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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2022

Edem Maxwell Azila-Gbettor, Christopher Mensah, Martin Kwasi Abiemo and Mavis Agbodza

The study examines a mediated, moderated process of students' intellectual engagement from optimism, academic self-efficacy and academic burnout.

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines a mediated, moderated process of students' intellectual engagement from optimism, academic self-efficacy and academic burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

Five hundred and twenty-seven participants who completed a self-reported questionnaire were selected using a convenient sampling technique. PLSc was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Results showed that optimism positively affects students' intellectual engagement and academic self-efficacy. Additionally, academic self-efficacy correlates positively with students' intellectual engagement and further mediates the relationship between optimism and intellectual engagement. Finally, the moderation effect of academic burnout was positive and non-significant.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to have tested a model including optimism, academic self-efficacy, intellectual engagement and academic burnout in a university setup from a developing country perspective.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Mary M. Harris and Donald J. Willower

Hypotheses on principals’ optimism, teacher perceptions of that optimism, and of school effectiveness were tested. The school was the unit of analysis. Teachers and…

1266

Abstract

Hypotheses on principals’ optimism, teacher perceptions of that optimism, and of school effectiveness were tested. The school was the unit of analysis. Teachers and principals in 50 secondary schools responded to two standard measures. To avoid same respondent bias, about half of the teachers in each school completed one instrument, half the other. Teacher perceptions of their principal’s optimism and of their school’s effectiveness were correlated, but the principal’s self‐reported optimism was not a predictor of perceived effectiveness. The congruence of teacher perceptions of the principal’s optimism and the measured optimism was associated with perceived school effectiveness. Teachers saw the principals to be less optimistic than the principals scored; however, teacher perceptions of optimism and self‐reported optimism were correlated across schools. We suggested explanations for this unusual combination of significant difference with significant correlation, and for other findings

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2022

Nidhi Sharma, Anchal Pathak, B. Latha Lavanya, Naval Garg and Kusum Lata

The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the short form of personal optimism and self-efficacy optimism-extended (POSO-E) among Indian teachers.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the short form of personal optimism and self-efficacy optimism-extended (POSO-E) among Indian teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted to adjudge the reliability and validity of the scale. In the first study, the sample of 510 respondents was randomly divided into subsamples. The first subsample was subjected to the Exploratory Factor Analysis which yielded a two-factor solution explaining 71.02% of the variance. This model was subjected to the Confirmatory Factor Analysis using a second subsample. Acceptable model fit indices suggested factorial validity of the two-dimensional POSO-E among Indian teachers. In the second study, acceptable Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability estimates (greater than 0.70) indicated the scale's reliability. Also, as expected, personal optimism, self-efficacy optimism and overall optimism reported a positive correlation with spiritual well-being and a negative association with distress. It confirmed the criterion validity of the POSO-E among Indian teachers.

Findings

The results showed appreciable psychometric properties of the POSO-E in the context of Indian teachers. The study offered a valid and reliable scale to measure teachers' optimism levels. It is poised to generate renewed interest among scholars to emphasize teachers' positive and optimist thinking. The findings also reported a positive association between teachers' optimism and spiritual well-being. It suggests that spiritual practices and interventions could be used to develop an optimistic academic workforce.

Originality/value

The study is one of the pioneer studies that evaluated the reliability and validity of the POSO-E among Indian teachers.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2022

Bilal Ahmad and Saba Bilal

This study intends to examine the impact of a fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on workers' career optimism via perceived job insecurity among non-managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study intends to examine the impact of a fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on workers' career optimism via perceived job insecurity among non-managerial working restaurant employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged quantitative data were collected in two waves from 316 non-managerial on-job restaurant employees. Structural equation modeling technique was applied to examine the measurement and structural model.

Findings

The study showed that workers' fear of COVID-19 positively impacts their job insecurity. Further, the study found that increasing level of job insecurity depletes workers' career optimism—an outlook of their future career prospects.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests organizations should work to make employees feel secure in terms of their job continuity and career progression. Eventually, this would support employees in shielding themselves against possible resource loss (e.g. career optimism) due to pandemic crises.

Originality/value

Extant literature has tested the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employees' workplace attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction (e.g. Bajrami et al., 2021) and safety performance (e.g. Kim et al., 2021). However, little has been researched on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employees' future career outlook, particularly of non-essential workers in the hospitality industry. To the best of the author's knowledge, an explicit examination of the impact of COVID-19 fear on career optimism has not been conducted previously. Hence, this study will not only be a valuable contribution in the literature of career management, but will also yield important practical implications.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Bilal Ahmad and Nadia Nasir

This study examines the relationship of positive career shocks and career optimism. The mediating role of career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) between positive…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship of positive career shocks and career optimism. The mediating role of career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) between positive career shocks and career optimism, and the moderating role of consideration of future consequences – immediate (CFC-I) between CDSE and career optimism is checked.

Design/methodology/approach

Through cluster sampling, cross-sectional data from 192 professionals of electronic media industry were collected via an electronically administered questionnaire. For preliminary descriptive data analysis SPSS version 21 was used. SmartPLS version 3.0 was used for testing the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that positive career shocks have a relationship with career optimism via CDSE. Also, CFC-I moderated the relationship of CDSE and career optimism such that the relationship of CDSE and career optimism was stronger at higher level of CFC-I.

Practical implications

The study provides implications for the career consultants, human resource professionals and senior management of organizations. All these stakeholders can strive to build an inventory of positive career shocks. Also, shifting to a surprised business model of announcing compensations and promotions is another area to work on. The results of this study further suggest disengaging the fresh potential employees in the initial processes of recruitment. Interdepartmental coordination of health and safety department and human resource management department is also very important implication of this study to highlight the positive aspects of being optimistic.

Originality/value

The study is among the few empirical studies which investigates the relationship between positive career shocks and career optimism via CDSE. Also, in light of the latest call of various empirical works in the domain, this study adds a moderating variable i.e. CFC-I in predicting career optimism. Furthermore, contrary to the conventional approach of applying students' data on career models, this study tests the proposed career model on data collected from professionals.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Lei Mee Thien, Donnie Adams and Hai Ming Koh

This study aims to investigate the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher academic optimism and teacher organisational commitment with the contextual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher academic optimism and teacher organisational commitment with the contextual influence of gender and teaching experience.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed partial least squares structural equation modelling for data analysis. This study has selected 421 teachers from 18 secondary schools in Penang.

Findings

Distributed leadership has a positive direct effect on teacher academic optimism and organisational commitment. The relationship between distributed leadership and teacher academic optimism was stronger for male teachers and senior teachers who have more than ten years of teaching experience. However, gender and teaching experience have no significant moderating effects on the relationship between distributed leadership and teacher organisational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The reason for the non-existent relationship between distributed leadership and teacher organisational commitment across gender and teaching experience remains unknown. In-depth investigation using interview method is required for further exploration.

Practical implications

This study complements and extends prior research on the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher organisational commitment and teacher academic optimism by providing evidence from Malaysia on how they contribute to the organisational conditions of their school.

Originality/value

This study has its originality in investigating the relationships between distributed leadership, teacher organisational commitment and academic optimism with the contextual influence of gender and teaching experience in the non-western society.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Chanthika Pornpitakpan and Robert T. Green

This study seeks to examine which types of message appeals are more effective in reducing unrealistic optimism (a tendency for people to believe that they are less…

2160

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine which types of message appeals are more effective in reducing unrealistic optimism (a tendency for people to believe that they are less susceptible than others to encounter negative outcomes) and inducing purchase intentions of preemptive products in collectivist and individualist cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment is conducted with 131 US, 111 Singaporean, and 127 Thai undergraduates.

Findings

The findings confirm the existence of unrealistic optimism in the marketing setting and show that: lower levels of optimism are associated with higher purchase intentions for the product; hazard‐related behavior‐priming ad appeals lead to higher purchase intentions than ads without priming; Singaporeans show higher purchase intentions than Americans for both the risk‐priming and the expert ad appeals, and they also show higher purchase intentions than Thais for expert ad appeals.

Research limitations/implications

The samples, while well matched, consist of undergraduate students who are not necessarily representative of the populations as a whole. The samples also come from only three countries. Finally, only one product is employed.

Practical implications

The study suggests that: external‐control/collectivist cultures may be more influenced by advertising, regardless of the appeal employed; different types of cultures may require different amounts of advertising to achieve equal levels of effectiveness; unrealistic optimism needs to be addressed by marketers of preemptive products; marketers should use ads that prime risky behaviors when promoting products for reducing/preventing undesirable outcomes/hazards.

Originality/value

The study has re‐affirmed that unrealistic optimism exists, and that this phenomenon exists internationally with respect to a relatively lower‐involvement risk product category than had previously been studied. It has unveiled relationships between optimism and purchase intentions. Finally, the study has identified both similarities and differences in terms of the existence of unrealistic optimism and the relative effectiveness of different message types across cultures.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Kyle W. Luthans, Sandra A. Lebsack and Richard R. Lebsack

The purpose of this paper is to explore the linkage between nurses' levels of optimism and performance outcomes.

3660

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the linkage between nurses' levels of optimism and performance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 78 nurses in all areas of a large healthcare facility (hospital) in the Midwestern United States. The participants completed surveys to determine their current state of optimism. Supervisory performance appraisal data were gathered in order to measure performance outcomes. Spearman correlations and a one‐way ANOVA were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The results indicated a highly significant positive relationship between the nurses' measured state of optimism and their supervisors' ratings of their commitment to the mission of the hospital, a measure of contribution to increasing customer satisfaction, and an overall measure of work performance.

Research limitations/implications

This was an exploratory study. Larger sample sizes and longitudinal data would be beneficial because it is probable that state optimism levels will vary and that it might be more accurate to measure state optimism at several points over time in order to better predict performance outcomes. Finally, the study design does not imply causation.

Practical implications

Suggestions for effectively developing and managing nurses' optimism to positively impact their performance are provided.

Originality/value

To date, there has been very little empirical evidence assessing the impact that positive psychological capacities such as optimism of key healthcare professionals may have on performance. This paper was designed to help begin to fill this void by examining the relationship between nurses' self‐reported optimism and their supervisors' evaluations of their performance.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Arménio Rego, Miguel Pina e Cunha, Dálcio Reis Júnior, Cátia Anastácio and Moriel Savagnago

The purpose of this paper is to study if the employees’ optimism-pessimism ratio predicts their creativity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study if the employees’ optimism-pessimism ratio predicts their creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 134 employees reported their optimism and pessimism, and the respective supervisors described the employees’ creativity.

Findings

The relationship between the optimism-pessimism ratio and creativity is curvilinear (inverted U-shaped); beyond a certain level of the optimism-pessimism ratio, the positive relationship between the ratio and creativity weakens, suggesting that the possible positive effects of (high) optimism may be weakened by a very low level of pessimism.

Research limitations/implications

Being cross-sectional, the study examines neither the causal links between the optimism-pessimism ratio and creativity nor other plausible causal links. The study was carried out at a single moment and did not capture the dynamics that occur over the course of time involving changes in optimism/pessimism and creativity. Future studies may adopt longitudinal or quasi-experimental designs.

Practical implications

Managers and organizations must consider that, even though positivity promotes creativity, some level of negativity may help positivity to produce creativity.

Originality/value

This study suggests that scholars who want to study the antecedents of creativity (and innovation) must be cautious in focusing only on the positive or the negative sides of individuals’ characteristics, and rather they must explore the interplay between both poles. Individuals may experience both positive and negative states/traits (Smith et al., 2016), and this both/and approach may impel them to think divergently, to challenge the status quo and to propose “out the box” and useful ideas.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

James R. Langabeer and Jami DelliFraine

Although management researchers have long recognized that cognitive and behavioral constructs can influence strategic process, there have been surprisingly few empirical…

1405

Abstract

Purpose

Although management researchers have long recognized that cognitive and behavioral constructs can influence strategic process, there have been surprisingly few empirical studies exploring their actual influence. More specifically, there have been no reported findings examining how an executive's general tendency to expect positive outcomes (i.e. optimism) shapes their strategic process. The purpose of this paper is to examine if optimism serves as a cognitive bias that short‐circuits the strategic process, or more specifically results in a greater use of incrementalism versus a comprehensive rational process.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an initial study to explore the relationships between optimism and strategic process. The authors opted for a large cross‐sectional sample of chief executive officers (CEOs) in the for‐profit sector of the US healthcare industry, distributed 810 surveys, and received a 21 percent response rate. The authors' methods incorporated the well‐established Life Orientation Test for optimism, and interaction effect regression models, correlations, and ANOVAs were used to test relationships.

Findings

It was found that at the time of the study, executives were more optimistic than average. It was further found that higher optimism is associated with less rational (and more incremental) strategic decision‐making processes. Organizational size also had an interaction effect on the optimism‐strategic process relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The authors operationalized only a few variables in this initial study. A more comprehensive study, utilizing many more variables and exploring optimism for the top management team (beyond just the CEO) is being incorporated into subsequent studies.

Practical implications

If disposition (e.g. optimism) is associated with strategic processes, then a better understanding of executive's dispositions could be used to better align CEOs with organizational types and stage of life cycle.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to begin to explore the association between dispositional optimism and strategic processes.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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