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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implications of the target valuation uncertainty on the wealth distribution between the target and acquirer firms in successful…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implications of the target valuation uncertainty on the wealth distribution between the target and acquirer firms in successful mergers. The paper specifically analyzes the division of the total dollar gains between the two parties and also whether the target and/or the acquirer experience a positive/negative gain in mergers when valuation of the target company is more uncertain.
The analyses contrast the implications of the uncertainty in three well‐known merger hypotheses; the market‐for‐corporate‐control, hubris and synergy.
The results are supportive of the implications of the synergy hypothesis. As target valuation uncertainty decreases, it is more likely that both parties experience positive gains from the transaction although more of the gains from the merger significantly shift towards the target company.
Results suggest that both parties are bargaining on the synergy gains and the target is able to negotiate a greater portion of the synergy gains when the value of the target becomes more predictable.
A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of that contract. When such a repudiation has been accepted by the innocent party then a termination of employment takes place. Such termination does not constitute dismissal (see London v. James Laidlaw & Sons Ltd (1974) IRLR 136 and Gannon v. J. C. Firth (1976) IRLR 415 EAT).
Set in May 2000, these cases reflect the separate perspectives of the CEOs as they approach the negotiations of TSE International to acquire Yeats Valves. The task for the student is to complete a valuation analysis of the target and buyer, and to negotiate a price and exchange ratio with the counterparty. Each case contains a financial forecast only for that side; therefore an important element in the negotiation is to obtain the private information of the other side, analyze it, and successfully negotiate terms of acquisition. The cases are relatively simple, and are offered as a first exercise in the valuation of the firm and negotiation of an acquisition. The case may be used to pursue some or all of the following teaching objectives: 1) Exercise valuation skills. 2) Exercise bargaining skills. 3) Illustrate practical concerns about mergers and acquisitions.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
This paper extends the merger pricing model associated with Larson‐Gonedes to the general question: how well does the premium developed from the pricing model forecast the…
This paper extends the merger pricing model associated with Larson‐Gonedes to the general question: how well does the premium developed from the pricing model forecast the securities market reaction of the actual merger? Based on a sample of 91 common stock mergers, shareholders in participating firms incur wealth losses about half the time but the magnitude of the gains outweighs the losses such that statistically significant gains are reported for both buyers and sellers. Removal of market wide price movements further increases the gains to shareholders. However, the premium consistently overstates the gain obtained by acquired firms and bears no systematic relationship to the gains registered by shareholders of acquiring firms. Financial analyses of mergers have focused almost exclusively on mergers as “events” with resultant measurements in abnormal returns surrounding the merger announcement/consummation to shareholders, and occasionally bondholders, in both buying and selling firms. Recent reviews of these studies by Halpern (1983), Jensen and Ruback (1983), and especially Roll (1986) stress the tentativeness of the findings and the ambiguity of their interpretation. The common feature of all this analysis has been on the ex post valuation of the merger event by the securities market from an informational content perspective. Alternatively, these studies have evaluated indirectly whether the price premium paid in an acquisition exceeds, equals, or is less than the market's valuation of the net present value of the merger, and how the spoils/losses are distributed between acquirers and acquirees. But never is the bid premium itself determined and then compared to the market's reaction upon public announcement. As Roll argues, the merger process involves three steps: “First, the bidding firm identifies a potential target firm; second, a ‘valuation’ of the equity of the target is undertaken…; third, the ‘value’ is compared to current market price… If value exceeds price, a bid is made…” Roil (1986, p. 198). This paper links the price premium offered in mergers to the market's reaction to the news of the merger, or alternatively, it compares Roll's steps two and three. The merger pricing model used is the exchange ratio determination model developed by Larson and Gonedes (1969) and applied to mergers by Conn and Nielsen (1977). The pricing model, commonly cited in finance texts (eg. Copeland and Weston (1988, pp. 757–763), has the advantage of being deterministic and thus provides a direct measure of the bid premium subject to a pareto optimal wealth constraint for shareholders in both buying and selling firms. The principal question this paper asks is: Does the price premium provide a consistent, unbiased forecast of the market's reaction? This is an important question from both the bidding firms' and target firms' perspectives for several reasons. First, the terms of the negotiated merger may signal important information to the securities market regarding the degree of agency costs in the merging firms. For example, an excessively high negotiated price for the target may indicate either the bidder has inept management or management insulated from shareholder interests. Thus, the terms of a merger may reflect not only the participants' expectations regarding the merger itself, but also be influenced by existing — although previously unknown — agency costs. The signalling information contained in merger announcement may obviously mask the expectational information, creating ambiguity in interpretation of market reaction. Second, distribution of the market reaction for buyers and sellers is important not only to participating firms' shareholders, but also to the effectiveness of the market for corporate control. A perfectly competitive merger market assures that merger premiums equal the expected value of the increased market values of merging firms. Thus, divergences between premiums and subsequent market reactions may have important implications for assessing the degree of competitiveness in the merger market, and hence, the effectiveness of mergers as a disciplinary force in the market for corporate control. Finally, the adequacy of ex ante merger pricing models remains an unexplored issue. Using an improved methodology, the Larson and Gonedes (LG) model is expanded to adjust for market wide movements in PE ratios; thus, merger specific influences on wealth positions are more clearly focused upon in contrast to the earlier work by Conn and Nielsen (1977). The earlier finding by Conn and Nielsen that approximately one half of mergers sampled in the 1960s failed to meet the pareto wealth constraint for participating firms is therefore re‐examined with an improved methodology and more recent sample of mergers occurring through 1979. The paper is organised as follows. Section I reviews and critiques the Larson‐Gonedes merger pricing model. Section II describes the empirical methodology and sample. Section III presents the empirical results and Section IV concludes with a summary.
Set in September 1992, this exercise provides teams of students the opportunity to negotiate terms of a merger between AT&T and McCaw Cellular. AT&T, one of the largest…
Set in September 1992, this exercise provides teams of students the opportunity to negotiate terms of a merger between AT&T and McCaw Cellular. AT&T, one of the largest U.S. corporations, was the dominant competitor in long-distance telephone communications in the United States. McCaw was the largest competitor in the rapidly growing cellular-telephone communications industry. Prior to the negotiations, AT&T had no position in cellular communications. This case and its companion (F-1143) are designed to allow students to be assigned roles to play. The case may pursue some or all of the following teaching objectives: exercising valuation skills, practicing strategic analysis, exercising bargaining skills, and illustrating practical aspects of mergers and acquisitions.
Set in May 2000, these cases reflect the separate perspectives of the CEOs as they approach the negotiations of TSE International to acquire Yeats Valves. The task for the…
Set in May 2000, these cases reflect the separate perspectives of the CEOs as they approach the negotiations of TSE International to acquire Yeats Valves. The task for the student is to complete a valuation analysis of the target and buyer, and to negotiate a price and exchange ratio with the counterparty. Each case contains a financial forecast only for that side; therefore, an important element in the negotiation is to obtain the private information of the other side, analyze it, and successfully negotiate terms of acquisition. The cases are relatively simple, and are offered as a first exercise in the valuation of the firm, and negotiation of an acquisition. They may be taught singly in usual case-discussion fashion, or combined into a joint-negotiation exercise where students are assigned parts to play. Used in a bilateral bargaining exercise, two teams of students are designated, each team representing one side of the negotiation and receiving a case designed for that team. The bargaining exercise provides a particular opportunity for joint teaching among instructors in finance, strategy, human behavior, and negotiation.
Nested within the industrial organization and corporate finance literature, this paper aims to analyze the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the…
Nested within the industrial organization and corporate finance literature, this paper aims to analyze the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the world economy, developed economies, developing economies and transition economies. As multinational companies hold a large proportion of cash reserves and expand into diverse geographic markets, the paper aims to examine market patterns of high-valuation cross-border acquisition transactions. Specifically, it proposes a framework explaining the influential factors, motives and effects of high-valuation transactions by discussing some case evidences.
Drawing upon inductive and deductive logic, the paper discusses market trends and market patterns of cross-border M&A transactions by triangulating archival data analyses and accessible M&A literature. Some case examples are derived from news archive and official source sites. Regarding sample period, it considers the past two decades 1994-2013 to show market trends in various institutional settings and the past decade 2004-2013 to present market patterns of 62 high-valuation cross-border deals.
The transaction analysis indicates four cycles in the market trend, namely, growing period (1994-2000); declining, but promising period (2001-2006); financial crisis period (2007-2008); and recovering, but reversing period (2009-2013). A number of acquisitions undertaken by firms from emerging economies around the 2007-2008 global financial crisis have exemplified geographic (product) diversification as a primary motive of firm’s global strategy. In particular, a large proportion of sample high-valuation deals are spotted in developed economies such as the USA and the UK. In case of industry pattern, a good number of high-valuation deals are noticed in banking and finance, telecommunications and oil and gas sector.
Although several scholars have examined cross-border acquisitions in economics, corporate finance, strategy and international business literature, there is hardly any study that analyzes high-profile cross-border M&A deals. An exclusive market analysis of high-valuation international deals is important for several reasons. This paper fills this knowledge gap by showing both market trends and market patterns of cross-border M&A transactions. Importantly, to date, this paper is the first to propose a framework explaining the influential factors, motives and effects of high-valuation M&A transactions.
Corporate accountability and quality of corporate disclosure have impacted on many companies and banks, particularly those grown through mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and…
Corporate accountability and quality of corporate disclosure have impacted on many companies and banks, particularly those grown through mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and companies have had to restate their financial statements. The growth of service and technology companies (particularly by M&A) presents numerous public policy, legal, regulatory and accounting issues. Some of these companies have substantial intangible assets and the accounting for M&A and investments can be manipulated to affect reported assets and earnings. The exchange of securities and conflicts of interest in such transactions can affect financial statements – all of these factors can distort strategic planning, legal analysis, performance analysis and credit analysis. Fraudulent conveyance has typically not been considered in detail in many real life transactions (processed by law firms, the SEC, accounting firms and banks), even though it is the major means of unfair and illegal wealth transfer and fraud in corporate transactions. This paper highlights some of these issues, and illustrates the role and benefits of proper legal analysis in corporate transactions, and the convergence of corporate financial analysis and legal analysis and tax/accounting analysis.
This case may be taught singly or used as a merger-negotiation exercise with “Daimler-Benz A. G.: Negotiations between Daimler and Chrysler” (UVA-F-1241). Set in February…
This case may be taught singly or used as a merger-negotiation exercise with “Daimler-Benz A. G.: Negotiations between Daimler and Chrysler” (UVA-F-1241). Set in February 1998, the case places students in the position of negotiators for the company; their task is to value both firms, assess the potential earnings dilution of a combination, and negotiate a detailed agreement with their counterpart. The case can be used to explore such interesting negotiation issues as determination of a share-exchange ratio, treatment of major stockholders, and structuring a deal. Also, the case and exercise can be used to spark a discussion of acquisition in comparison with strategic alliance, or other less formal models of combination.