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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2014

Sosanya Marie Jones

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight about the experience of multicultural administrators who oversee bridge program designed to recruit and retain historically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight about the experience of multicultural administrators who oversee bridge program designed to recruit and retain historically underrepresented students of color. The study was also designed to capture the experience of the multicultural administrator as well as what meaning they made of their role as a diversity leader, and the challenges they face as they try to meet diversity goals under the constraints of race neutrality.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a descriptive qualitative multi-case study. In order to gain a better understanding of the experience of multicultural administrators as they try to enact diversity leadership under race-neutral policies a qualitative phenomenological multi-case designed was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with multicultural administrators from four institutions within a southern state of the USA.

Findings

Data reveals that seeking to increase and foster diversity on predominantly white campuses under race neutrality is challenging. Many of the administrators expressed concern about how they would maintain and increase diversity and campus inclusiveness without specifically marketing and targeting to groups that are traditionally marginalized. Overall, they described the experience as one filled with heightened awareness of the social and political environment and how senior-level administrators and other offices on campus perceived them and their work.

Research limitations/implications

Using a qualitative multi-case study limits generalizability. Also, there are many other factors such as institutional type, location, student population, and institutional capacity that may impact the institutional conditions in which each of these administrators work.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can be used to inform institutional policy makers of these struggles as well as provide campus administrators and staff helpful recommendations for dealing with the politics of race neutrality as they continue to fulfill their responsibility to increase diversity on their campuses.

Social implications

This paper may raise awareness about the challenges of employing race neutrality, particularly for states and institutions concerned with diversifying higher education. It also highlights the challenges leaders face when dealing with reduced funding and policies that do not support their work.

Originality/value

The paper discusses an understudied and under-recognized group of diversity leaders dealing with a current race-neutral policies. It will be of interests to institutional leaders, multicultural administrators, and other types of diversity leaders in higher education.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Lauren S. Foley

The chapter intervenes in the debate among scholars of legal impact about the extent to which law can change society. Reformers, aims are frustrated when targets of law…

Abstract

The chapter intervenes in the debate among scholars of legal impact about the extent to which law can change society. Reformers, aims are frustrated when targets of law respond with resistance to court decisions, especially where mechanisms to enforce case law are weak (Hall, 2010; Klarman, 2006; Rosenberg, 1991). Even when law’s targets abide by a law, however, other important studies have demonstrated that organizations can leverage ambiguous language to craft policies in compliance that further their aims (Barnes & Burke, 2006; Edelman, 2016; Lipson, 2001). This chapter examines a case in which a state constitutional provision banning affirmative action was written in relatively unambiguous language and one of its targets announced its intention to comply. Through extensive interviews with University officials, this chapter examines the University of Michigan’s use of financial, technological, and political resources to follow the language of the law while still blunting its impact. These findings suggest that to understand law’s impact on society, we need to reconceive compliance and not only take the clarity of the law and its enforcement mechanisms into account but also attend to the goals, resources, and practices of the groups it targets.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-058-0

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Kyla Walters

Charter schools are an increasingly popular form of publicly funded school choice. Racially framed as a policy to narrow academic achievement and opportunity gaps, charter…

Abstract

Charter schools are an increasingly popular form of publicly funded school choice. Racially framed as a policy to narrow academic achievement and opportunity gaps, charter schools disproportionately serve Black and Latinx students. In 2016, “lifting the cap” on the number of charter schools allowed in Massachusetts became an intensely fought ballot referendum. Drawing on racial formation and resource mobilization theories, I argue that resources developed and mobilized in political campaigns or social movements have analytically relevant racial dimensions. They are “racial resources” or value-producing entities that are imbued with meaning about race categories, racial systems, and/or racial ideologies. The anti-expansion’s interracial coalition was a decisive factor in the campaign, because the coalition implemented a shared decision-making structure to develop a more robust and ideologically consistent strategy for mobilizing their racial resources. These resources include a local base of racially diverse spokespeople who brought key cultural resources – legitimacy, authenticity, and trust – to the campaign, as well as race-conscious and race-neutral message framing.

Details

Race, Organizations, and the Organizing Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-492-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

M. Christopher Brown and T. Elon Dancy

“Men make their own history,but they do not make it just as they please;they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselvesbut under circumstances directly

Abstract

“Men make their own history,

but they do not make it just as they please;

they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves

but under circumstances directly encountered,

given and transmitted from the past.”

–Karl Marx

“Men make their own history,

but they do not make it just as they please;

they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves

but under circumstances directly encountered,

given and transmitted from the past.”

Over one dozen books have been written about historically black colleges and universities over the last 15 years. However, not one of the volumes published addresses this cohort of institutions from a global dimension. Each of the books ignores the reality that there are institutions of higher education populated by persons of African descent scattered around the globe. Equally, the emergent literature is silent on issues of racial stratification; consequently, treating black colleges as homogenous monoliths. This quiesance ignores the important tension of racial oppression/white supremacy, social stratification, and the persistent hegemony of power in societies with black populations. In this commencing chapter, there are two primary explorations: (1) the particularities of race and identity in black colleges in the United States, and (2) the nexus between race and culture in black colleges outside of the United States. In order to properly contextualize this diorama, it is imperative to examine the meaning of diaspora, the realities of racial stratification, and the ways in which hegemony can be unsettled and usurped.

Details

Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2015

Samuel R. Hodge

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of…

Abstract

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of race-based stereotypic beliefs about Black male student-athletes in collegiate sports, these phenomena warrant further discourse and scrutiny. Critical race theory is a race-centered theoretical and analytical framework that has shaped discourse on race and racism in intercollegiate athletics in recent years. Discourse in this chapter is therefore grounded in the narrative of critical race theory and focuses primarily on the academic and athletic plight of Black male student-athletes matriculating at predominantly White colleges and universities with National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliation.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Cardell K. Jacobson and Darron T. Smith

In this chapter, we use the concepts of emotional labor or emotion work to examine the experiences of transracial families – white families rearing Black adoptees. We…

Abstract

In this chapter, we use the concepts of emotional labor or emotion work to examine the experiences of transracial families – white families rearing Black adoptees. We focus on the emotion work done by the parents to inculcate and develop positive racial identities for their adoptive children as their adoptees experience racial mistreatment. We also use the concept of white racial framing to examine strategies for effectively coping with racial mistreatment. African Americans have more emotion work than the members of dominant group because of their status as stigmatized minorities in American society. African Americans adopted by white families have even greater emotion work because they tend to have the extra burden of living in predominately white communities where there are fewer people of color to serve as positive role models in the socialization process.

Details

Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures and Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-028-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2014

Denise O’Neil Green, Ghazala Knight and Matthew D. Green

Obviously affirmative action has had a presence in presidential politics since the Kennedy Administration; however, the focus of this paper is not to chronicle the…

Abstract

Purpose

Obviously affirmative action has had a presence in presidential politics since the Kennedy Administration; however, the focus of this paper is not to chronicle the treatment of affirmative action policy in each presidency since the 1960s, but rather to take a different look at affirmative action from the context of contemporary times during the Obama Administration, with both Clinton and Bush Administrations as reference points.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to noting how the Clinton and Bush Administrations responded to critics of the 50 +  year old policy framework of acting affirmatively, this paper explores how the Obama Administration has advanced access by supporting race-conscious admissions and principles of the diversity rationale.

Findings

This paper also argues that the Obama Administration has acted affirmatively by establishing and/or promoting economic policies that seek to address the legacy of poverty, thereby expanding access further.

Details

The Obama Administration and Educational Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-709-2

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2016

Marguerite Anne Fillion Wilson and Denise Gray Yull

While scholars recognize that parent engagement in children’s education is beneficial, much of the normative parent involvement literature rests on the assumption that…

Abstract

While scholars recognize that parent engagement in children’s education is beneficial, much of the normative parent involvement literature rests on the assumption that marginalized parents of color must be taught white middle-class norms of conduct in order to engage with the school system. In this chapter, we describe the ways our critical ethnographic implementation and analysis of the Parent Mentor Program – a parent engagement project in a small urban school district in Central New York – re-envisions parent engagement in three interrelated ways. First, we argue that the project is race-, class-, gender-, and power-conscious, drawing on the interrelated theoretical frames of Critical Race Theory and Critical Whiteness Studies. Second, we argue that the program and research are unique in utilizing the toolkit of critical ethnography to not merely describe, but also to intervene in educational inequity. Third, we argue that the program has a more holistic goal than much of the parent engagement literature, as it seeks to connect parent engagement and activism with the larger antiracist goal of using restorative justice strategies to disrupt the disproportionate disciplining of Black students. Focusing on critical ethnographic methods in practice, we analyze the shifting positionalities of a multiracial research team as we grappled with methodological dilemmas in the first three years of the program. We document how we balanced the goals of introducing a race-conscious framework and catalyzing critical consciousness with the realities of constantly renegotiating entry in a school district characterized by colorblindness and colormuteness.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Kathrine J. Gutierrez and Preston C. Green

The Supreme Court of the USA explains when universities may use race‐based admissions policies without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the US Constitution. These…

Abstract

The Supreme Court of the USA explains when universities may use race‐based admissions policies without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the US Constitution. These rulings raise important ethical issues for universities that are presently using race as a consideration in their admissions decisions. This paper discusses some of the ethical issues presented by the Supreme Court's decisions in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Grutter v. Bollinger, and Gratz v. Bollinger cases. A summary of the Bakke, Grutter, and Gratz cases is provided as well as an analysis of these decisions using an ethical framework that incorporates five perspectives: ethic of critique, ethic of justice, ethic of profession, ethic of care, and ethic of community. The accompanying discussion highlights areas of agreement and conflict between the goals of race‐based university admissions policies and the Bakke, Gratz, and Grutter decisions.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Kristen M. Kemple, Michelle G. Harris and Il Rang Lee

When young children notice and comment about physical appearance differences often associated with race, adults may experience discomfort and uncertainty about how to…

Abstract

When young children notice and comment about physical appearance differences often associated with race, adults may experience discomfort and uncertainty about how to respond. As a result, many adults try to avoid or terminate such discussion, leaving children with unanswered questions and misunderstandings. To prepare educators to be supportive of the development of children’s positive racial identity and racial awareness, it is important for educators to examine their own attitudes, biases, and knowledge about race and racism. This chapter summarizes research on children’s racial identity and awareness, describes critical approaches to anti-racist education, and provides resources and strategies through which professionals can better understand themselves and the young children they serve.

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