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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

Peter Noordhoek

One of the reasons the science and art of business diplomacy is interesting, is because it puts the role of the nation in another, somewhat reduced, perspective. Instead…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the reasons the science and art of business diplomacy is interesting, is because it puts the role of the nation in another, somewhat reduced, perspective. Instead of the nation, it puts a company at the focal point of an exchange of interests with NGOs and other national and international players. This is a reflection of a world that becomes ever more complicated: a truly multiactor world, implicating great global challenges for international companies.

Design/methodology/approach

However, changing the perspective from the nation state to that of business is not enough, no matter how multinational or big the enterprise is. To have a true perspective on the challenges diplomacy faces, it is better to add another perspective. A perspective in which the business and the multiactor aspect merge: in associations.

Findings

Here the international and diplomatic dimensions of associations are defined, a model for change is presented, and cases are discussed. Each case is discussed in terms of business diplomacy, using recent literature and definitions. Certainly not all actions by associations can be called diplomatic, but some can and these are significant.

Originality/value

Combining this insight and the possible impact of associations with available literature on the definition and nature of business (economic, corporate, commercial) diplomacy, a different light will be shed on the concept of business diplomacy. Perhaps it is better to speak about “multiactor diplomacy,” in which traditional, business, and other forms of diplomacy all have their place. The chapter ends with conclusions and specific recommendations.

Details

International Business Diplomacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-081-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Daniel Wilson Ndyetabula, Olav Jull Sørensen and Anna A. Temu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the rationale for value chain business associations and construct a conceptual framework for establishing and managing a value…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the rationale for value chain business associations and construct a conceptual framework for establishing and managing a value chain association, using the value chain for dried fruits and vegetables in Tanzania as the empirical basis.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the objectives of the paper, a conventional approach involving literature review, framework development, and data collection and analysis was used to conceptualise the organisation of a value chain association in a developing country context.

Findings

The study finds rationale for a value chain-based business association based on the literature review, observations and discussions from the stakeholder workshop.

Research limitations/implications

It has been suggested that upgrading the currently fragmented dried fruit and vegetable value chain to encompass all value chain actors might have implications towards “creativity”, “innovation” and “entrepreneurial abilities” along the value chain, i.e. resources and competences that could enhance the value of the market offer and thus the competitiveness of the whole value chain. A value chain-based business association might be one of the stepping-stones to enhance innovative and entrepreneurial abilities for strong and competitive value chain activities.

Originality/value

If the literature has been relatively silent on business associations understood primarily as industry associations, it has been completely silent on value chain associations. This paper therefore makes explicit contribution on the conceptualization of value chain association with a particular focus on the developing country setting.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Philipp Jaufenthaler

Brands are relevant to multiple stakeholders and, as such, can have multiple meanings. Drawing on branding and stakeholder marketing theory, the purpose of this study was…

Abstract

Purpose

Brands are relevant to multiple stakeholders and, as such, can have multiple meanings. Drawing on branding and stakeholder marketing theory, the purpose of this study was to provide in-depth insights into knowledge dynamics related to the so-called family business brand across different stakeholder perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

This study combines advanced brand concept mapping (BCM) with a scenario technique to graphically capture consumers’ and jobseekers’ brand knowledge related to the family business concept in the form of association networks.

Findings

Findings show both a shared core meaning (e.g. associations such as “tradition” or “owner-managed”) and stakeholder-specific associations (e.g. consumer perspective: “high product quality,” “handmade”; jobseeker perspective: “appreciation within the company,” “outdated”). Significantly, the results reveal detailed insights into cross-stakeholder knowledge dynamics regarding the associations’ interconnections, strength and favorability.

Originality/value

By combining BCM with a scenario technique, this study adopts an approach that is aimed at better understanding and comparing brand knowledge with respect to the family business brand across multiple stakeholder perspectives. Given the prevalence of family businesses, this research enhances the theoretical and practical understanding of a branding resource that is often available but rarely exploited.

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Jonathan Unger and Anita Chan

All of the major market economies of East Asia have developed institutional arrangements through which business associations, labor unions, and other major types of…

Abstract

Purpose

All of the major market economies of East Asia have developed institutional arrangements through which business associations, labor unions, and other major types of associations maintain close relationships with the state. During the stage in which these were emerging economies, the state dominated this relationship in an arrangement known as “state corporatism.” But with democratization, Japan’s, Taiwan’s, and South Korea’s business associations and unions came more under the influence their members, and a new balance in relations with the state emerged in an arrangement known as “societal corporatism.” In China, which is still in transition from the status of an emerging economy, the state continues to dominate associations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the situation in China and to analyze whether the government is likely to maintain its dominance in future decades over powerful economic constituencies and their associations.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical transition from state corporatism to societal corporatist practices in East Asia is discussed on the basis of available English-language literature. This forms the framework for an analysis of China, based largely upon on-site research and Chinese-language writings. The paper includes case studies of China’s two major business associations.

Findings

The paper finds that China’s controls over business associations using state corporatist techniques are likely to persist in coming decades, due to the government’s vigilance in warding off any transition to members’ influence and societal corporatism.

Practical implications

The influence of the state on businesses and unions and on business associations affects the operations of these vival economic institutions as well as the shaping of government policies.

Originality/value

To understand relations between business associations and governments in East Asia, especially China, it is necessary to come to grips with the concept and practices of corporatism. This paper uses a comparative perspective to illuminate trends in the region’s capitalist countries and to cast new light on China.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Robert J. Bennett and Paul J.A. Robson

This paper is aimed at association managers and market advisors. It explores how associations balance their provision of different services, the potential for associations

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Abstract

This paper is aimed at association managers and market advisors. It explores how associations balance their provision of different services, the potential for associations to provide new services, and the relevance of service “bundling”. A new survey of small firm use of associations in Britain shows that there are few differences between businesses by sector in their use of association services, but membership does significantly increase with firm size, and there is a pattern of “joiners” who belong to many associations, and “non‐joiners”. There is considerable evidence of the benefits of bundling a range of low‐cost, low‐intensity services. But actual use levels of services are low. Even joiners of many associations seem to use association membership chiefly as an insurance principle: to gain ready access to a range of services “just in case”. Analysis of the potential for new services suggests a few potential new specific niches that are related chiefly to strengthening existing service bundles emphasising the insurance principle.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Antonella La Rocca and Ivan Snehota

The purpose of this paper is to explore how corporate associations emerge in business networks focusing on mutually attributed identities in customer-supplier…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how corporate associations emerge in business networks focusing on mutually attributed identities in customer-supplier relationships. The role of the mutually perceived identities for interaction behaviours of the parties is examined and consequences of multiple emergent identities for management are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a conceptual one starting from an overview of prior research on corporate associations in marketing, findings on distinctive features of business markets and review of studies on identity in interaction processes.

Findings

Departing from various strands of research on the origin and role of corporate associations in the literature the authors argue that corporate associations, in business networks are relationship specific and continuously emergent, and that businesses acquire multiple identities in relation to main stakeholders as customers and suppliers. The relationship specificity, emergent nature and multiplicity of relationship-specific identities have consequences for management.

Originality/value

This study is among the few that explore the role of corporate associations in business-to-business context. It results in two propositions: first, that corporate associations are relationship specific and continuously emergent and, second, that businesses operating in business networks have to cope with multiple relationship-specific identities. Both propositions are original and contribute to the understanding of dynamics of business relationships and networks.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Eric Costa, António Lucas Soares and Jorge Pinho de Sousa

This paper aims to study and explore the activities and the use of institutional network resources by industrial business associations (IBAs) to support and facilitate…

1302

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study and explore the activities and the use of institutional network resources by industrial business associations (IBAs) to support and facilitate internationalisation processes of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Other goals are to understand the internationalisation follow-up process and the future vision of IBAs to improve this internationalisation support.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on empirical evidence and following an abductive approach, this paper presents a qualitative exploratory field research, providing insights from interviews performed with 20 IBAs based in Portugal.

Findings

The findings suggest that the current institutional network support to internationalisation is mainly provided through promotional activities; counselling, training and technical and legal support; information sharing; and cooperation with other institutional entities. Each support category is explored and explained and a new conceptual model is developed to represent these findings. Regarding the internationalisation follow-up, IBAs provide a continuous support for the international operations by using some instruments and mechanisms to assist SMEs after an internationalisation initiative. Finally, collaboration and the use of new information technology are the main aspects to improve IBAs’ support in a near future.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative methodological approach adopted in this work can imply a larger difficulty to obtain a generalisation of the findings. Another limitation is that the participating IBAs are based in only one country.

Practical implications

Findings can help SMEs to understand the functioning and the benefits of using the institutional network resources of IBAs in overcoming their lack of resources to operate in international markets. IBAs can also understand their current position in terms of internationalisation support and think about new ways for improving this support.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a better understanding of the influence of institutional networks in SME internationalisation by exploring the specific role of one of the institutional actors rather than focusing on the institutional network as a whole. Therefore, this study details the current activities and uncovers other types of support provided by IBAs that are not based on export promotion programmes. New knowledge is also obtained about the specific information content, information sources and means and channels of information sharing used by IBAs for supporting SME internationalisation.

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Kevin You

This paper aims to investigate the way in which Sri Lankan business associations contribute to addressing such issues and the motivation behind their contributions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the way in which Sri Lankan business associations contribute to addressing such issues and the motivation behind their contributions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data, in this study, came from publicly available sources (online news articles, newspaper articles, reports, etc.) and a series of unstructured elite interviews with leaders of Sri Lanka’s most prominent peak business associations.

Findings

Sri Lankan associations contribute to addressing problems associated with human capital flight because doing so, ultimately, benefits their members and secretariat organisations. Peak bodies make their contributions by easing the push factors that catalyse the outflow of skilled migrants from the island nation and helping to replenish skills in the country by engaging in initiatives aimed at training and developing workers, young people and entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

The behaviours of Sri Lanka’s business interest associations and the logics that drive their actions are similar to those of their counterparts in other countries (as per academic literature in the area), where association membership is not state-mandated. Rational actions of business associations have the potential to produce socially beneficial positive externalities (as in the present case issues around the brain drain).

Social implications

Findings from this research can assist government bodies, non-government organisations and other civil society organisations develop a better collaborative relationship with the private sector in developing nations to tackle problems associated with human capital flight.

Originality/value

While there has been a lively debate, among philosophers and scholars of public policy, on how governments should help address issues associated with this phenomenon, very little attention has been given to the real and potential contributions of non-governmental, non-charity-based civil society groups such as unions and business chambers. This paper seeks to address this gap.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Colin Jevons, Mark Gabbott and Leslie de Chernatony

To provide a conceptual framework to help researchers and managers understand the complex factors affecting the associations between brands.

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Abstract

Purpose

To provide a conceptual framework to help researchers and managers understand the complex factors affecting the associations between brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand extension, co‐branding and other associative techniques together with an increasingly communicative environment are resulting in an increasingly complex set of networks and relationships between brands, with singular and multiple relationship forms. There are two key perspectives on these complex relationships, that of the customer and that of the brand owner, i.e. what is seen at the point of transaction and what is expressed by the various brand constructors. Two key perspectives on brand relationships are used that of the customer and that of the brand owner, to describe and discuss an analytical classification of these relationships.

Findings

A conceptual synthesis of the dynamics of brand networks and business relationships is presented and a 2 × 2 matrix is developed to classify and describe the four categories that emerge.

Practical implications

Different management strategies for different types of business‐brand relationships are suggested.

Originality/value

The conceptual synthesis is new and some uses of the classification for researchers and brand managers are suggested.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

David Irwin

The purpose of this paper is to review the attempts to describe the features and characteristics of business associations in Tanzania which are aiming to influence public…

190

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the attempts to describe the features and characteristics of business associations in Tanzania which are aiming to influence public policy. It concludes that those attempts, whilst thought provoking, do not go far enough to be of real use to practitioners and offers an improved model.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses empirical evidence, gathered from interviews with business associations, supplemented by reviewing their research reports and policy position papers and cross referenced through interviews with public officials.

Findings

Activities and approaches of successful business associations are described and used to draw out characteristics which might enable associations to be categorised in one of four development stages based on their approach to influencing public policy.

Research limitations/implications

The new model is conceptual and work is now required to assess its validity.

Practical implications

Donors, in their design of advocacy support programmes, already focus support on associations in one or two stages of development. An improved model will make it easier for them, and practitioners, to categorise business associations. Importantly, it will provide indicators for how business associations are expected to improve as a result of the support that they are offered and thus to assess the success of the support programme.

Originality/value

There has been little research and little discussion about the features and characteristics of business associations that might lead to success in influencing public policy and thus in improving the enabling environment. This paper contributes to filling that gap.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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