zollverein Foundation (Stiftung Zollverein), responsible for the heritage management of the UNESCO Zollverein site.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed document analysis, interviews, expert discussions and application to the field.

Findings

First, a systematization, termed the Good Practice Wheel, shows eight criteria that must be considered for good practice in heritage management. Second, indicators of good practice, discussed in the academic field, can be embedded in the suggested systematization and provide further details of how to evaluate good practice. Third, the Zollverein case shows that the systematization can be applied to practice.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a systematization to identify and discuss good practice.

Practical implications

The practical implication is to understand better how to turn the demands of UNESCO into opportunities.

Social implications

The Good Practice Wheel includes social aspects, within community engagement and the criterion of sustainability.

Originality/value

To date, this represents the only such systematic approach to identify and implement good practice in heritage management, specifically relevant for UNESCO industrial heritage sites.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Ana Pereira Roders and Ron van Oers

This article aims to introduce the special issue of the journal Facilities on “World Heritage cities management”, together with the respective articles.

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4692

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to introduce the special issue of the journal Facilities on “World Heritage cities management”, together with the respective articles.

Design/methodology/approach

This introduction addresses the topic of world Heritage cities management and its relevance to science and society. In so doing, it indirectly points to the emerging field of cultural heritage management within facilities management.

Findings

Even though the management of cultural heritage assets is nothing new for facilities managers, cultural heritage management as a field of research can be considered at a younger stage of development than other related studies, such as the discipline of architectural conservation, which originated in the nineteenth century with the advent of modernity. The application of management practices to immovable cultural heritage assets emerged as recently as the 1990s. At a time in which the role of culture and heritage in processes of sustainable development is gaining more ground, this special issue can be seen as the first of more contributions to come, which aim to enhance the conservation and management of cultural heritage assets for the benefit of present and future generations.

Originality/value

This paper aims to make a contribution to the growing field of cultural heritage management and is of use to facilities managers, scholars and consultants who have responsibilities but limited knowledge in this field.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Masanori Nagaoka

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that there was a non-Eurocentric approach being attempted at Borobudur in the 1970s and 1980s. From the case of Borobudur, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that there was a non-Eurocentric approach being attempted at Borobudur in the 1970s and 1980s. From the case of Borobudur, this research aims to provide lessons for better management practices by clarifying the development of the buffer zone concept and its potential impact on communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper will examine an empirical literature study using topographic maps, contracts between Governments of Indonesia and Japan, documents concerning the Park Project and local newspapers as well as a sequence of one-to-one and group interviews with the key persons who were involved in the Park Project including villagers at Borobudur.

Findings

The development of the Borobudur Archaeological Park began in 1979 and marks an important shift in thinking about buffer zones from a monument-centric approach to the consideration of the wider context and approaches to community participation in the context of international heritage management.

Originality/value

There has not yet been a detailed study concerning the progression of the Borobudur Park establishment and implementation of the buffer zone concept per se, and its impact on local community members. Furthermore, crucial management planning documents for the establishment of the Borobudur Archaeological Park have yet to be analysed by scholars. One of the documents is entitled the Updated Former Plans and Schematic Design for Borobudur and Prambanan National Archaeological Parks Project (Updated Plan). The Updated Plan is in principle not disclosed to the public and can only be viewed with permission of the Indonesian authorities thereby lessening opportunities for research to be undertaken on how the Japan International Cooperation Agency Master Plan was modified and the Park Project was executed in the 1970s and 1980s. The author opportunely received permission to access to the Updated Plan by the authorities on 23 November 2012, which made this study possible to pursue.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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