Index

Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research

ISBN: 978-1-78756-700-9, eISBN: 978-1-78756-699-6

Publication date: 14 December 2018

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2018), "Index", Ali, F., Rasoolimanesh, S.M. and Cobanoglu, C. (Ed.) Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78756-699-620181013

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Note: Page numbers in italics refer to figures and in bold refer to tables.

agrotourism
, 111

antecedent composite scores

earliest vs. direct
, 40, 41

prediction
, 39

attitude

on behavioral intentions
, 156, 186, 189, 215

environmental conscious
, 190, 192

AVE.
, see average variance extracted

average-case predictions
, 36, 37

average variance extracted (AVE)
, 96, 195–6, 218

Baron-Kenny approach
, 60, 74

brand loyalty
, 214–18, 222, 225, 226

Brazil

gross domestic product (GDP)
, 109, 123

restaurant industry in
, 185

rural tourism (see rural tourism)

case-wise predictions
, 36

communication consistency
, 211, 212, 215–17, 222, 225, 226

compensation on employee retention
, 132

composite reliability (CR)
, 195, 196, 218

confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)
, 22

confirmatory tetrad analysis (CTA-PLS)
, 61

consistent partial least squares (PLSc)
, 21, 22, 58

construct reliability index (CRI)
, 118

consumers

and brand loyalty
, 225

emotional bonds
, 203

environmental
, 185, 189

non-environmental
, 189

perception of brand communication
, 211

rural tourism (Brazil)
, 111, 113

control variable
, 67

convergent validity
, 96

CR.
, see composite reliability

CRI.
, see construct reliability index

customer relationship management (CRM) activities
, 215

decisional roles
, 88–92, 89, 98, 99, 101

descriptive statistics
, 66, 66–7, 77

direct antecedents (DA) approach
, 40, 41, 44, 46

earliest antecedents (EA) approach
, 40, 41, 44, 46

eco-tourism
, 111

employee retention
, 130–2

employees

performance appraisal
, 133–4

training and development
, 132–3

work environment
, 134–5

endogenous composite scores

IS indicator scores
, 39

linear regression of
, 43

OOS indicator scores
, 39

prediction
, 39

environmental awareness functions
, 189–90

environmental conscious attitude
, 190

environmental consciousness
, 185–7

as moderator of behavior
, 189–90

research method
, 191

data analysis plan
, 191, 193

implication of research
, 200–3

limitation and directions for future studies
, 203–4

measurement instrument
, 192–3, 193

measurement model assessment
, 195–8, 197

multigroup analysis
, 200, 201, 202

sample and data collection
, 191–2

sample profile
, 193, 195, 196

finite mixture PLS (FIMIX-PLS)
, 61

first-order constructs
, 67

formatively measured constructs
, 97–8, 99

formative measurement model
, 70, 71

Fornell–Lacker criterion
, 71

Gamma-Exponential method
, 2, 9–10

Gaussian copula approach
, 68

GDP.
, see gross domestic product

GoF Tenenhaus
, 72

Google Drivers Forms questionnaire tool
, 192

green consumer
, 187

green products
, 187

gross domestic product (GDP)

Brazil
, 109, 123

Malaysia
, 129

Harman’s single-factor test
, 137

Heterotrait-Monotrait (HTMT) ratio
, 21, 96, 97, 118, 138, 139, 160, 165, 197, 198, 212, 213

hierarchical component analysis
, 58–9

high-order constructs
, 67

hospitality, travel, and tourism (HTM) research

PLS-PM in
, 17–26

study between 2001 and 2018
, 18–20

hospitality research

partial least squares in
, 212–14

perceived service quality, brand loyalty, and communication in
, 214–16

research hypotheses and question
, 216–18

research method
, 217–18

data analysis and results
, 218

implications
, 225–6

measurement tool quality
, 218, 219, 220, 221, 221

model estimation and hypotheses testing
, 221–2, 222

multigroup analysis
, 222–3, 224, 225

HRM practices.
, see human resource management practices

HTMT ratio.
, see Heterotrait-Monotrait (HTMT) ratio

human resource management (HRM) practices
, 130

compensation
, 132

employees’ retention
, 130–1

performance appraisal
, 133–4

research framework

convergent validity
, 137

discriminant validity
, 137, 139

effect size assessment
, 141–3, 143

implications
, 144–5

limitations and suggestions
, 145

measurement
, 136–43, 138

participants and respondents’ profile
, 135–6, 136

predictive relevance assessment
, 143, 143

structural model
, 139–41, 140, 141, 142

variance test
, 137

social exchange theory
, 135

training and development
, 132–3

work environment
, 134–5

importance-performance map analysis (IPMA)
, 62

indicator reliability
, 95–6, 96

informational function of smartphone
, 90, 92

informational roles
, 88–94, 89, 98, 99, 101

in-sample (IS) data
, 36

vs. out-of-sample
, 41–2, 43

prediction
, 39

SmartPLS V3.2.7
, 49–50

integrated marketing communications (IMC) approach
, 211

internal consistency reliability
, 95–6, 96

International Labour Organization
, 130

interpersonal roles
, 88–91, 89, 98, 99, 101

inverse square root method
, 1, 6–9

iterative reweighted regressions segmentation method for PLS (PLS-IRRS)
, 61

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology (JHTT)
, 17, 62–3

Journal of Sustainable Tourism (2017)
, 2

k-Fold cross validation
, 42

Likert scales
, 2, 44, 116, 136, 159, 192, 217

maximum likelihood (ML) estimator
, 57

mean absolute error (MAE)
, 37, 43

mean bias
, 49

measured latent marker variable (MLMV) approach
, 68

measurement of the invariance of composite models (MICOM)
, 165, 200, 201, 214, 223

mediator
, 40, 44

metrics, predictive
, 40, 42–4

MGA.
, see multigroup analysis

MICOM.
, see measurement of the invariance of composite models (MICOM)

minimum R2 method
, 5–6, 6

minimum sample size estimation in PLS-SEM.
, see PLS-SEM

Mintzberg’s managerial role
, 86, 88–93, 89

moderation–mediation analysis
, 60

Monte Carlo simulation method
, 4–6, 11, 12

mood-relevant cues
, 155

multigroup analysis (MGA)
, 59–60, 159, 165, 171, 195

museums websites

implications

managerial
, 175–6

theoretical contributions
, 174–5

research method

data analysis process
, 159

descriptive analysis
, 160, 160–4

hypotheses testing
, 172

limitations and future research directions
, 176

measurement model assessment
, 160, 166–70

research design
, 158, 158

research instrument and experimental procedures
, 158–9

structural model and MGA
, 165, 171, 171, 172

trust as precondition of intentions
, 157

website quality
, 154–7

NEP.
, see New Ecological Paradigm

New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)
, 186, 192, 193, 200–1

NFI.
, see normed fit index

nonlinear iterative partial least squares
, 59

non-symmetrical composite-based path modeling
, 62

normed fit index (NFI)
, 58, 77, 198

Observatory for Rural Tourism (OTR) in Spain
, 112

OECD.
, see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

ordinal consistent PLS (OrdPLSc)
, 21, 58

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 109

out-of-sample (OOS) data
, 36

aggregate error metrics
, 37

indicator scores, prediction
, 39

in-sample vs.
, 41–2, 43

partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM)
, 20–1, 35, 193

additional considerations
, 74–5, 75

advances
, 54, 57–62

capabilities
, 53–4

causal research
, 22–3

composite model
, 37–40, 38

confirmatory tetrad analysis
, 61

consistent PLS
, 58

descriptive research
, 24

descriptive statistics
, 66, 66–7, 77

development
, 75–7

discussion and implications
, 25–6

exploratory research
, 24–5

formative measurement model
, 70, 71, 77

general reporting standards
, 75, 76

gestation period
, 54

hierarchical component analysis
, 58–9

in HRM
, 54

importance-performance map analysis
, 62

issues
, 63–77

logical reasoning
, 75, 77

methodology
, 62–3

moderation–mediation analysis
, 60

multigroup analysis
, 59–60

nonlinear analysis
, 59

for prediction
, 61–2

predictions from
, 38–40

predictive research
, 23–4

reasons for using
, 64–5, 65

reflective measurement metrics
, 70–1, 72

reporting standards
, 57

sampling characteristics
, 68, 69

sampling data
, 77

saturated structural  model
, 22

software
, 77

structural model metrics
, 72, 73–4, 77

study between 2010–2017
, 62, 63

study from business disciplines
, 54, 55–6

supplementary analyses
, 74–5, 75

technical reporting
, 68, 70

unobserved heterogeneity
, 61

partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
, 86, 95, 104, 116, 139, 159, 165

minimum sample size estimation in

10-times rule method
, 1, 5, 13

after data collection and analysis
, 11–12

before data collection and analysis
, 12–13

effect size
, 3

Gamma-Exponential method
, 2, 9–10

illustrative model
, 2, 2–3

inverse square root method
, 1, 6–9

minimum R2 method
, 5–6, 6

Monte Carlo simulation method
, 4

power
, 3

WarpPLS 6.0
, 2, 10, 10–11, 14

perceived attractiveness
, 155

perceived critical mass (PCM)
, 86, 88

performance appraisal, employees
, 133–4

PLS.
, see partial least squares

PLSc.
, see consistent partial least squares

PLSGraph
, 68

PLS-PM.
, see partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM)

PLSpredict algorithm
, 38, 40, 44

empirical model
, 44–51

PLS-SEM.
, see partial least squares-structural equation modeling

Prado Museum website
, 154, 171, 173

prediction-oriented segmentation (PLS-POS)
, 61

predictions

benchmarks
, 43–4

cross validation
, 42

empirical model
, 44–51

evaluating from PLS models
, 40–4

generation
, 37–40

in-sample vs. out-of-sample
, 41–2, 43

LM benchmark
, 46, 47–8

metrics
, 40, 42–4

outcome values
, 36–7

performance
, 44

PLS path modeling
, 35

proposed vs. alternative models
, 46

residuals
, 49, 49

SmartPLS V3.2.7
, 45, 46

training
, 36

predictive error
, 44

predictive validity
, 37, 49–50

R2, predictive metrics
, 43

random partitioning of data
, 38–9

really simple syndication (RSS)
, 90

reflectively measured constructs
, 95–7

reflective measurement metrics
, 70–1, 72

Reina Sofia Museum website
, 154, 171, 173

reporting standards

formative measurement model
, 70, 71

general
, 75, 76

reflective measurement metrics
, 70–1, 72

structural model metrics
, 72, 73–4, 77

technical reporting
, 68, 70

resource-management function, of smartphone
, 87, 91

RMSE.
, see root mean square error

root mean square error (RMSE)
, 37, 42–4

rural accommodation establishments
, 110

rural tourism (Brazil)
, 109, 110

and customer loyalty
, 113

economic benefits
, 111

“holiday experience”
, 112

hypothesis development
, 113–14, 115

methodological study

control variables
, 116

data analysis
, 116–17

measurement model
, 117, 117–18, 118

structural model
, 118–20, 119, 120, 120, 121

survey development
, 115–16

motivations for
, 112–13, 121

research model and purchase frequency
, 115

and rural development
, 111

sampling characteristics
, 68, 69

SEM.
, see structural equation modeling

SET.
, see social exchange theory

smart-computing functions
, 88–93, 89

smartphone dependence
, 86, 87–8

smartphones in hospitality industry

antecedents
, 87–8

computing tools
, 85–6

correlation matrix and discriminant validity
, 97

cross-sectional data collection approach

analytical method
, 95

common method bias
, 94–5

formatively measured constructs
, 97–8

hypothesis testing
, 100, 102

measurement
, 94

reflectively measured constructs
, 95–7

results
, 95

sample
, 93–4

structural model test
, 98–101

implications
, 101–2

methodology
, 104

practice
, 103–4

theory
, 102–3

limitation and future study
, 104–5

Mintzberg’s managerial role performance
, 88–93, 89

usage
, 87

SmartPLS
, 159

SmartPLS 3
, 218

SmartPLS 3.0
, 116, 218, 222

SmartPLS 3.2.7
, 193

SmartPLS 3
, 95

SmartPLS V 3.2.7
, 40, 45, 46, 49–50

SNS.
, see social networking service

Sobel test
, 60, 74

social exchange theory (SET)
, 130, 132–5, 144

social networking function
, 91

social networking service (SNS)
, 90–1

Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)
, 17

Spain

museums in
, 154

Observatory for Rural Tourism (OTR) in
, 112

SRMR.
, see standardized root mean square residual

standardized root mean square residual (SRMR)
, 21, 22, 58, 77, 198

structural equation modeling (SEM)
, 17, 116, 193

structural model metrics
, 72, 73–4, 77

superstar museum websites
, 153, 154, 175

Support for Tourism Development
, 46, 49–51, 50

technical reporting
, 68, 70

10-times rule method
, 1, 5, 13

Tetrad program
, 61

theory-driven predictions
, 37

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
, 190

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
, 190

TPB.
, see Theory of Planned Behavior

TRA.
, see Theory of Reasoned Action

trained model
, 36

training data
, 36

training model estimation
, 39

training set
, 38–9

two-stage least squares (2SLS)
, 68

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
, 2, 3

unobserved heterogeneity
, 61

variance accounted for (VAF)
, 60, 74

variance inflation factors (VIFs)
, 97, 98, 193

visual appearance
, 155

WarpPLS
, 68

WarpPLS 6.0
, 2, 10, 10–11, 14

website quality
, 154–5, 155–7

WHS.
, see World Heritage Site

Wold, Herman O. A.
, 17, 57

work environment, employees
, 134–5, 141

World Heritage Site (WHS)
, 2, 3

World Tourism Organization (WTO)
, 109

XLSTAT-PLSPM
, 68