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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Hangjun Yang, Qiong Zhang and Qiang Wang

In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of airline…

Abstract

In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of airline competition in China’s domestic market will also be discussed. Although air deregulation is still ongoing, the Chinese airline industry has become a market-driven business subject to some mild regulations. Then, we will review the impressive development of the high-speed rail (HSR) network in China and its effects on the domestic civil aviation market. In general, previous studies have found that the introduction of HSR services has a significant negative impact on airfare and air travel demand in China. The rapidly expanding network of HSR has important policy implications for Chinese airlines.

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Bingjun Li, Shuhua Zhang, Wenyan Li and Yifan Zhang

Grey modeling technique is an important element of grey system theory, and academic articles applied to agricultural science research have been published since 1985, proving the…

Abstract

Purpose

Grey modeling technique is an important element of grey system theory, and academic articles applied to agricultural science research have been published since 1985, proving the broad applicability and effectiveness of the technique from different aspects and providing a new means to solve agricultural science problems. The analysis of the connotation and trend of the application of grey modeling technique in agricultural science research contributes to the enrichment of grey technique and the development of agricultural science in multiple dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the relevant literature selected from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Web of Science, SpiScholar and other databases in the past 37 years (1985–2021), this paper firstly applied the bibliometric method to quantitatively visualize and systematically analyze the trend of publication, productive author, productive institution, and highly cited literature. Then, the literature is combed by the application of different grey modeling techniques in agricultural science research, and the literature research progress is systematically analyzed.

Findings

The results show that grey model technology has broad prospects in the field of agricultural science research. Agricultural universities and research institutes are the main research forces in the application of grey model technology in agricultural science research, and have certain inheritance. The application of grey model technology in agricultural science research has wide applicability and precise practicability.

Originality/value

By analyzing and summarizing the application trend of grey model technology in agricultural science research, the research hotspot, research frontier and valuable research directions of grey model technology in agricultural science research can be more clearly grasped.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2023

Yukun Hu, Suihuai Yu, Dengkai Chen, Jianjie Chu, Yanpu Yang and Qing Ao

A successful process of design concept evaluation has positive influence on subsequent processes. This study aims to consider the evaluation information at multiple stages and the…

Abstract

Purpose

A successful process of design concept evaluation has positive influence on subsequent processes. This study aims to consider the evaluation information at multiple stages and the interaction among evaluators and improve the credibility of evaluation results.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a multi-stage approach for design concept evaluation based on complex network and bounded confidence. First, a network is constructed according to the evaluation data. Depending on the consensus degree of evaluation opinions, the number of evaluation rounds is determined. Then, bounded confidence rules are applied for the modification of preference information. Last, a planning function is constructed to calculate the weight of each stage and aggregate information at multiple evaluation stages.

Findings

The results indicate that the opinions of the evaluators tend to be consistent after multiple stages of interactive adjustment, and the ordering of design concept alternatives tends to be stable with the progress of the evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

Updating preferences according to the bounded confidence rules, only the opinions within the trust threshold are considered. The attribute information of the node itself is inadequately considered.

Originality/value

This method addresses the need for considering the evaluation information at each stage and minimizes the impact of disagreements within the evaluation group on the evaluation results.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2023

Yahua Zhang, Colin C. H. Law and Anming Zhang

The rapid expansion of low-cost carriers (LCCs) in East and Southeast Asia has brought fierce competition to full-service carriers (FSCs). Competition in the air transport market…

Abstract

The rapid expansion of low-cost carriers (LCCs) in East and Southeast Asia has brought fierce competition to full-service carriers (FSCs). Competition in the air transport market is at an all-time high, thanks to the ongoing liberalization in air transport in the last several decades. This chapter assesses the efficiency performance of major FSCs in this region. It provides indicative evidence of the close association between FSCs' efficiency, and air transport liberalization and LCCs penetration. Singapore Airlines and Asiana are identified as the star companies in this region for their ability to achieve higher efficiency and, at the same time, report positive growth in productivity.

Details

Airlines and Developing Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-861-4

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

De-gan Zhang, Xiao-dong Song, Xiang Wang, Ke Li, Wen-bin Li and Zhen Ma

Mobile Service of Big Data can be supported by the fused technologies of computing, communication and digital multimedia. The purpose of this paper is to propose new agent-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile Service of Big Data can be supported by the fused technologies of computing, communication and digital multimedia. The purpose of this paper is to propose new agent-based proactive migration method and system for Big Data Environment (BDE).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors have designed new relative fusion method for making decision based on fuzzy-neural network. The method can make the fusion belief degree to be improved. Then the authors have proposed agent-based proactive migrating method with service discovery and key frames selection strategy. Finally, the authors have designed the application system, which can support proactive seamless migration function for big data. The method has innovation in which mobile service task of big data can dynamically follow its mobile user from one device to another device.

Findings

The authors have proposed agent-based proactive migrating method with service discovery and key frames selection strategy. The method has innovation in which mobile service task of big data can dynamically follow its mobile user from one device to another device. The designed system is convenient to work and use during mobility, and which is useful or helpful for mobile user in the BDE.

Originality/value

The authors have clarified and realizes how to transfer service tasks among different distances in Big Data Environment (BDE). The authors have given a formal description and classification of the mobile service task, which is independent of the realization mechanism. In the designed and developed application system, the new idea adopts fuzzy-neural control theory to make decision for task-oriented proactive seamless migration application.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Jia Liu, Jida Chen, Zhu Zhang, Jiali Yang, Wei He and Shijin Chen

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new copper electroplating formula which is able to fill blind microvias (BVHs) and through holes (THs) at one process through a direct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new copper electroplating formula which is able to fill blind microvias (BVHs) and through holes (THs) at one process through a direct current (DC) plating method.

Design/methodology/approach

Test boards of printed circuit board (PCB) fragments with BVHs and THs for filling plating are designed. The filling plating is conducted in a DC plating device, and the filling processes and influence factors on filling effect of BVHs and THs are investigated. Dimple depths, surface copper thickness, thermal shock and thermal cycle test are applied to characterize filling effect and reliability. In addition, to overcome thickness, increase of copper on board surface during filling plating of BVHs and THs, a simple process called pattern plating, is put forwarded; a four-layered PCB with surface copper thickness less than 12 μm is successfully produced.

Findings

The filling plating with the new copper electroplating formula is potential to replace the conventional filling process of BVHs and THs of PCB and, most importantly, the problem of thickness increase of copper on board surface after filling process is overcome if a pattern plating process is applied.

Research limitations/implications

The dimple depth of BVHs and THs after filling plating is not small enough, though it meets the requirements, and the smallest diameter and largest depth of holes studied are 75 and 200 μm, respectively. Hence, the possibility for filling holes of much more small in diameter and large in depth with the plating formula should be further studied.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a new copper electroplating formula which achieves BVHs and THs filling at one process through a DC plating method. It overall reduces production processes and improved reliability of products resulting in production cost saving and production efficiency improvement.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2023

Dalei Zhang, Xinwei Zhang, Enze Wei, Xiaohui Dou and Zonghao He

This study aims to improve the corrosion resistance of TA2-welded joints by superhydrophobic surface modification using micro-arc oxidation technology and low surface energy…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to improve the corrosion resistance of TA2-welded joints by superhydrophobic surface modification using micro-arc oxidation technology and low surface energy substance modification.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure and chemical state of the superhydrophobic film layer were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional morphology, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The influence of the superhydrophobic film layer on the corrosion resistance of TA2-welded joints was investigated using classical electrochemical testing methods.

Findings

The characterization results showed that the super hydrophobic TiO2 ceramic membrane was successfully constructed on the surface of the TA2-welded joint, and the construction of the super hydrophobic film greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the TA2-welded joint.

Originality/value

The superhydrophobic TiO2 ceramic membrane has excellent corrosion resistance. The micro nanostructure in the superhydrophobic film can intercept air to form an air layer to prevent the corrosion medium from contacting the surface, thus, improving the corrosion resistance of the sample.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 April 2024

Ziwen Gao, Steven F. Lehrer, Tian Xie and Xinyu Zhang

Motivated by empirical features that characterize cryptocurrency volatility data, the authors develop a forecasting strategy that can account for both model uncertainty and…

Abstract

Motivated by empirical features that characterize cryptocurrency volatility data, the authors develop a forecasting strategy that can account for both model uncertainty and heteroskedasticity of unknown form. The theoretical investigation establishes the asymptotic optimality of the proposed heteroskedastic model averaging heterogeneous autoregressive (H-MAHAR) estimator under mild conditions. The authors additionally examine the convergence rate of the estimated weights of the proposed H-MAHAR estimator. This analysis sheds new light on the asymptotic properties of the least squares model averaging estimator under alternative complicated data generating processes (DGPs). To examine the performance of the H-MAHAR estimator, the authors conduct an out-of-sample forecasting application involving 22 different cryptocurrency assets. The results emphasize the importance of accounting for both model uncertainty and heteroskedasticity in practice.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Wei Wang, Shoujian Zhang and Andrew Philip King

The engineering construction standards in China play an important role in protecting the safety of the construction projects. They are the basic principles that standardize the…

1491

Abstract

Purpose

The engineering construction standards in China play an important role in protecting the safety of the construction projects. They are the basic principles that standardize the construction activities and guarantee the quality of projects. However, there are many barriers that affect the adoption of the engineering construction standards. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the barriers that challenge the adoption of the engineering construction standards in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The research reveals the barriers that affect the implementation of the engineering construction standards in China through a literature review. Then this study uses factor analysis to analyze 12 indices which we get from a questionnaire to build explanations from the results.

Findings

According to this paper, four main brands of uncorrelated variables are derived which are the main challenges in implementing the engineering construction standards in China: management barriers, policy barriers, knowledge barriers and market barriers. This paper gives a clear classification of the barriers that the enterprises face while adopting the engineering construction standards in China.

Originality/value

This paper makes a contribution to the understanding of the barriers that affect the adoption of the engineering construction standards in China.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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