Prelims

Advances in Global Leadership

ISBN: 978-1-83909-593-1, eISBN: 978-1-83909-592-4

ISSN: 1535-1203

Publication date: 19 October 2020

Citation

(2020), "Prelims", Osland, J.S., Szkudlarek, B., Mendenhall, M.E. and Reiche, B.S. (Ed.) Advances in Global Leadership (Advances in Global Leadership, Vol. 13), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xxxiii. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1535-120320200000013013

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020 Emerald Publishing Limited


Half Title Page

Advances in Global Leadership

Series Title Page

Advances in Global Leadership

Volume Editors: Joyce S. Osland, Betina Szkudlarek, Mark E. Mendenhall and B. Sebastian Reiche

Recent Volumes:

Volume 1: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, M. Jocelyne Gessner, and Val Arnold
Volume 2: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Morgan W. McCall, Jr.
Volume 3: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Peter W. Dorfman
Volume 4: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Elizabeth Weldon
Volume 5: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ying Wang, and Ming Li
Volume 6: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li, and Ying Wang
Volume 7: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ying Wang, and Ming Li
Volume 8: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 9: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 10: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 11: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Mark E Mendenhall and Ming Li
Volume 12: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Betina Szkudlarek, Mark E. Mendenhall and B. Sebastian Reiche

Editorial Board

Series Editors

Joyce S. Osland
San José State University, USA
Mark Mendenhall
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, USA
Betina Szkudlarek
University of Sydney, Australia
B. Sebastian Reiche
IESE Business School, Spain

Editorial Board

Nancy Adler
McGill University, Canada
Echo Liao
University of Sydney, Australia
Roya Ayman
Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
Thomas Maak
University of Melbourne, Australia
Joanne Barnes
Indiana Wesleyan University, USA
Susan R. Madsen
Utah Valley University, USA
Cordula Barzantny
Toulouse Business School, France
Kristiina Mäkelä
Aalto University School of Business, Finland
Schon Beechler
INSEAD, France
Martha Maznevski
Western University, Canada
Janet M. Bennett
The Intercultural Communication Institute, USA
Jeanne M. McNett
Northeastern University, USA
Iris Berdrow
Bentley University, USA
Christof Miska
Vienna University of Economics and Business Institute, Austria
Allan Bird
Pacific University, USA
Allen Morrison
Arizona State University, USA
J. Stewart Black
INSEAD, France
Faith Wambura Ngunjiri
Concordia College, USA
Nakiye Avdan Boyacigiller
Sabanci University, Turkey
Minna Paunova
Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Rachel Clapp-Smith
Purdue University Northwest, USA
Maury A. Peiperl
George Mason University, UK
Juergen Deller
Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany
Nicola M. Pless
University of South Australia Business School, Australia
Mary F. Sully De Luque
Arizona State University, USA
Juergen Deters
Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany
Margaret A. Shaffer
University of Oklahoma, USA
Charles Dhanaraj
University of Denver, USA
Ibraiz Tarique
Pace University, USA
Julia Gluesing
Wayne State University, USA
Sully Taylor
Portland State University, USA
Hal Gregersen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
David C. Thomas
University of Victoria, Canada
Ernie Gundling
Aperian Global
Vlad Vaiman
California Lutheran University, USA
Mila Lazarova
Simon Fraser University, Canada
Charles Vance
Loyola-Marymount University, USA
Yih-teen Lee
IESE, Spain
Stephen J. Zaccaro
George Mason University, USA
Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester
San Jose State University, USA
Lena Zander
Uppsala University, Sweden
Orly Levy
SOAS University of London, UK

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Title Page

Advances in Global Leadership

Volume 13

Advances in Global Leadership

Edited by

Joyce S. Osland

San Jose State University, USA

Betina Szkudlarek

University of Sydney, Australia

Mark E. Mendenhall

University of Tennessee, USA

B. Sebastian Reiche

IESE Business School, Spain

United Kingdom – North America – Japan India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2020

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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-83909-593-1 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-83909-592-4 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-83909-594-8 (Epub)

ISSN: 1535-1203 (Series)

List of Figures

Figure 1. The 4 Cs of MNE Strategic Responses to Global Governance Entities
Figure 1. Interactive Model of Repatriate Knowledge Transfer
Figure 1. Key Elements of Global Leader Learning Process from International Experience (KEGLL model)

List of Tables

Table 1. Means, Standard Deviation, and Correlations for Asian Participants (n = 58)
Table 2. Multiple Regressions for Age, Leader Identities, Implicit Leadership Prototypes and Antiprototypes, and Fixations Duration on AoI (n = 58)
Table 1. Repatriate Knowledge Transfer (RKT) Variables in Ascending Order of Relative Importance
Table 2. Components of Repatriate Transfer Skills and Representative Quotations
Table 1. Categorization of the 26 Conceptual, 6 Quantitative, 11 Qualitative, and 3 Mixed Method Studies for Method of International Experience
Table A1. Conceptual Studies on Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A2. Quantitative and Mixed Method Studies on Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A3. Qualitative Studies on Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A4. Content Analysis for Individual Enablers of Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A5. Content Analysis for Organizational Enablers of Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A6. Content Analysis for Learning Mechanisms of Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table A7. Conceptual Frameworks Explaining Learning Mechanisms of Global Leader Learning from International Experience
Table 1. Summary of Global Leadership Course Components, Outcomes, and Recommendations
Table 1. Future Global Leadership Research Directions Based on COVID-19 Essays

List of Contributors

Nancy J. Adler McGill University, Canada
Myshelle Baeriswyl Checkpoint, Switzerland
Monwong Bhadharavit MBSA Company Limited, Thailand
Allan Bird Pacific University, USA
Richard Bolden University of the West of England, UK
Nakiye A. Boyacigiller Sabanci University, Turkey/USA
Adriana Burgstaller Consultant, Switzerland
Rachel Clark Continuous Improvement Specialist, Switzerland
Lisa Cohen Consultant, USA
Dame Polly Courtice University of Cambridge, UK
Luis Alfonso Dau Northeastern University, USA
Juergen Deller Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany
Iain L. Densten University of Melbourne, Australia
Eyrún Eyþórsdóttir University of Akureyri, Iceland
Sherifa Fayez AFS Intercultural Programs, Egypt
Natalia Fey Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland
Mark Frederick Global Talent Management Consulting, USA
Norihito Furuya IGB Network (The Institute of Global Business), Japan
Alessandro Girola United Nations Alliance of Civilizations, USA
Tina Huesing New European College, Germany
Monika Imhof Consultant, Switzerland
Simone Inversini Work Psychologist, OD Consultant & Executive Coach, Wülser Inversini, Switzerland
Yih-Teen Lee IESE Business School, Spain
Orly Levy SOAS University of London, UK
Danielle Lyndgaard Confederation of Danish Industry, Denmark
Thomas Maak University of Melbourne, Australia
Fabricia Manoel AFS Intercultural Programs, Innovation and Programs, Brazil
Martha Maznevski Western University, Canada
Mark E. Mendenhall The University of Tennessee, USA
Christof Miska Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Elizabeth M. Moore Northeastern University, Massachusetts
Matthias Müller Consultant, Switzerland
Christian Mulle Walkout, nature dialogue movement, Germany
Tsedal Neeley Harvard Business School, USA
Rikke Kristine Nielsen Aalborg University, Denmark
Tina Nielsen Municipality of Winterthur, Switzerland
Takahiko Nomura Kanazawa Institute of Technology and Slow Innovation, Japan
Gary Oddou The Kozai Group, USA
Joyce S. Osland San Jose State University, USA
Berta Ottiger-Arnold University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland
Simon Papet Consultant, Ecloo Network, Paris
Nicola M. Pless University of South Australia, Australia
Sheila M. Puffer Northeastern University, USA
B. Sebastian Reiche IESE Business School, Spain
Susanne Reis Consultant, Susanne Reis & Co., Switzerland
Lisa H. Ruiz AbbVie Inc, USA
Dominik Scherrer Ecloo, Switzerland
Heini Shi New York University, Shanghai
Tim Soutphommasane University of Sydney, Australia
Günter K. Stahl Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Betina Szkudlarek University of Sydney, Australia
Sully Taylor Executive coach, Portland State University, USA
Robert “Steve” Terrell Aspire Consulting LLC, USA
Nozipho Tshabalala Akwande Communications, South Africa
Rorisang Tshabalala Chapter One Innovation, South Africa
Margarita Vaiman California Lutheran University, USA
Vlad Vaiman California Lutheran University, USA
Bert Vercamer Differencist – Consultant – Strategist, Global Consult Strategy, USA
Davina Vora State University of New York at New Paltz, USA
David Wesley Northeastern University, USA
Milda Žilinskaite Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria

About the Authors

Luis Alfonso Dau is an Associate Professor of International Business & Strategy and the Robert & Denise DiCenso Professor at Northeastern University. He is also a Dunning Visiting Fellow at the University of Reading and a Buckley Visiting Fellow at the University of Leeds. His research focuses on the effects of institutional processes and changes on the strategy and performance of emerging market firms. He examines topics revolving around regulatory reforms, business groups, family firms, global corporate social responsibility, sustainability, formal and informal entrepreneurship, and the implications of culture on international strategy. His research has won numerous awards and has appeared in top journals in the field. He is currently serving as Vice President of Administration and elected member of the Executive Board of the Academy of International Business and is a member of the editorial boards of several leading journals. See luisdau.com for detailed CV.

Jürgen Deller is Professor of Business Psychology at Leuphana University in Lüneburg. His main research interests are in sustainable human resources management, aging workforce issues, as well as in international HRM. Since 2015, he has been a Visiting Professor at the Centre for Diversity Policy Research and Practice at Oxford Brookes University. Dr. Deller's research has won awards and is published in journals, such as the International Journal of Human Resource Management, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Managerial Psychology, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, and Work, Aging and Retirement.

Iain L. Densten, PhD, has held professorships in leadership in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Malaysia. He conducts research and consults worldwide on leadership, burnout, implicit leadership, leadership identities, and eye-tracking. He is a highly qualified and established leadership educator with proven skills to enhance the student experience with strong communication, engaging curricula, and subject-matter expertise. Iain is a dedicated academic with more than 20 years of experience teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students, emerging professionals, and industry leaders in a wide range of environments, including dynamic learning centers and international programs. He is motivated and passionate about inspiring leadership and professional development. Iain is a strong communicator adept at collaborating with colleagues and leading staff to manage classrooms, programs, and departments. He is an Award-winning researcher with versatile academic skill sets leading instruction on Leadership, Positive Psychology, Security, Cross-culture Communication, and Management.

Natalia Fey is a Doctoral Researcher at Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland. Natalia conducts research on global leadership development in multinational organizations from developed and emerging economies. She is interested in deepening scholarly understanding of how developmental processes of global leaders unfold. In particular, she explores how key global leadership competencies such as cultural intelligence and global mindset of global leaders are enhanced through experiential and immersion learning approaches such as coaching and international experience. Natalia views development of global leaders as a system of complex and nonlinear multilevel processes occurring in cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains. In her research, Natalia draws on more than 15 years of professional experience in intercultural coaching, trainings, and teaching. She is the founder of the company Multicultural Lab where she tests her research ideas. She is an active member of the SIETAR, EIBA, and AOM.

Mark Frederick, PhD, is a Global Coaching and Consulting Professional with over 25 years of experience partnering with Global 500 and Fortune 1000 companies helping them identify, develop, engage, and retain global talent. Mark has coached a wide range of leaders from over 60 different countries, advancing their performance in alignment with business and strategic objectives as well as their organizational and team cultural norms. His extensive experience as a global consulting professional across multiple industries gives him in-depth exposure to a variety of organizational dynamics, particularly in complex and high change environments. Mark is certified to deliver and interpret a variety of assessment instruments useful for developing and coaching global leadership talent. His doctoral degree is in Comparative Literature with an emphasis on Cognitive Psychology and Cultural Studies.

Norihito Furuya, PhD, is Senior Representative of The Kozai Group in Japan. He is also CEO of the IGB Network Company, Ltd (Global Organization and Human Capital Development Institute). IGB Network specializes in global training and coaching for managers, global HR assessment, global HR capital solutions, HRM system and organizational development, and research and development. He has lived and worked in the United States, the Middle East, and the United Kingdom, totaling nine years of overseas working experience as an expatriate manager for Japan Airlines. He has over 30 years' experience working internationally and has extensive experience in conducting training and consultation services in the arena of global human resource management for 35 of the leading firms in Japan. Twelve years ago, he established the International Training Division of JAL Academy, a collaborative venture with JAL, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), and Thunderbird (AGISM).

Mark E. Mendenhall holds the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga. He is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and expatriate studies and is a past president of the International Division of the Academy of Management and a past recipient of the Ludwig Erhard Stiftungsprofessur endowed chair at the University of Bayreuth. He has coauthored numerous books and journal articles, the most recent book being: “Responsible Global Leadership: Dilemmas, Paradoxes, and Opportunities” (2020, Routledge). His research appears in a variety of scholarly publications, including Academy of Management Review, Journal of International Business Studies, Sloan Management Review, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Human Relations, Journal of World Business, and Journal of Business Ethics. He is also a senior partner in The Kozai Group, a consultancy that specializes in global leadership identification, assessment, and development.

Elizabeth M. Moore, PhD, is a Visiting Assistant Professor in International Business & Strategy at the D'Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University. She recently finished her PhD in Political Science. Her research and teaching interests include formal and informal entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility, institutional changes, institutional disruptions, transnational institutions, pro-market reforms, firm performance, firm resilience, emerging market firms, and international organizations. Recently, she has added on to her research stream by analyzing the connection between firms and governments in responding to natural and man-made disasters.

Gary Oddou, PhD, emeritus professor of business, has taught, researched, and consulted in the area of international human resource management for over 35 years. His research focuses on expatriate adjustment and training, repatriate reintegration and knowledge transfer, and global leadership. He has published over 50 articles and book chapters and written or coedited several scholarly books and a readings and cases text. He has been invited to speak on these topics at universities and at business conferences in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States. He has taught at the National Economics University, Vietnam; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Ecole de Management, Lyon, France; and the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Lausanne, Switzerland. He is a founding partner in The Kozai Group, a consulting firm that specializes in helping businesses, government agencies, and NGOs assess their human resources for competencies related to international and diverse workforce integration.

Joyce S. Osland, PhD, Senior Editor, earned her PhD at Case Western Reserve University. She was the Lucas Endowed Professor of Global Leadership and Executive Director/Founder of the Global Leadership Advancement Center at San Jose State University's Lucas College and Graduate School of Business until recently retiring. Dr. Osland is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international management and is a past president of the Western Academy of Management. She has received numerous awards for both teaching and scholarship and has published over 150 books, chapters, cases, and articles. She coauthored Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development, Managing Across Cultures and has coedited Advances in Global Leadership, Volumes 8–13. Dr. Osland consults with global organizations and is a visiting scholar and lecturer at various universities and is a senior partner with The Kozai Group, which identifies, assesses, and develops global leadership.

Sheila M. Puffer is University Distinguished Professor at Northeastern University, Boston, where she is a professor of international business at the D'Amore-McKim School of Business. She is also an associate at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at Harvard University. Her coauthored book, Hammer and Silicon: The Soviet Diaspora in the US Innovation Economy, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2018. Dr. Puffer has been recognized as the #1 scholar internationally in business and management in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe, according to a 2005 Journal of International Business Studies. She has more than 160 publications, including over 80 refereed articles and 14 books. She earned a diploma from the Plekhanov Institute of the National Economy in Moscow and holds BA (Slavic Studies) and MBA degrees from the University of Ottawa, Canada, and a PhD in business administration from the University of California, Berkeley.

B. Sebastian Reiche, PhD, is Professor and Department Chair of people management at IESE Business School, Spain. He received his PhD in management from the University of Melbourne, Australia. His research focuses on the forms, prerequisites, and consequences of global work, international HRM, global leadership, and knowledge transfer. He is Associate Editor of Human Resource Management Journal, coeditor of Advances in Global Leadership, and regularly blogs about global work (blog.iese.edu/expatriatus).

Betina Szkudlarek is an Associate Professor in Management at the University of Sydney Business School. Betina's core research interests lie at the intersection of cross-cultural management, international HRM, and management of diversity. Her work has been published in top-tier international journals such as Organization Studies, Human Resource Management, and Journal of Business Ethics and featured in multiple national and international media outlets. Betina has worked with numerous multinational corporations and not-for-profits on developing intercultural competence and fostering global leadership excellence. Beyond her academic commitments, Betina holds the post of a Strategic Sustainability and Growth Consultant with the United National Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC).

Davina Vora (PhD, University of South Carolina) is an Associate Professor of International Business at the State University of New York at New Paltz (SUNY New Paltz). She enjoys teaching international business and cross-cultural management courses using interactive, experiential methods. Her research interests include multiculturalism, global leadership, psychological attachment, boundary spanning, the influence of culture on individuals and groups, group diversity, and roles of international managers. Her work has appeared in several leading journals such as HBR.org, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Management International Review, and Multinational Business Review. She is also active in the Academy of Management, Academy of International Business, and ION.

David Wesley, PhD, is Research Manager at Northeastern University's D'Amore-McKim School of Business. His research encompasses a range of strategic management topics, including international strategy, cultural diversity, intellectual property, and new product development. His award-winning cases have appeared in 30 management textbooks in multiple editions. He is coauthor of a leading book on video game marketing and innovation and teaches global strategy and culture.

About the Editors

Joyce S. Osland, PhD, Senior Editor, earned her PhD at Case Western Reserve University. She was the Lucas Endowed Professor of Global Leadership and Executive Director/Founder of the Global Leadership Advancement Center at San Jose State University's Lucas College and Graduate School of Business until recently retiring. Dr. Osland is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international management and is a past president of the Western Academy of Management. She has received numerous awards for both teaching and scholarship and has published over 150 books, chapters, cases, and articles. She coauthored Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development and Managing Across Cultures and has coedited Advances in Global Leadership, Volumes 8–13. Dr. Osland consults with global organizations and is a visiting scholar and lecturer at various universities.

Betina Szkudlarek is Associate Professor in Management at The University of Sydney Business School. Betina's core research interests lie at the intersection of cross-cultural management, international HRM, international business ethics, and management of diversity. Her work has been published in top-tier international journals such as Organization Studies, Human Resource Management, and Journal of Business Ethics. Her work on developing cross-cultural competence has been published in top-tier journals and featured in international media outlets. Betina has worked with numerous corporations on developing Global Leadership excellence. Beyond her academic commitments, Betina holds the post of a Strategic, Sustainability and Growth Consultant with the United National Alliance of Civilizations, where she works with the recipients of the UNAOC and BMW Intercultural Innovation Awards.

Mark E. Mendenhall (PhD, Brigham Young University) holds the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga. He is a past holder of the Ludwig Erhard Stiftungsprofessur endowed chair at the University of Bayreuth (Germany) and has been a visiting professor at the Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria), University of Saarland (Germany), and Reykjavik University (Iceland). Dr. Mendenhall is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international human resource management and is a past president of the International Division of the Academy of Management. Dr. Mendenhall has authored numerous books and scholarly articles in the journals like the Academy of Management Review, Journal of International Business Studies, and Journal of World Business. His most recent books are Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development and Readings and Cases in International Human Resource Management. He has consulted with and conducted numerous training programs for many leading firms.

B. Sebastian Reiche, PhD, is Professor and Department Chair of people management at IESE Business School, Spain. He received his PhD in management from the University of Melbourne, Australia. His research focuses on the forms, prerequisites, and consequences of global work, international HRM, global leadership, and knowledge transfer. He is Associate Editor of Human Resource Management Journal, coeditor of Advances in Global Leadership, and regularly blogs about global work (blog.iese.edu/expatriatus).

New Advances in Global Leadership: Introduction to Volume 13

This year was unusual in many respects. Little did we expect that our call for interdisciplinary research on Global Leadership would be of such relevance in the world's continuing attempt to battle the COVID-19 pandemic. As stated in our call for papers, we were:

…especially interested in what other disciplines can contribute to better understand, conceptualize and develop global leadership . Drawing on other disciplines not only helps a field of research to mature further, but it also helps embed it within the nomological network of related domains.

Beyond theory building and conceptual advancement, we have learnt in the last months that there is a great deal of important knowledge to be drawn and absorbed from multidisciplinary fields, as global leaders address complex, interdependent, and thorny challenges. In this regard, our call for papers could not have been more timely or relevant. As the world situation evolved with respect to COVID-19, so did our thinking as to what this volume should look like. For this reason, the typical papers found in Volume 13 are enhanced by two novel contributions. The first is comprised of contemporary reflections by leading Global Leadership scholars as well as global leaders who had to boldly face the reality of managing unprecedented large-scale problems and by practitioners who help and coach global leaders. In our invitation, we asked them to distill their thinking on the global leadership challenges faced by individuals and communities, as they tackle COVID-19 situations that are novel, complex, and filled with paradox. The resulting brief essays by 25 authors are fascinating snapshots in time, since only history and research will tell which leadership lessons and examples stand the test of time. The essays contain numerous insights that should prove useful for scholars and practitioners alike. The final chapter in this book, written by the editors, is our attempt to categorize and discuss these themes for future research purposes. The second novel contribution in Volume 13 resulted from another targeted invitation, this time to a global collaboration consultant. Demonstrating his preference and talent for collaboration, this evolved into a multidisciplinary, collective writing effort by 21 thinkers and doers from around the world. After describing five success stories focusing on collaboration in crises for this volume of AGL, they extracted key lessons on global collaboration that, once again, are useful to both researchers and practitioners.

While the term “global leadership” has been defined in many ways, thereby blurring the conceptual boundaries of the distinct fields of global and comparative leadership, AGL adheres to the following narrower definition of global leadership:

The process and actions through which an individual influences a range of internal and external constituents from multiple national cultures and jurisdictions in a context characterized by significant levels of task and relationship complexity

(Reiche, Bird, Mendenhall, & Osland, 2017, p. 556).

As is our practice, Volume 13 combines traditional research papers in Part 1 with practitioner-focused research, insights, and interviews in Part II, and a conclusion that identifies future research directions. The chapters in this volume are briefly introduced below.

Part I: Conceptual and Empirical Findings

Part 1 begins with Chapter 1, the invited essays by 25 authors, entitled “Perspectives on Global Leadership and the COVID-19 Crisis.” Each essay is listed chronologically to reflect how the pandemic unfolded and influenced their thinking. The authors were given two weeks to write on the role of global leadership in the pandemic. The results range from very practical advice for working virtually, ideas and reflections on how global leaders are handling the crisis to proposed new concepts in global leadership. It is a fascinating and inspiring collection by thought leaders from all sectors.

In Chapter 2, “Identifying with Leaders from Another Race: The Impact of Pre-existing Leadership Assumptions and Eye Fixations,” Iain Densten explores the role of perceptive cues shaped by implicit leadership ideas and eye fixations in determining how followers identify with a leader from another race. The study draws on a sample of 55 Southeast Asian female participants who viewed a 27-second video of a Caucasian female leader. Specifically, Densten demonstrates that both preexisting leadership prototypes and antiprototypes, as well as eye movements, influenced how the participants answered the Identity Leadership Inventory, which measures prototypicality, advancement, entrepreneurship, and impresarioship. The study provides a compelling example of how global leaders' effectiveness may be shaped by their followers' culturally imprinted preferences. Given the increase in virtual interactions, it also points to the role of global leaders' nonverbal communication behaviors in shaping followers' evaluations of leader identities.

Chapter 3, “The 4 Cs of MNE Strategic Responses to Global Governance,” is a conceptual account by Sheila Puffer, David Wesley, Luis Alfonso Dau, and Elizabeth M. Moore. The researchers consider how MNEs address challenges to their ways of conducting business by intergovernmental organizations, international nongovernmental organizations, and nongovernmental organizations, all of which intend to shape global policy agendas. As such, Puffer and colleagues draw on global governance theory from political science, the responsible leadership literature, and the construct of situational strength to propose a typology of how firms can take strategic action. The framework distinguishes between both reactive versus proactive and combative versus collaborative orientations, leading to four distinct strategic responses: Collaborator, Complier, Counteractor, and Combatant. Importantly, the typology highlights how the situational strength of global governance organizations can impact MNEs' choice of strategic responses and the likely implications this choice involves.

In Chapter 4, “What Makes for Successful Repatriate Knowledge Transfer? Implications for Repatriate Management and Global Leadership,” Joyce Osland, Betina Szkudlarek, Gary Oddou, Norihito Furuya, and Juergen Deller investigate the knowledge transfer experience of 47 repatriates returning from their international assignments to Germany, Japan, and the United States. This exploratory qualitative study portrays knowledge transfer as an iterative, interactive process whose success depends largely on the repatriate's initiative, learning agility, transfer skills, adaptability, and capacity for influencing work unit members. Their findings highlight the role of six transfer skills that repatriates linked to effective transfer. The authors introduce an interactive model of the microprocess of repatriate knowledge transfer. In addition to contributing to theory building about the knowledge transfer process, the study's results are of special relevance to global leaders who are either direct transferors of knowledge across cultural boundaries or who facilitate the process of knowledge transfer by other organizational members.

In Chapter 5, “How Global Leaders Learn from International Experience: Reviewing and Advancing Global Leadership Development,” Natalia Fey maps and analyzes the extant literature in her dissertation research to explore why an international experience has been linked to global leadership development, dating from the field's initiation. Her database search found 42 articles that focused on international assignments, international corporate training programs, or short-term business travel that related to global leadership development. She analyzed the studies' individual and organizational enablers as well as learning mechanisms. Her integration of the results indicates exactly what and how global leaders learn and lays a clear path for researchers who want to advance this important field of study.

Part II: The Practitioners, Corner

Chapter 6 features “Global Collaboration in Crises,” a global collaboration of 25 consultants and managers from around the world who integrate their experience and wisdom on the topic of best practices in collaborative leadership in crisis contexts by first sharing minicase exemplars and then deriving “lessons learned” that global leaders can apply in their own lives. By exploring the collaborative dynamics of global/diverse teams in response to COVID-19, ecological crises, the Tohoku earthquake of 2011, the 2008 financial crisis, and Apartheid in South Africa, this large team of authors delineate practices that likely can be applied across crisis contexts and operate as “rules of thumb” for global leaders who wonder “What should I be primarily focusing on?” when a crisis erupts.

For Chapter 7, “An Interview with Hal Gregersen: The Art of Questioning in Global Leadership,” Mark Mendenhall interviewed Dr. Hal Gregersen, one of the pioneers in the field of global leadership. He was a coauthor of the seminal work, “Global Explorers: The Next Generation of Leaders” in 1999 that provided the field with one of the early competency frameworks. Since that time, he has studied innovation and the important role that questioning processes play in innovation and leadership. In their interview, they explore the role questioning plays in global leadership and the influence of curiosity in the questioning process. Dr. Gregersen provides insights on how global leaders can build a “questioning culture” in their organizations, why some global leaders are questioning-oriented and some are not, how they can enhance their capability to question more robustly, and the importance of focusing on “keystone questions” to empower one's leadership.

Chapter 8, “How Does an Anthropologist Teach Global Leadership to Engineers? An Interview with Julia Gluesing,” features a gifted teacher-scholar who has spent over 30 years working in the automotive industry as a consultant, trainer, researcher, and teacher. Dr. Gluesing was interviewed by Joyce Osland who was particularly curious about the impact of her anthropology background and her career trajectory on her teaching. Dr. Gluesing spoke about her highly successful and unique approach to teaching engineers specifically. In this master class on teaching, she also shared her techniques for teaching culture and global leadership, along with a list of helpful resources.

In Chapter 9, “Practitioner Reflections from 25 Years of Developing Global Leadership,” Dr. Mark Frederick, a highly experienced consultant, describes how the field has changed and evolved. He helped develop the global leadership services at IOR (International Orientation Resources) in the field's early days and eventually developed his own independent consulting practice. Mark explains the nuts and bolts of global leadership consulting, down to explaining how to choose the best assessment for each situation and structure virtual executive coaching sessions. He also shares best practices from global leadership development programs in leading companies. His knowledge and extensive experience are extremely useful for consultants as well as academics who teach and research global leadership development.

Chapter 10, “Reflections on Developing a Global Leadership Course,” authored by Davina Vora, explains all the considerations and details involved in setting up a global leadership course for the first time at a public, regional, US university. Although the number of global leadership courses are growing, creating the first course of its kind on a campus involves pedagogy, logistics, marketing, and sometimes politics. Dr. Vora describes the need for fit with her students and institution. She explains the philosophy behind her course design as well as course assignments. This chapter ends with suggestions, recommendations, and lessons learned. This chapter is a very helpful guide to anyone tasked with developing a new course in global leadership.

Finally, in Chapter 11, “At the Heart and Beyond: What Can Global Leadership Researchers Learn from Perspectives on the COVID-19 Pandemic?,” the editors discuss common themes and emerging areas for future research that arise from the invited essays on the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, this chapter calls for strengthening the link of the global leadership domain with related research fields, expanding the set of necessary global leadership competencies, moving toward a more collective and collaborative understanding of global leadership, further enhancing the growing field of responsible global leadership, examining the various competing tensions that global leaders need to balance, and encouraging global leadership scholars to engage in greater reflexivity.

Acknowledgements

We'd like to acknowledge the work and commitment of those who made important behind-the-scenes contributions to this volume. We are indebted to Amber Stone-Galilee, our publisher at Emerald Publishing, Ltd., and to Akilandeswari Lakshmanan and Kavya Ramu and their entire production team for all the support we have received. Anu Sairaj merits special recognition for her role in coordinating and supervising the infinite details involved in manuscript preparation. Anouk Hagen was also extremely helpful in the final preparation of the chapters.

This book would not be possible without the funding Dr. Osland receives from the Lucas Foundation and their generosity to the Global Leadership Advancement Center, housed in the School of Global Innovation & Leadership at San Jose State University. She would also like to thank Dean Dan Moshavi and Belinda Nguyen for their support.

Mark Mendenhall is grateful for the support of the Gary W. Rollins College of Business and the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga.

Edited research volumes are often a labor of love, which is certainly true for this book. And while a team of four have formally edited this volume, an army of family members and friends facilitated and inspired the process. This volume is therefore dedicated to all the individuals who continue to support us, but whose names rarely surface through the official publication process.

  • Joyce: To Asbjorn, Jessica, Joe, Michael, Anna, Katrina, Scott, and the grands: Zoe, Lucy, Jacob, Gavin, Izzy, and June.

  • Betina: To my best friends Kasia and Vera whose support, wisdom, and love is always with me.

  • Mark: To my wonderful grandchildren: Will, Amy, Tommy, James, Timothy, Ellie, and Mark.

  • Sebastian: To my family, whose strength and support has been remarkable during these taxing times.

Obituary and Memorial–Bill Mobley

Dr. William Hodges Mobley (November 15, 1941–March 25, 2020)

Dr. William Hodges Mobley, age 78, former President of Texas A&M University (1988–1993) and Former Chancellor of the Texas A&M University System (1993–1994) passed away in Austin, Texas on March 25, 2020 after an 18-month battle with cancer. He dedicated his life to nurturing talents in both the educational and business world.

During his service at Texas A&M, he was a strong proponent for diversity and for integrity in athletics. He promoted minority recruitment and expansion of international educational opportunities for students and faculty. Dr. Mobley was also instrumental in the initial planning of the George H. W. Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University.

Dr. Mobley spent the last twenty-five years developing executive talent in the United States and Asia. He founded the Global Research Consortium and the Hong Kong and Shanghai offices of Personnel Decisions International (PDI). As the founder and member of the board of directors of Mobley Group Pacific Ltd, he resided in Hong Kong and Shanghai, China, working with both academic institutions and international corporations to provide support for senior regional and national CEOs and Managing Directors in developing their plans for succession. He advised and coached executives on management and organizational skills. From 2002 to 2009, he served as Professor of Management at China Europe International Business School and became the first Professor Emeritus at CEIBS. A well-respected scholar, he published in leading journals on motivation, leadership and organizational culture. He was the founder and executive editor of the first seven volumes of the Advances in Global Leadership series.

He earned his PhD in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Maryland in 1971. He was a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), and the Association for Psychological Science (APS), and a member of the Academy of Management (AOM) and the International Association for Applied Psychology (IAAP). He was awarded honorary degrees from several universities. In 2015, he was honored with the Distinguished Psychologist in Management award by the Society of Psychologists in Management.

Because Bill played such an important role in developing the field of global leadership and produced seven volumes of Advances in Global Leadership, we invited his co-editors to participate in this memorial.

Bill Mobley was a brilliant and talented man who had a real gift for people. He was able to connect with people and point them toward a shared goal, paving the way for their success. It was his leadership philosophy. He was a visionary who could get others excited about his vision, and then participate willingly in its execution, and always with good humor and encouragement. What I remember most about Bill was shared laughter and shared ideas.

M. Jocelyne Gessner Bay, PhD (AGL, vol. 1)

Director of Organizational Effectiveness

Bay & Associates

I had the good fortune to know Bill Mobley for many years starting in graduate school at the University of Maryland. All of the graduate students immediately knew that Bill was going to be a star. He was smart, engaging, and always helpful. Years later I had the pleasure of co-editing one of his Advances in Global Leadership books. His insight into the field of global leadership helped me gain new perspectives and ways of thinking about the influence of societal culture on leadership—an endeavor that has carried me well throughout my career. In short, Bill's career included being a role model for leaders as well as a great leadership scholar.

Peter W. Dorfman (AGL, vol. 3)

Professor Emeritus

New Mexico State University

Past President of GLOBE

Bill was my manager, mentor, co-author, and friend. I was extremely fortunate to have met Bill at the start of my career and to be guided and supported by him ever since. He was the person who inspired me, like he did to many others, to step into the fascinating field of organisational psychology. Bill's incredible intellect, generosity and energy has left a deep impact on many scholars, students, and business leaders across the world. He was not only a prominent scholar in global leadership, but also a legendary example of a global leader himself.

Ying (Lena) Wang (AGL, vol. 5–8)

Senior Lecturer

RMIT University, Australia

In 2007, I started working with Bill co-editing the Advances in Global Leadership. I was very fortunate to see with my own eyes how Bill was a true global leader who inspired and nurtured the talents of all around him. His legacy will live on.

Ming (Lily) Li (AGL, vol. 5–11)

Senior Lecturer in International Human Resource Management

University of Liverpool Management School

I was honored that Bill entrusted Advances in Global Leadership to us. He did a wonderful job of seeking out and publishing authors from all over the world. Thanks to Bill and his co-editors, AGL is the publication outlet that is home to the largest number of articles related to leadership in a global context. He was truly a renaissance man.

Joyce Osland (AGL, vol. 8–13)

Senior Editor

Advances in Global Leadership

Reference

Reiche et al., 2017 Reiche, B. S. , Bird, A. , Mendenhall, M. E. , & Osland, J. S. (2017). Contextualizing leadership: A typology of global leadership roles. Journal of International Business Studies, 48, 552572.