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Scale of religiosity for Muslims: an exploratory study

Shoaib Ul-Haq (Karachi School for Business and Leadership, Karachi, Pakistan)
Irfan Butt (Faculty of Business, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada)
Zeeshan Ahmed (Karachi School of Business and Leadership, Karachi, Pakistan)
Faris Turki Al-Said (Department of Marketing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Article publication date: 16 August 2019



Islam plays a powerful symbolic and cultural role in the constitution of consumer preferences, especially in Muslim countries. To quantitatively study this role in the consumption patterns of Muslim consumers we need a suitable scale for religiosity. However, the existing scales of religiosity have been developed primarily for Christian/Jewish respondents and cannot provide valid results for Muslim consumers. This study aims to address these challenges by re-conceptualizing the religiosity construct for Muslims and conducting an exploratory study to generate an initial scale.


This paper initialized the scale development exercise with a systematic review of the existing Islamic literature to ensure that we use Islamic categories to build the scale. Once the authors had a large pool of items, they consulted experts on Shariah (Islamic law) to evaluate these items for clarity, face and content validity. Next, they conducted five focus groups to (a) determine if they had covered the full terrain of Muslim religiosity; (b) identify if the items correspond with the actual experiences of the target respondents; and (c) ensure linguistic compatibility. This was followed by administering an exploratory survey designed to test psychometric properties of the new scale and to analyze the underlying dimensionality of the inventory of items.


To extract a manageable number of latent dimensions in the survey data, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) procedure was conducted. This resulted in the extraction of five different factors which were named as Mu’amalat_societal ethics, Roshan Khayali (enlightened moderation), Ibadaat (prayers), Mu’amalat_societal laws, Azeemat (a state exhibiting scrupulous faithfulness) and Mu’amalat_business dealings. There is a divide between Ibadaat (individual and collective worship) and Muamlaat (social relations) that emerged in the data from the cluster analysis procedure.


Religion can be an important part of decision-making of a typical consumer. This paper proposes a new scale for Muslims to tap into their religiosity, as existing scales are not embedded in the Islamic literature. This study also distinguishes Muslim religiosity from its Western counterpart and thus helps in clarifying the Muslim religiosity construct.



Ul-Haq, S., Butt, I., Ahmed, Z. and Al-Said, F.T. (2019), "Scale of religiosity for Muslims: an exploratory study", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 1201-1224.



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