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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Donald P. Roy and Timothy R. Graeff

Perceived fit between a sponsoring brand and an event is considered to be a key sponsorship requirement, but little is known about the variables that are related to…

Abstract

Perceived fit between a sponsoring brand and an event is considered to be a key sponsorship requirement, but little is known about the variables that are related to perceived fit. Coca - Cola's sponsorship of the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics is examined to assess relationships between attitude toward the brand, attitude toward the event, and attitude toward sponsorships and brand/event fit. A telephone survey was used to contact 448 consumers. Results indicate that attitude toward the brand is moderately related to brand/event fit and attitude toward sponsorships is significantly related to brand/event fit.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Christer Persson

The interest for hosting the Olympic Games is now at its historical peak. Heads of states, culture elites, top athletes and professional marketers are engaged in selling…

Abstract

The interest for hosting the Olympic Games is now at its historical peak. Heads of states, culture elites, top athletes and professional marketers are engaged in selling their cities to the deciding International Olympic Committee. This host selection process has recently been in the focus of public interest due to the bribery allegations against the winner of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games, Salt Lake City.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kyoung-yim Kim

To examine the mobilization of environmental sustainability policies in the Winter Olympic Games in Asia guided by approaches that highlight policy mobilities. The…

Abstract

To examine the mobilization of environmental sustainability policies in the Winter Olympic Games in Asia guided by approaches that highlight policy mobilities. The construction of sledding tracks in two cases, the Winter Games in Japan and South Korea, was analyzed to demonstrate how sustainability was framed and which policy programs were implemented.

The first part of the chapter introduces Olympic mega-events as agents of sustainability policy circulation. It discusses the study's key concepts and describes approaches to policy circulation studies. The second part of the chapter outlines the construction of the Nagano and PyeongChang sledding tracks and the sustainability policies that were in use during that time. The third part discusses the two cases from a policy mobility perspective.

The two sledding track cases are described, along with national and Olympic policies of environmental sustainability. Discursive policy framings of environmental sustainability in Nagano and PyeongChang similarly modeled previous Games' best practices that were supported by scientific and technological knowledge. It was clear, however, that best practices were taken up differently in each construction effort, and that the lack of cooperation between Games organizers across these venues and countries meant that environmental expertise was not always transferred from one Games to another. Policy circulation was also affected by entangled transnational power relations, and by the fact that each nation state and the corporate actors who built the sledding tracks arguably had uneven power relations with international expert agencies. Thus, policy priorities and policy mobility from one Olympics to the next were determined by a combination of the interaction with these expert networks, time pressure in the Olympic structure, and rivalry between the countries.

Implications for enhancing policy mobility and deliberation of policy commitments are discussed.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Helen Jefferson Lenskyj

Abstract

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The Olympic Games: A Critical Approach
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-776-3

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Simona Azzali

Since the 1960s, the impact of mega sporting events on the built environment has become increasingly important, and the relationship between hosting cities and events…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the 1960s, the impact of mega sporting events on the built environment has become increasingly important, and the relationship between hosting cities and events increasingly complex and controversial. The outcomes of these mega-events, however, are very discouraging, especially in terms of the state of sports venues and event sites. In many cases, Olympic parks and event sites stand abandoned once the event is over, and sports facilities are often either closed or underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to identify replicable best practices and successful examples used in mega-events to transform events sites and venues into livable public open spaces (POS), enjoyed by the local communities.

Design/methodology/approach

Three cities were selected for this investigation: London, Sochi and Rio de Janeiro. London hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics, and this study focused particularly on its Olympic park, Queen Elizabeth Park. Sochi hosted the 2014 Winter Olympics but also some of the matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Rio de Janeiro hosted the 2016 Summer Olympics and also a part of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Each case was investigated according to a methodology composed of interviews with experts, site visits, and analysis of the bidding book and post-event reports to check the consistency between promises and legacies.

Findings

The research identified a framework of six major elements that determine, or contrast, the long-term use of events sites and sport facilities, and highlighted some main attributes to consider in order to transform sporting event sites into livable and enjoyable open spaces. It is expected that this framework can be used as a guidance to deliver sustainable events and long-term legacies and to define a strategy for optimization of planning mega sport events.

Practical implications

Mega events provide near-unique, fast track opportunities for urban transformation. This research can be used as guidance for the overall mega sporting events stakeholders, such as the IOC, FIFA, and local organizing committees, to identify replicable best practices and successful examples in the leverage of mega events to transform events sites and venues into livable POS.

Originality/value

Why is it so difficult to transform event sites and sport venues into livable areas of cities? What are the recurrent mistakes, issues, and challenges that hosting cities have to face? This research is unique as it aims at answering these questions by defining a framework of relevant factors for hosting cities to help them in the planning of mega sporting events. The research also highlighted some recurrent mistakes, such as the exorbitant costs of a mega event, the inability to keep the initial budget unchanged and the difficulty to adjust plans to local needs.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Steve McKelvey and Neil Longley

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specificambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law…

Abstract

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specific ambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law protections for private sports organisations and their official sponsors. Such event-specific ambush marketing legislation, or ESAML, has come under increasing scrutiny by academics and practitioners who question, among other things, the need for such legislation. One of the major areas of concern has become the potential social cost of such legislation that includes restrictions on free speech and curbs on marketplace competition. We apply economic theory as a means to explain why governments have been so willing to enact such legislation.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2016

Chiaki Okada and Kazuo Uchiumi

This chapter introduces the development of sport sociology in Japan especially focusing on the activities of the Japanese Society of Sport Sociology (JSSS) and research by…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the development of sport sociology in Japan especially focusing on the activities of the Japanese Society of Sport Sociology (JSSS) and research by members of the society. Following a brief history, we discuss some notable and influential research in Japanese sport sociology. Then we pick up the two areas of Olympic Studies and Sport for Development and Peace to show the current situation of sport sociology in Japan. In Japan, the development of sport sociology and sport itself are tightly linked with the development of the society as a whole, especially influenced by economic factors. In regards to the future of sport sociology as well as sport, we believe that this will depend on the economic situation, although sport-related persons (except for sociologists) tend to expect much of the governmental body. Because the volume of Olympic Studies and Sport for Development and Peace research is increasing, sport sociology will achieve a certain amount of success by the 2020 Tokyo Olympics/Paralympics. However, we need to seek a way to maintain the momentum of sport sociology in Japan after the year 2020.

Details

Sociology of Sport: A Global Subdiscipline in Review
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-050-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Jinwoo Park, Minhong Kim, John Nauright and Young Hoon Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among athlete star power, enjoyment and revisit intention of sport event tourists in a sport mega-event (SME).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among athlete star power, enjoyment and revisit intention of sport event tourists in a sport mega-event (SME).

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted in the context of 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games. A total of 419 respondents completed a survey. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study proved the final structure model fit well by having the values and scores higher than the minimum cutoff in all categories. Path coefficients indicate that H1a, H1c and H2 were supported while H1b was not supported by the analysis. In addition, enjoyment partially mediated the relationship between athlete star power and revisit intentions. In particular, two mediating effects were found: enjoyment mediated trustworthiness and revisit intention and expertise and revisit intention. However, enjoyment did not mediate the relationship between attractiveness and revisit intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study lies within two perspectives. Since the data have been collected in one country, the results may be viewed and interpreted for a specific location and time. Thus, it is strongly recommended to conduct the similar studies in the future Olympic Games. In the other perspective, the results could be different from one to another sport game because of the popularity by star power and game itself.

Originality/value

This study adds the literature on sport event research. Although there were a few studies on the effect of athlete star power, a dearth of research examined the relationships among athlete star power (trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise), enjoyment and revisit intention. These results are valuable to SME managers to increase the propensity of tourists’ revisit intention at sport mega-event by understanding the factors that lead to increased tourist enjoyment.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Fausto Martin De Sanctis

Given its social importance, Sport (especially Football), which has experienced an astounding transformation into a global industry with significant economic impact, has…

Abstract

Given its social importance, Sport (especially Football), which has experienced an astounding transformation into a global industry with significant economic impact, has been a vehicle for the transmission of cultural and universal values. Its structural complexity (players, transfer agents, clubs and its owners, right holders of different contracts) creates a lot of moving parts that can easily hide illicit activity, especially because this structure incorporates the international market. The movement of large amounts of money, the difficulty in accounting for all transactions, and ironically, the clubs’ own financial needs increase this sector’s vulnerability to organized crime. For many years, this sector has had a relatively free hand in its efforts to make criminal assets legal. This is made possible by some ineffectiveness of current national and international laws and enforcement bodies, which have not kept pace with the changing situation. It is already known that sport historically has been used as a tool for enrichment of a specific group of companies, an issue deserving of public concern. This chapter argues for a sensitive situation involving the actors of the public and private sectors, notably its regulations, in order to curb corruption and money laundering through sport. The purpose is to address these matters by identifying the risks of misconduct within sport organizations, and proposing measures that could prevent, hamper, and punish any attempts to thwart these organizations’ main goal: promoting sport as a way for cultural improvement and teaching people the values of tolerance and civilized coexistence.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ram Herstein and Ron Berger

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies, and how businesses take advantage of such opportunities to increase their incomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A new framework is presented that is based on four different alternatives for city re‐branding strategies based on sport events. These four re‐branding strategies are derived from two main dimensions: the locus of the sports event (local vs international) and the longevity of the sports event (one‐off vs continual).

Findings

Prospective hosts of mega or international sports events must ensure that people all over the world see their city as a leisure, tourism and consumption center and not just a sports arena. Conversely, when hosting medium or minor sports events, planners must aim for these sport events to increase residents' civic pride.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper demonstrates how city planners and decision makers can leverage their city image and its business sector's potential to earn from this event directly and indirectly, based on the aforesaid four re‐branding strategies: Mega sports events, International sports events, Medium sport events, and Minor sport events.

Originality/value

This article deals with four types of sports event strategies at the same time, whereas other investigations tend to deal with only a single type.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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