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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Arménio Rego, Miguel Pina e Cunha, Dálcio Reis Júnior, Cátia Anastácio and Moriel Savagnago

The purpose of this paper is to study if the employees’ optimism-pessimism ratio predicts their creativity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study if the employees’ optimism-pessimism ratio predicts their creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 134 employees reported their optimism and pessimism, and the respective supervisors described the employees’ creativity.

Findings

The relationship between the optimism-pessimism ratio and creativity is curvilinear (inverted U-shaped); beyond a certain level of the optimism-pessimism ratio, the positive relationship between the ratio and creativity weakens, suggesting that the possible positive effects of (high) optimism may be weakened by a very low level of pessimism.

Research limitations/implications

Being cross-sectional, the study examines neither the causal links between the optimism-pessimism ratio and creativity nor other plausible causal links. The study was carried out at a single moment and did not capture the dynamics that occur over the course of time involving changes in optimism/pessimism and creativity. Future studies may adopt longitudinal or quasi-experimental designs.

Practical implications

Managers and organizations must consider that, even though positivity promotes creativity, some level of negativity may help positivity to produce creativity.

Originality/value

This study suggests that scholars who want to study the antecedents of creativity (and innovation) must be cautious in focusing only on the positive or the negative sides of individuals’ characteristics, and rather they must explore the interplay between both poles. Individuals may experience both positive and negative states/traits (Smith et al., 2016), and this both/and approach may impel them to think divergently, to challenge the status quo and to propose “out the box” and useful ideas.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Jaya Mamta Prosad, Sujata Kapoor and Jhumur Sengupta

– The purpose of this paper is to capture the presence and impact of optimism in the Indian equity market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to capture the presence and impact of optimism in the Indian equity market.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set comprises the daily values of the Nifty 50 index, index options and Treasury-bill index for a period of five years (2006-2011). The focus of this paper is two pronged. It first investigates the presence of optimism (pessimism) using the pricing kernel technique suggested by Barone-Adesi et al. (2012). Second, it tries to analyze the relationship of this bias with stock market indicators like risk premium, market return and volatility using time series regression.

Findings

The findings indicate that the Indian equity market has been predominantly pessimistic from the period 2006 to 2011. The interaction of this bias with market indicators also unveils some interesting insights. The study shows that high past volatility can lead to pessimism in the Indian equity market and vice versa. It further explores that when the investors are rational, their risk and return relationship is positive while it tends to be negative when they are irrational. The impact of investors’ irrationalities on asset valuation has also been accounted by Brown and Cliff (2005).

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the paper have significant implications for fund managers and asset management companies. It is recommended that they should try to identify behavioral biases in their clients before designing their portfolios.

Originality/value

This study is one of the very few attempts to capture the presence and impact optimism (pessimism) in the Indian equity market.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Aldijana Bunjak, Matej Černe and Sut I Wong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the (in)congruence of leaders’ and followers’ cognitive characteristics (i.e. pessimism), followers’ identification with a leader…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the (in)congruence of leaders’ and followers’ cognitive characteristics (i.e. pessimism), followers’ identification with a leader and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 291 working professionals are analyzed, following a series of hierarchical linear modeling and mediated polynomial regression analyses.

Findings

Polynomial regression analysis results indicate that alignment (congruence) between leaders’ pessimism and followers’ pessimism, when both are at high levels, is related to low levels of job satisfaction. Further, leader–follower congruence at lower levels of pessimism leads to high levels of job satisfaction through the mediator of followers’ perceived identification with a leader.

Originality/value

By identifying (in)congruence of leader–follower pessimism as a key antecedent, and taking an explanatory mechanism of identification with a leader into account, the authors contribute to disentangling the conceptual paths that underlie the mode by which implicit leadership theory might explain instances of individual job satisfaction.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Chou-Kang Chiu, Chieh-Peng Lin, Yuan-Hui Tsai and Siew-Fong Teh

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of knowledge sharing from the perspectives of broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory. Its research purpose…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of knowledge sharing from the perspectives of broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory. Its research purpose is to understand how knowledge sharing is driven by such predictors as optimism, pessimism, and positive affect through their complex interactions with collectivism or power distance. In the proposed model of this study, knowledge sharing relates to optimism and pessimism via the partial mediation of positive affect. At the same time, the influence of optimism, pessimism, and positive affect on knowledge sharing are moderated by the national culture of collectivism and power distance, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

This study’s hypotheses were empirically tested using data from high-tech firms across Taiwan and Malaysia. Of the 550 questionnaires provided to the research participants, 397 usable questionnaires were collected (total response rate of 72.18 percent), with 237 usable questionnaires from Taiwanese employees and 160 usable questionnaires from Malaysian employees. The data from Taiwan and Malaysia were pooled and analyzed using: confirmatory factor analysis for verifying data validity, independent sample t-tests for verifying the consistency with previous literature regarding cultural differences, and hierarchical regression analysis for testing relational and moderating effects.

Findings

This study demonstrates the integrated application of the broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory for understanding optimism, pessimism, and positive affect in the development of knowledge sharing. The test results confirm that positive affect partially mediates the relationship between optimism and knowledge sharing and fully mediates the relationship between pessimism and knowledge sharing. Moreover, collectivism and power distance have significant moderating effects on most of the model paths between knowledge sharing and its predictors except for the relationship between pessimism and knowledge sharing.

Originality/value

This study extends the expectancy theory to justify how optimistic and pessimistic expectations are stable traits that dominate the way employees share their knowledge sharing. This study shows how collectivism and power distance of Hofstede’s cultural framework can be blended with the broaden-and-build theory and expectancy theory to jointly explain knowledge sharing. Besides, this study provides additional support to the adaptation theory of well-being that suggests psychosocial interventions, which manage to enhance well-being by leveraging positive affect, hold the promise of reducing stressful symptoms and boosting psychological resources among employees.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2013

Ryan Gunderson

Contemporary sociologists implicitly assume or explicitly state that classical social theorists shared the Enlightenment’s optimistic vision that society would become more…

Abstract

Purpose

Contemporary sociologists implicitly assume or explicitly state that classical social theorists shared the Enlightenment’s optimistic vision that society would become more rational, free, ethical, and just overtime. I reexamine the primary works that laid the foundation for sociology and resituate them in their neo-Romantic origins.

Design/methodology/approach

Close readings of formative texts are provided to revisit modernist critiques of social progress in turn of the century sociology. The works of Ferdinand Tönnies, Thorstein Veblen, Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, and Max Weber exemplify this tradition.

Findings

Insights from social theory written during and around the neo-Romantic period mirrored the Zeitgeist, a time fascinated with irrationality, moral decay, unconsciousness, decadence, degeneration, cynicism, historical decline, and pessimism. However, classical sociology’s pessimism should not be interpreted as anti-modern. Rather, it contributed to the Enlightenment’s maturation.

Research limitations/implications

Contemporary sociologists should recover the spirit of classical sociology’s gloomy extension of the modern project and bring societal processes to consciousness through human reason, untainted by the fable of progress. Without rational grounds for optimism, the most honest and sincere way to preserve the hope for alternatives and emancipation is through the continuation and advancement of the pessimistic tradition. To formulate new disillusioned theories of society, sociology ought to draw from its ignored tragic legacy.

Originality/value

Rather than accept accounts of classical sociologists as believers in progress, the tradition reveals a world of increasing disenchantment, atomization, anomie, alienation, confusion, quarrel, rationalization devoid of value, and unhappiness. Providing society thoughtful, systematic accounts of its own estrangement advances the project of modernity.

Details

Social Theories of History and Histories of Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-219-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Yan Zhang, Lijun Guan and Shaosheng Jin

This study aims to explore the degree of Chinese consumers' trust and confidence in the Chinese dairy products supply chain and the relationships between trust and overall…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the degree of Chinese consumers' trust and confidence in the Chinese dairy products supply chain and the relationships between trust and overall confidence in dairy products safety and quality.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected data from 1,278 respondents by field survey from five provinces of China. The data were analyzed using ordered logit model.

Findings

This study shows the following results: (1) Chinese consumer confidence in domestic dairy products and trust in actors of the dairy chain are at a moderate-to-low level. (2) Government regulators are considered to take the most responsibility, with both an optimism-enhancing and a pessimism-reducing effect (the former effect is greater), while perceived trust in dairy farmers and retailers has little effect. (3) Perceived care has both an optimism-enhancing and a pessimism-reducing effect, and the former effect is stronger. Competence and openness have an optimism-enhancing effect and a pessimism-reducing effect, respectively. (4) The importance of the three dimensions of trust related to optimism-increasing and pessimism-reduction is limited, except in the case of government regulators.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a better understanding of consumer trust in food safety and also help demonstrate to the actors and institutions involved in the dairy supply chain the best way to improve the performance of their duties to meet the consumers' needs for safe and quality dairy products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Kashif Rashid, Yasir Bin Tariq and Mamoon Ur Rehman

This study examines the role of behavioural factors, such as confidence, optimism, pessimism and rational expectation, in affecting investment decisions in the Pakistani…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the role of behavioural factors, such as confidence, optimism, pessimism and rational expectation, in affecting investment decisions in the Pakistani stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

Using daily trading data of Karachi Stock Exchange-100 index from January 2012 to December 2015, different regression models, including descriptive statistics and stationarity tests, are performed.

Findings

Results indicate that stock market trading has suffered from pessimistic behaviour of investors. In the first model, the authors find a positive sign of confidence and negative sign of optimism with the trading volume. The second model shows a positive role of confidence and rational expectations in affecting the trading volume in daily, Monday and Friday samples. The results of the third model show a negative sign of both optimism and rational expectation with the trading volume. Furthermore, the next model shows a negative sign of confidence combined with pessimism while testing their relationship with the trading volume. Finally, results of the final model suggest that optimism negatively affects the trading volume, and on the other hand, pessimism has a positive impact on the trading volume.

Research limitations/implications

The method and empirical testing of behavioural biases and their relationship with economic variable used in this study seem to be a promising way to better understand the role of psychology in deriving financial decisions for academics and policymakers.

Originality/value

This study uses secondary data for measuring behavioural biases and decomposes the effect between rational expectation and behavioural biases.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2019

Christos Karpetis, Stephanos Papadamou, Eleftherios Spyromitros and Erotokritos Varelas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and empirically, the relationship between optimism (pessimism) – as reflected by animal spirits – and money…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and empirically, the relationship between optimism (pessimism) – as reflected by animal spirits – and money demand by taking into account transaction costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Inspired by the theoretical model of money demand by Teles et al. (2016) the authors incorporate the optimism (pessimism) effects in the money demand. Then, using the consumers’ confidence indicator as a proxy indicator of optimism/pessimism, they estimate the money demand in a panel data framework.

Findings

The theoretical framework suggests that the optimism (pessimism) effects on money demand are positive (negative). Empirical evidence for 11 Eurozone countries divided in two groups (i.e. core and periphery) confirms the theoretical considerations.

Practical implications

It appears that periphery countries with a higher sensitivity to the recent financial crisis present lower real money demand sensitivity to consumption expenditures and higher real money demand sensitivity to consumer confidence index. Moreover, in such countries, money demand changes present higher persistence over time. Thus, the authors observe differing attitudes concerning money demand across Eurozone citizens that should be taken into account by monetary policymakers (i.e. the ECB).

Originality/value

The authors introduce, in the vast literature on money demand, both theoretically and empirically the role of optimism (pessimism). Differences across core and periphery Eurozone countries identified.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Miguel Pereira Lopes, Miguel Pina E. Cunha and Arménio Rego

Much of management research has been based on what can be called a “deficit‐based” approach. In contrast, there is the recent emergence of a new paradigm shift with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Much of management research has been based on what can be called a “deficit‐based” approach. In contrast, there is the recent emergence of a new paradigm shift with the appearance of positive organizational studies. This paper aims to discuss how to integrate knowledge coming from both sides of the fence and exemplify it by testing a model that looks for the intricate and paradoxical relationships between optimism and pessimism.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cluster analysis, a theoretical model is developed that includes the existence of a paradoxical type of personality beyond the dichotomous optimistic and pessimistic profiles. The validity of this model is tested in a sample of 343 workers of a company.

Findings

The data evidenced a good fit with the four cluster theoretical model and showed that almost half of the sample (46.36 percent) were clustered as “paradoxical optimists”, individuals that simultaneously reported optimistic and pessimistic expectations towards the future.

Research limitations/implications

Management researchers should make an effort to better understand how positive and negative phenomena in organizations relate to one another, namely by studying paradoxical personality individuals. They should go beyond the normal positive/negative dichotomy and search for more integrative forms of functioning. In the specific case of optimism, they should also distinguish paradoxical optimists from both “purely” optimists and pessimists.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that positive and negative issues in organizations can and should be integrated in more integrative theories. It develops and shows evidence of the construct of “paradoxical optimist”, a personality type that should be better investigated.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Yuriy Nesterko, Michael Friedrich, Nadja Seidel and Heide Glaesmer

The purpose of this paper is to test a hypothesized structure of interrelations between pre-migration dispositional factors (cultural identity and optimism/pessimism) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a hypothesized structure of interrelations between pre-migration dispositional factors (cultural identity and optimism/pessimism) and immigration-related experiences (level of integration and perceived discrimination) in association with mental and physical components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Jewish people from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) who immigrated to Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire in Russian, including items about the immigration background, level of integration, perceived discrimination as well as cultural identity, dispositional optimism/pessimism (Life Orientation Test-R) and HRQoL (SF-12) was handed out to Jewish immigrants from the FSU living in Germany. The data of 153 participants were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Whereas no significant associations between Jewish identity and HRQoL could be found, both a positive association between optimism and level of integration with a link to physical and mental health, and an inverse relation between optimism and perceived discrimination with a link to mental health, were observed. Opposite associations were found for pessimism.

Originality/value

The results replicate prior research findings on Jews from the FSU living in Israel and the USA and suggest more detailed assessment methods for further investigations on integration processes and cultural identity in the selected group of immigrants. Additionally, HRQoL is significantly lower in the Jewish sample than in the general population. These findings underline the need for a better integration policy, especially for Jewish people from the FSU.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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