Advances in Global Leadership: Volume 13

Cover of Advances in Global Leadership

Table of contents

(13 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xxxiii
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Part I Empirical Findings

Abstract

As the world struggled to come to grips with the Covid-19 pandemic, over twenty scholars, practitioners, and global leaders wrote brief essays for this curated chapter on the role of global leadership in this extreme example of a global crisis. Their thoughts span helpful theoretical breakthroughs to essential, pragmatic adaptations by companies.

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This chapter investigated how pre-existing ideas (i.e., prototypes and antiprototypes) and what the eyes fixate on (i.e., eye fixations) influence followers' identification with leaders from another race. A sample of 55 Southeast Asian female participants assessed their ideal leader in terms of prototypes and antiprototype and then viewed a 27-second video of an engaging Caucasian female leader as their eye fixations were tracked. Participants evaluated the videoed leader using the Identity Leadership Inventory, in terms of four leader identities (i.e., prototypicality, advancement, entrepreneurship, and impresarioship). A series of multiregression models identified participants' age as a negative predictor for all the leader identities. At the same time, the antiprototype of masculinity, the prototypes of sensitivity and dynamism, and the duration of fixations on the right eye predicted at least one leader identity. Such findings build on aspects of intercultural communication relating to the evaluation of global leaders.

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This chapter centers on the global leadership of enterprises and their strategic business decisions as they interact with intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in constructing a supranational global governance regime to address complex global issues. As the world faces myriad issues that transcend state borders, negative externalities of globalization, such as climate change and pandemics, are straining the current system and threatening vulnerable populations. To better understand how firms address these challenges, we present a stakeholder framework involving multinational enterprises (MNEs) in a supranational context and examine their relationships with IGOs, international nongovernmental organizations, and NGOs. A typology of firm behavior is introduced to describe four strategic responses to increased pressure for corporate social responsibility that represent the extent to which firms take leadership roles. Case studies illustrate each of the four archetypes, namely the collaborator, the complier, the counteractor, and the combatant. The situational strength of global governance organizations can have an influence on which strategic response MNEs choose, and ultimately on how MNEs decide to engage in socially responsible behaviors. The interrelatedness of MNEs and global governance organizations will continue to grow as humankind grapples with complex global issues that threaten our way of life. The 4 Cs of MNE strategic responses inform how firms may choose to respond to these challenges.

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Abstract

Knowledge transfer is an important global leader (GL) competency, given their role as knowledge brokers and capacity builders. However, knowledge transfer skills and the transfer process itself have received scant attention from both global mobility and leadership scholars. Similarly, multinationals have seldom systematically collected and utilized repatriate knowledge, despite the competitive advantage it represents in a global knowledge economy. To fill this gap, an exploratory qualitative study employing critical incidents and interviews with a multi-country sample of 47 German, Japanese, and US repatriates identified variables that facilitate knowledge transfer attempts to the work unit. Our findings corroborate the proposed variables in a conceptual model of the transfer process and articulate the transfer skills that help explain their ability to transfer. Most importantly, our findings introduce an interactive transfer model that explicates the microprocess of transfer in the repatriate–work unit relationship. We conclude with implications for global leadership research and HRM practice.

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International experience (IE) has been acknowledged to be the most useful method for developing global leaders. However, not everyone benefits equally from IE. During the last two decades, our understanding of why this is the case and how global leaders learn from IE has rapidly increased. Several individual and organizational enablers facilitating global leader learning from IE have been identified in the literature, as have learning mechanisms that make such learning possible. However, the literature remains fragmented, and there is a great need to integrate the findings in the field. Therefore, the present paper systematically examines peer-reviewed studies on global leaders' learning from IE published between 1998 and 2019. The study contributes to the extant literature by identifying and integrating individual enablers, organizational enablers, and key learning mechanisms from global leaders' IE and by suggesting topics for future research.

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Part II Practitioner's Corner

Abstract

Global collaboration, or the ability to collaborate with people different from ourselves or even across species, becomes increasingly important in our interconnected world to engage constructively with and across difference. As we face more complex challenges, both locally and globally, the need for the creativity and innovation made possible by diverse perspectives is only amplified. Through five stories from our work as consultants and practitioners helping organizations to collaborate, we explore the role of global leadership in collaboration during times of crisis in various sectors. We began by asking ourselves a series of questions about global collaboration that could also serve as future research directions for scholars. We argue that new forms of leadership are required in the global context where both tasks and relationship domains are characterized by high complexity. We conclude by providing insights and recommendations for global leaders to address those complexities through collaboration and help their organizations learn from their experiences in crises and beyond.

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Hal Gregersen is one of the pioneers of the field of global leadership. Along with J. Stewart Black and Allen Morrison he created one of the early foundational competency models in the field that was published in their book, Global Explorers: The Next Generation of Leaders (1999). Since that time, Hal has studied the skills associated with innovative leadership with Clayton Christensen and Jeff Dyer. A good introduction to this research is their award-winning book, The Innovator's DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators (2011). His most recent book, Questions are the Answer: A Breakthrough Approach to Your Most Vexing Problems at Work and in Life (2018), explores the art of questioning – a skill he argues is critical to leadership productivity. We were curious about Hal's research journey from the study of global leaders to his current research focus – the power of questions – and he graciously agreed to be interviewed for this volume of Advances in Global Leadership. Hal is a Senior Lecturer in Leadership and Innovation at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Before joining MIT, he taught at INSEAD, London Business School, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, Brigham Young University, and in Finland as a Fulbright Fellow.

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In this interview, Dr. Julia Gluesing describes her career trajectory and the successful approach to teaching global leadership that evolved from her anthropology and communication background, coupled with deep knowledge of the auto industry and the engineering context. Her lessons are applicable and invaluable for anyone teaching global leadership – or engineers.

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This reflection on the trajectory of the field of Global Leadership Development identifies shifts from in-person training to virtual coaching leveraging assessment tools. Practitioners can now choose from a wide variety of assessments and learning systems, identified herein, to structure coaching over time in an online environment. Based on decades of experience, the author explains how to select an assessment and incorporate it into one's developmental approach. This chapter also clarifies how to structure coaching and effectively deliver virtual sessions. Several examples from leading companies illustrate how these best practice approaches can be built into global leadership development initiatives.

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This article provides some reflections on developing a global leadership course at a public, regional, US university. Considerations for developing such a course are provided. Specifically, issues such as level and format of the class, course philosophy, and assignments and exercises are discussed—along with suggestions, recommendations, and lessons learned. This article may be helpful for individuals who are considering developing a course or module on global leadership.

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In this concluding chapter, we discuss insights and reflections from our invited contributions on the COVID-19 pandemic and derive areas of meaningful future research to advance the global leadership domain. Specifically, we call for (1) strengthening the link of the global leadership domain with related research fields, (2) expanding our view on what are necessary global leadership competencies, (3) moving beyond individual global leadership toward a more collective and collaborative understanding of the phenomenon, (4) further enhancing the growing field of responsible global leadership, (5) examining the various competing tensions that global leaders need to balance, and (6) engaging in greater reflexivity among global leadership scholars ourselves.

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Index

Pages 283-287
Content available
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Cover of Advances in Global Leadership
DOI
10.1108/S1535-1203202013
Publication date
2020-10-19
Book series
Advances in Global Leadership
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-83909-592-4
Book series ISSN
1535-1203