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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Bilal Ahmad and Nadia Nasir

This study examines the relationship of positive career shocks and career optimism. The mediating role of career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) between positive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship of positive career shocks and career optimism. The mediating role of career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) between positive career shocks and career optimism, and the moderating role of consideration of future consequences – immediate (CFC-I) between CDSE and career optimism is checked.

Design/methodology/approach

Through cluster sampling, cross-sectional data from 192 professionals of electronic media industry were collected via an electronically administered questionnaire. For preliminary descriptive data analysis SPSS version 21 was used. SmartPLS version 3.0 was used for testing the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that positive career shocks have a relationship with career optimism via CDSE. Also, CFC-I moderated the relationship of CDSE and career optimism such that the relationship of CDSE and career optimism was stronger at higher level of CFC-I.

Practical implications

The study provides implications for the career consultants, human resource professionals and senior management of organizations. All these stakeholders can strive to build an inventory of positive career shocks. Also, shifting to a surprised business model of announcing compensations and promotions is another area to work on. The results of this study further suggest disengaging the fresh potential employees in the initial processes of recruitment. Interdepartmental coordination of health and safety department and human resource management department is also very important implication of this study to highlight the positive aspects of being optimistic.

Originality/value

The study is among the few empirical studies which investigates the relationship between positive career shocks and career optimism via CDSE. Also, in light of the latest call of various empirical works in the domain, this study adds a moderating variable i.e. CFC-I in predicting career optimism. Furthermore, contrary to the conventional approach of applying students' data on career models, this study tests the proposed career model on data collected from professionals.

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Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Mary M. Harris and Donald J. Willower

Hypotheses on principals’ optimism, teacher perceptions of that optimism, and of school effectiveness were tested. The school was the unit of analysis. Teachers and…

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Abstract

Hypotheses on principals’ optimism, teacher perceptions of that optimism, and of school effectiveness were tested. The school was the unit of analysis. Teachers and principals in 50 secondary schools responded to two standard measures. To avoid same respondent bias, about half of the teachers in each school completed one instrument, half the other. Teacher perceptions of their principal’s optimism and of their school’s effectiveness were correlated, but the principal’s self‐reported optimism was not a predictor of perceived effectiveness. The congruence of teacher perceptions of the principal’s optimism and the measured optimism was associated with perceived school effectiveness. Teachers saw the principals to be less optimistic than the principals scored; however, teacher perceptions of optimism and self‐reported optimism were correlated across schools. We suggested explanations for this unusual combination of significant difference with significant correlation, and for other findings

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Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Kristine J. Olson, Ann Hergatt Huffman and Kaylee Litson

Using social cognitive career theory in tandem with gender role theory, the current research examines how instrumental and socioemotional mentor support experiences are…

Abstract

Purpose

Using social cognitive career theory in tandem with gender role theory, the current research examines how instrumental and socioemotional mentor support experiences are linked to mentee career optimism among a sample of STEM graduate students. More specifically, this study examines how self-efficacy and school satisfaction mediate the relationship dependent on the gender of the student as well as the gender of the mentor.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of N = 828 (n = 408 women, n = 420 men) graduate students enrolled in one of 119 public STEM graduate programs in the USA participated in an online survey.

Findings

Results suggest that student gender did not moderate the proposed mediation model. However, the instrumental support experiences → self-efficacy → career optimism mediation relationship was moderated by mentor gender with female mentors strengthening the relationship between mentor support experiences and optimism. Finally, same-gender mentor–student dyads experience consistency of school satisfaction regardless of instrumental mentor support experiences compared to the heterogeneous gender mentor–student dyads where school satisfaction is positively associated with mentor instrumental support.

Originality/value

This study expands Lent et al.'s (2015) social cognitive career model by providing an analysis of independent parallel mediation paths to examine the direct link between mentor support experiences and career optimism through self-efficacy and school satisfaction. Based on the findings, graduate programs should emphasize the importance of mentor support experiences and help graduate faculty explore how they can best provide mentor experiences to their mentees.

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Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Salah Alshorman and Martin Shanahan

Previous research suggests that a CEO’s attitude can impact a firm’s performance. More particularly, there appears to be a link between the CEO’s revealed level of optimism

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research suggests that a CEO’s attitude can impact a firm’s performance. More particularly, there appears to be a link between the CEO’s revealed level of optimism and firm’s market value. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of optimism revealed by Australian CEOs in their shareholder letters and compares this with their firms’ current and future valuations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study assesses the CEO’s level of optimism using text analysis of the annual letters to shareholders in 180 Australian-based firms from 2010 to 2013. The market valuation of their companies over the same period is calculated using Tobin’s Q, and the results compared with the level of CEO optimism.

Findings

Comparing the level of revealed optimism with their firms’ valuations over four years, CEO optimism is positively correlated, both currently and prospectively with firm valuation. Given the period under study immediately followed the global financial crisis (GFC), the results suggest CEO optimism may be an important factor in adding to firm’s market resilience.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines the link between revealed CEO optimism and firm valuation over a turbulent period of the business cycle. While the sample period follows the GFC, and Tobin’s Q has some known deficiencies, the results imply that further research should be undertaken to examine the importance of CEOs tone and communicated attitudes on their firms’ financial outcomes.

Practical implications

The link between CEO optimism and the firm’s valuation suggest that shareholders and boards should pay particular attention to the values, cognitions and psychological and demographic characteristics of top executives when selecting CEOs. In particular, the results suggest that given two otherwise similar CEOs the one whose record of communication is optimistic should be preferred over a similarly qualified but less sanguine individual.

Originality/value

The paper represents the first study demonstrating the link between CEO’s communicated optimism and Australian firms’ valuations. The study uses three different measures of optimism to improve the robustness of its conclusions, and a comprehensive measure of firm value – Tobin’s Q. It is the first to quantify the association between CEO optimism and firm value shortly after a period of financial upheaval (the GFC). The findings indicate that CEO optimism contributes significantly to firm value. The study also tests whether “excessive” optimism negatively impacts firm performance and conclude there is no evidence of this in the sample period. The study suggests that more research should be done to examine the contribution of positive business attitudes to periods of economic stress.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Monika Agrawal and Ritika Mahajan

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and psychological health.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered from 356 Indian police officers using a survey questionnaire and purposive sampling technique.

Findings

The results inform that optimism mitigates family to work conflict (FWC) and fosters work to family enrichment (WFE), family to work enrichment (FEW), and psychological health in the police. The results further suggest optimism influences psychological health via WFE (partial mediation). However, FWC and FEW do not influence mental health.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a specific culture and context (Rajasthan police), so results cannot be generalized. The study discusses the practical implications for police practitioners.

Originality/value

The study adds to work-family literature by considering personal differences that have received less space in work-family models. To the best of authors' knowledge, none of the previous studies have considered optimism, the work-family interface and psychological health in the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Lei Mee Thien, Donnie Adams and Hai Ming Koh

This study aims to investigate the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher academic optimism and teacher organisational commitment with the contextual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher academic optimism and teacher organisational commitment with the contextual influence of gender and teaching experience.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed partial least squares structural equation modelling for data analysis. This study has selected 421 teachers from 18 secondary schools in Penang.

Findings

Distributed leadership has a positive direct effect on teacher academic optimism and organisational commitment. The relationship between distributed leadership and teacher academic optimism was stronger for male teachers and senior teachers who have more than ten years of teaching experience. However, gender and teaching experience have no significant moderating effects on the relationship between distributed leadership and teacher organisational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The reason for the non-existent relationship between distributed leadership and teacher organisational commitment across gender and teaching experience remains unknown. In-depth investigation using interview method is required for further exploration.

Practical implications

This study complements and extends prior research on the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher organisational commitment and teacher academic optimism by providing evidence from Malaysia on how they contribute to the organisational conditions of their school.

Originality/value

This study has its originality in investigating the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher organisational commitment and academic optimism with the contextual influence of gender and teaching experience in the non-western society.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Ly Thi Hai Tran, Thoa Thi Kim Tu and Thao Thi Phuong Hoang

This paper examines the effects of managerial optimism on corporate cash holdings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effects of managerial optimism on corporate cash holdings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a novel measure of managerial optimism based on the linguistic tone of annual reports by applying a Naïve Bayesian Machine Learning algorithm to non-numeric parts of Vietnamese listed firms' reports from 2010 to 2016. The paper employs firm and year fixed effects model and also uses the generalized method of moments estimation as robustness checks.

Findings

The authors find that the cash holding of firms managed by optimistic managers is higher than the cash holdings of firms managed by non-optimistic managers. Managerial optimism also influences corporate cash holdings through internal cash flows and the current year’s capital expenditures. Although the authors find no evidence that optimistic managers hold more cash to finance future growth opportunities in general, optimistic managers hold more cash for near future investment opportunities than non-optimistic managers do.

Research limitations/implications

The novel measure proposed in this study is expected to provide great potential for future finance studies investigating the relation between managerial traits and corporate policies since it is applicable for any levels of financial market development. In addition, the findings highlight the important role, both direct and indirect, of managerial optimism on cash holdings. Related future research should take this psychological trait into account to gain a better understanding of corporate cash holding.

Originality/value

This paper helps to extend the literature on managerial optimism measurement by introducing a new measure of managerial optimism based on the linguistic tone of annual reports. Furthermore, this is among the first studies directly linking annual report linguistic tone to cash holding. The paper also provides new evidence regarding how managerial optimism affects the relationship between the firm's growth opportunities and cash holding, given that mispricing corrections are naturally uncertain.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Christie Hough, Cameron Sumlin and Kenneth Wilburn Green

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the combined impact of the ethical environment, organizational trust and workplace optimism on individual performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the combined impact of the ethical environment, organizational trust and workplace optimism on individual performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural model is theorized and data from 250 individuals working for private organizations were analyzed using partial-least-squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

Both the ethical environment and organizational trust positively impact workplace optimism. Of the ethical environment, organizational trust and workplace optimism, only workplace optimism directly impacts individual performance. The impact of the ethical environment and organizational trust on individual performance is indirect through workplace optimism.

Research limitations/implications

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study to assess the combined impact of the ethical environment, organizational trust and workplace optimism on individual performance. It is important to conduct similar studies to verify these findings.

Practical implications

An ethical environment and organizational trust foster high levels of workplace optimism that in turn lead to improved employee performance.

Originality/value

The important role that workplace optimism plays within the ethical climate of organizations is theorized and assessed. This is the first empirical assessment of the mediational role of workplace optimism on the established relationships between ethical environment and individual performance, and organizational trust and individual performance.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Dhirapat Kulophas and Philip Hallinger

Research on school leadership has confirmed that principals influence teacher and student learning by building an “academic-focused ethos” in their schools. In this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on school leadership has confirmed that principals influence teacher and student learning by building an “academic-focused ethos” in their schools. In this study, our objective was to examine if and how the learning-centered leadership of principals influenced academic optimism of teachers and the resulting effects on their engagement in professional learning. More specifically, we examined this hypothesized set of leadership effects among teachers and principals in high schools located in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted with 1,763 teachers and 152 principals from 159 randomly selected, medium size secondary schools located in Thailand. The research employed multi-level structural equation modeling and bootstrapping analyses in order to test and explore these relationships in a mediation model of school leadership effects on teacher professional learning through academic optimism.

Findings

Results of this study reinforce prior research which has found that principal leadership can have significant direct and indirect effects on the professional learning of teachers. This finding is important because, as elaborated earlier, scholars believe that teacher professional learning is a key to sustainable improvement in schools. More specifically, our results extend prior research in two ways. First, as the first study to link Learning-Centered Leadership with Academic Optimism, this study extends findings that point to the role of school leadership in sustaining a culture of academic optimism in schools. Second, this study also established Academic Optimism as a mediator through which school leadership supports Teacher Professional Learning.

Research limitations/implications

Although our results support a positive conclusion concerning the effects of school leadership and academic optimism on teacher learning, this was a cross-sectional study. Therefore, caution must be exercised before drawing causal attributions. For example, research has also found that teachers who work in schools that evidence features of a professional learning community are more likely to have a greater sense of collective teacher efficacy, a variable that is also associated with Academic Optimism. Therefore, although our study proposed Academic Optimism as the mediator and teacher professional learning as the dependent variable, it is also possible that this relationship could be reversed or reciprocal (i.e. mutually reinforcing). Future research should continue to examine these possibilities using longitudinal and/or experimental research designs that enable clearer delineation of causal relationships. We also suggest the utility of qualitative and mixed methods studies capable of exploring in greater depth the mechanisms through which school leadership contributes to productive teacher learning.

Practical implications

There is a need in Thailand, and elsewhere, to redefine the formal roles and professional standards of school leaders to include learning-centered practices. These standards should be embedded into the redesign of pre-service and in-service education programs for teachers and principals. We believe that, at present, relatively few school leaders in Thailand genuinely understand the meaningful impact they can have on teacher learning, and by extension, on student learning. Thus, there is a need for systemic change that recasts the nature of leadership expected from principals as well as the level of lifelong learning expected of teachers.

Originality/value

The findings from this research contribute to an evolving knowledge base on how school leaders influence teacher learning in different national contexts. The research also extends prior research by exploring the role of academic optimism as a mediator of school leadership effects on teacher learning.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Annabelle Hofer, Daniel Spurk and Andreas Hirschi

This study investigates when and why negative organization-related career shocks affect career optimism, which is a positive career-planning attitude. The indirect effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates when and why negative organization-related career shocks affect career optimism, which is a positive career-planning attitude. The indirect effect of negative organization-related career shocks on career optimism via job insecurity and the role of perceived organizational career support as a first-stage moderator were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave time-lagged data from a sample of 728 employees in Switzerland was used. Time-lagged correlations, an indirect effect model and a conditional indirect effect model with bootstrapping were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

First, this study showed a significant negative correlation between negative organization-related career shocks (T1) and career optimism (T3), a positive correlation between negative organization-related career shocks (T1) and job insecurity (T2) and a negative correlation between job insecurity (T2) and career optimism (T3). Second, findings revealed that negative organization-related career shocks (T1) have a negative indirect effect on career optimism (T3) via job insecurity (T2). Third, perceived organizational career support (T1) buffers the indirect effect of negative organization-related career shocks (T1) on career optimism (T3).

Originality/value

This study provides an initial examination of the relationship between negative organization-related career shocks and career optimism by applying assumptions from the JD-R model and Conservation of Resources theory. Implications about how to deal with negative career shocks in HRM and career counseling are discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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