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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Xinyi Liu, Xiao Fu, Chang Hua and Zhiyong Li

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic plunged global tourism into a huge crisis in 2020. China was confronted with a wave of cancellations by tourism consumers due to COVID-19 and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic plunged global tourism into a huge crisis in 2020. China was confronted with a wave of cancellations by tourism consumers due to COVID-19 and tourist complaints rose dramatically during this period. Although tourism enterprises have quickly introduced measures in response, the effectiveness of targeted policies is expected to be evaluated. Concerned about this phenomenon, this study aims to provide insights into the dim prospects of the tourism industry and to bridge the gap between tourists and enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study adopts a two-step method that combines automatic and manual content analysis to contrastively analyse 647 complaints from the Sina platform and the measures of five online travel agencies (OTAs) taken to deal with COVID-19.

Findings

The results reveal that the COVID-19-related information and policies issued by official departments had a promoting effect on tourist complaints. OTAs were the main target of complainers, and three themes of complaints were identified, namely, cancellation barriers, refund barriers and customer relationship management. Although tourism enterprises’ policies covered most dimensions of the three themes, more detailed and mutually beneficial policies need to be formulated in the face of a new round of cancellations.

Originality/value

This research attempts to investigate tourism customer complaint behaviours in the case of COVID-19 and to provide tourism enterprises receiving different complaints with practical insights into crisis management. It contributes to simultaneously minimizing business losses and maintaining customer relationships in the service industry, improving the industry’s performance under potential crises in the future.

危机信息、沟通策略和客户投诉行为:以COVID-19为例

研究目的

2020年, 新冠肺炎大流行的爆发使全球旅游业陷入巨大危机。由于新冠肺炎疫情, 中国面临了旅游消费者的退订浪潮, 期间游客投诉大幅上升。虽然旅游企业迅速采取了应对措施, 但预期将评估有针对性的政策的有效性。考虑到这一现象, 本研究旨在为旅游业的暗淡前景提供见解, 并弥合游客和企业之间的差距。

设计/方法/方法

本研究采用自动内容分析和人工手动编码相结合的两步方法, 对来自新浪平台的647起游客投诉和5家在线旅行社应对COVID-19的措施进行对比分析。

结果

结果显示, 官方部门发布的新冠肺炎相关信息和政策对旅游投诉的数量起到了刺激作用。在线旅行社是投诉者的主要目标, 并确定了游客投诉的三个主题:取消障碍、退款障碍和客户关系管理。虽然旅游企业政策涵盖了这三个主题的大部分层面, 但面对新一轮的取消, 还需要制定更详细和互利的政策。

原创性/价值

本研究试图调查COVID-19情况下的旅游客户投诉行为, 为收到不同投诉的旅游企业提供危机管理的实用见解。它有助于在服务行业同时减少业务损失和维护客户关系, 提高行业在未来潜在危机下的绩效。

Información de crisis, estrategias de comunicación y medidas adoptadas ante las reclamaciones de los clientes: el caso de COVID-19

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El presente estudio adopta un método en dos fases que combina el análisis de contenido automático y manual para analizar de forma contrastiva 647 reclamaciones de la plataforma Sina y las medidas de cinco agencias de viajes online (OTA) adoptadas para hacer frente a la COVID-19.

Objetivo

El estallido de la pandemia COVID-19 sumió al turismo mundial en una enorme crisis en 2020. China tuvo que hacer frente a una oleada de cancelaciones por parte de los consumidores turísticos debido a la COVID-19, y las quejas de los turistas aumentaron drásticamente durante este periodo. Aunque las empresas turísticas introdujeron rápidamente medidas de respuesta, se espera que se evalúe la eficacia de dichas políticas. Preocupado por este fenómeno, el presente estudio pretende aportar información sobre las sombrías perspectivas de la industria turística y tender un puente entre los turistas y las empresas.

Conclusiones

Los resultados revelan que la información y las políticas relacionadas con el COVID-19 emitidas por los departamentos oficiales tuvieron un efecto promotor de las quejas de los turistas. Las OTAs fueron el principal objetivo de los reclamantes, y se identificaron tres temas de reclamaciones: barreras de cancelación, barreras de reembolso y gestión de la relación con el cliente. Aunque las políticas de las empresas turísticas cubrían la mayoría de las dimensiones de los tres temas, es necesario formular políticas más detalladas y mutuamente beneficiosas ante una nueva oleada de cancelaciones.

Originalidad/valor

Esta investigación trata de investigar el comportamiento de las reclamaciones de los clientes turísticos en el caso de COVID-19 y de proporcionar a las empresas turísticas que reciben diferentes reclamaciones una visión práctica de la gestión de crisis. Contribuye a minimizar simultáneamente las pérdidas comerciales y a mantener las relaciones con los clientes en el sector de los servicios, mejorando el rendimiento de la industria ante posibles crisis en el futuro.

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Xinyi Liu, Ying Zeng, Juan He and Zhiyong Li

The purpose of this study is to present a holistic review of journal articles on value cocreation in the tourism and hospitality field. By distinguishing similarities and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a holistic review of journal articles on value cocreation in the tourism and hospitality field. By distinguishing similarities and differences in the contexts of China and other regions, the authors identify targeted research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected 438 English articles and 31 Chinese articles on value cocreation in tourism and hospitality published in the Web of Science, Scopus and China National Knowledge Infrastructure online databases. After analyzing the study location of all articles in the sample, the authors identified 79 English-language articles that adopted China as the context of the study. The first data set included non-China-focused publications and the second data set included China-focused publications. A comparative bibliometric methodology was conducted.

Findings

The results indicate similarities and differences between the two data sets in terms of research methods, topics and future research directions. Seven major concepts were identified in the first data set: hospitality value cocreation; the value generation process; key stakeholders; outcome variables; the application of service-dominant logic; peer-to-peer accommodation and destination management. Four research focuses were identified in the second data set: the application of customer-dominant logic; the value generation process; resource integration and the cocreation experience.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the understanding of tourism and hospitality cocreation systems through literature analysis and encourages future research on the nexus of the Chinese and global contexts. This systematic investigation extends the concept of value cocreation by integrating its implementation process and value categories and further evaluates the consequences and benefits of value cocreation, which helps clarify how winners and losers can adjust their strategies accordingly.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in the adopted comparative bibliometric analysis which comprehensively reviewed and compared the characteristics of value cocreation research across two contexts. In addition, the study dialectically assesses Chinese tourism cocreation phenomena and their impacts from a global perspective.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Xinyi Liu, Zhiyong Li, Qiqi Zhang and Yue Zhang

This study aims to identify the factors influencing Chinese outbound tourists’ perceptions of safety in Thailand. A media coverage analysis compares the safety perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the factors influencing Chinese outbound tourists’ perceptions of safety in Thailand. A media coverage analysis compares the safety perceptions of visitors and non-visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Based on a content analysis of 204 news items related to safety incidents in Thailand, this paper divides the factors of safety perception into four dimensions. The quantitative data were gathered by self-administered questionnaires from 370 visitors who have previously visited Thailand and 407 potential visitors yet to visit Thailand.

Findings

The results demonstrated significant differences in the safety perceptions of visitors and non-visitors, indicating non-visitors’ fear of uncertainty and intolerance of the exotic. The study also confirmed social-demographic characteristics influence destination safety perceptions. For non-visitors, safety issues tend to have a negative influence on future visit intention, but those with previous travel experience have less concerns.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide valuable insights to industry practice. More publicity campaigns within the Chinese media may reduce the spillover effects of crisis events and correct the potentially inaccurate images of disease and terrorism risk. Thai government is suggested to develop the Chinese inbound market, improve the quality of tourism infrastructure and standardisation and efficiency of tourism services.

Originality/value

The media plays a significant role in destination image, tourist decision-making and safety measures imposed by governments. This study identified the factors influencing Chinese outbound tourists’ perceptions of safety in Thailand through an analysis of media coverage. The study provides a better understanding of the differences in safety perceptions between visitors and non-visitors to Thailand. The segmentation of visitors and non-visitors also may help destination managers to cater to differing expectations of safety.

研究目的

本研究旨在探讨中国赴泰游客和潜在赴泰游客对泰国安全认知的影响因素。本研究通过对媒体报道文本的分析,识别出中国出境游客泰国安全感的影响因素,并进一步对游客与潜在游客在安全感知上的差异进行对比。

设计/方法/方法

本研究采用了混合方法。本文通过对204篇泰国安全事件新闻报道的内容进行分析,将安全感知因素分为四个维度。定量研究数据是从370名有泰国旅游经历的游客和407名没有去过泰国的潜在游客中收集的。

研究结果

研究结果显示游客与潜在游客在安全认知上有显著差异,体现了潜在访客对异国情调的不确定性和不宽容。本研究也证实了社会人口学特征对两个群体的目的地安全感知都有影响。此外,对于潜在游客来说,大多数安全问题都会对他们未来的访问意图产生负面影响,但对于游客来说,结果则相反。

原创性/价值

媒体在目的地形象、旅游决策和政府安全措施方面发挥着重要作用。本研究以媒体报导为分析工具,探讨中国出境游客泰国安全感的影响因素。这项研究有助于更好地了解中国赴泰游客和潜在游客在安全认知方面的差异。游客和潜在游客的细分也有助于目的地管理者满足他们对安全的特定期望。

研究局限性/启示

我们的发现为行业实践提供了有价值的见解。在中国媒体上开展更多的宣传活动,可以减少危机事件的外溢效应,纠正有关疾病和恐怖主义风险的潜在地不准确形象。此外,泰国政府应提高旅游基础设施的质量,提高旅游服务的标准化和效率。

Propósito

Este estudio identifica los factores que influyen en la seguridad percibida de Tailandia por los turistas emisores chinos, con el análisis de la cobertura de los medios, y además compara las diferencias en las percepciones de seguridad entre visitantes y no visitantes.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se ha adoptado una metodología mixta. Basado en el análisis de contenido de 204 noticias sobre incidentes de seguridad en Tailandia, este trabajo divide los factores de percepción de seguridad en cuatro dimensiones. Los datos cuantitativos se recopilaron mediante cuestionarios autoadministrados de 370 visitantes que tenían experiencia en viajes a Tailandia y 407 visitantes potenciales que no habían estado en Tailandia.

Resultados

Los resultados demuestran diferencias significativas en la percepción de seguridad de los visitantes y no visitantes, lo que indica el miedo de los no visitantes a la incertidumbre y la intolerancia de lo exótico. Este estudio también confirma que las características sociodemográficas influyen en la percepción de seguridad del destino de cada grupo. Además, para los no visitantes, la mayoría de las cuestiones de seguridad influyen negativamente en su intención de visita futura, pero para los turistas, los resultados son contrarios.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Los resultados brindan información valiosa para la práctica de la industria. Más campañas publicitarias en los medios chinos podrían reducir los efectos secundarios de los eventos de crisis y corregir las imágenes potencialmente inexactas sobre los riesgos de enfermedades y terrorismo. Además, el gobierno tailandés debería mejorar la calidad de su infraestructura turística y aumentar la estandarización y eficiencia de los servicios turísticos.

Originalidad/valor

Los medios de comunicación juegan un papel importante en la imagen del destino, la toma de decisiones turísticas y las medidas de seguridad de los gobiernos. Este estudio identifica los factores que influyen en la seguridad percibida de Tailandia por parte de los turistas chinos, con el análisis de la cobertura de los medios. El estudio proporciona una mejor comprensión de las diferencias en las percepciones de seguridad entre visitantes y no visitantes de Tailandia. La segmentación de visitantes y no visitantes también ayuda a los gestores de los destinos a satisfacer expectativas específicas de seguridad.

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Xinyi Liu, Jun Wen, Metin Kozak, Yangyang Jiang and Zhiyong Li

COVID-19 is currently the most serious crisis facing the world, and scholars in the medical and social sciences are working to save lives and mitigate the societal effects of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 is currently the most serious crisis facing the world, and scholars in the medical and social sciences are working to save lives and mitigate the societal effects of the pandemic. This global public health emergency requires interdisciplinary work to provide comprehensive insight into a rapidly changing situation. However, attempts to integrate the medical and social sciences have met several barriers. This paper aims to identify feasible research opportunities for interdisciplinary studies across tourism and public health regarding COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a critical review of the literature and generates corresponding conceptual and theoretical frameworks to provide an in-depth discussion.

Findings

Tourism-related issues of destination management policies and capital are addressed from an interdisciplinary perspective. The conclusions encourage interdisciplinary research into global health problems, which will promote tourism’s renaissance and sustainable development while enhancing social welfare.

Practical implications

This study focuses on integrating tourism and public health to offer stakeholders recommendations regarding destination management and tourism industry recovery amid COVID-19.

Originality/value

This paper represents a frontier study, critically uncovering a host of innovative interdisciplinary research directions and tourism-focused collaboration opportunities related to COVID-19.

新冠疫情危机下的跨学科实践谈判:旅游研究的机遇和挑战

研究目的

新冠疫情是当今世界面对的最严重的危机, 医学和社会科学领域的学者们在共同努力, 拯救生命, 减轻疫情的社会影响。基于快速变化的形势, 这项全球突发的公共卫生事件亟需跨学科工作来进行全面的调查, 但目前医学和社会科学的融合存在一些阻碍因素。为了应对新冠疫情的爆发, 本文旨在探讨旅游与公共卫生跨学科合作的可行性和研究机会, 并总结潜在的研究主题和未来的研究议程。

研究设计/方法

本研究对文献进行了批判性的回顾, 并生成了相应的概念和理论框架, 以提供一个全面的, 深入的主题讨论。

研究结果

研究结果从跨学科的角度讨论了旅游产业中的目的地管理、政策和资本问题。我们的结论鼓励对全球健康问题进行跨学科研究, 这将促进旅游业的复兴和可持续发展, 同时提高社会福利。

研究局限/启示

目前的研究重点是旅游研究和公共卫生的融合, 为利益攸关方提供关于在危机中目的地管理和旅游业复苏的建议。

原创性/价值

本文是一项前沿研究, 批判性地、全面地确定了一系列与新冠疫情相关的旅游领域的跨学科研究方向和合作机会。

关键词:医学, 社会科学, 公共健康, 旅游管理, 跨学科研究, 新冠肺炎

文章类型: 研究型论文

Diseño/metodología/enfoque (límite 100 palabras)

Este trabajo presenta una revisión crítica de la literatura y genera los correspondientes marcos conceptuales y teóricos para proporcionar una discusión en profundidad.

Objetivo (límite 100 palabras)

El COVID-19 es actualmente la crisis más grave a la que se enfrenta el mundo, y los especialistas en ciencias médicas y sociales están trabajando para salvar vidas y mitigar los efectos sociales de la pandemia. Esta emergencia de salud pública mundial requiere un trabajo interdisciplinario para proporcionar una visión completa de una situación que cambia rápidamente. Sin embargo, los intentos de integrar las ciencias médicas y sociales han encontrado varios obstáculos. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las oportunidades de investigación viables para los estudios interdisciplinares entre el turismo y la salud pública en relación con la COVID-19.

Conclusiones (límite 100 palabras)

Las cuestiones relacionadas con el turismo en materia de gestión de destinos, políticas y capital se abordan desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar. Nuestras conclusiones alientan la investigación interdisciplinaria de los problemas de salud global, lo que promoverá el renacimiento del turismo y el desarrollo sostenible, al tiempo que aumentará el bienestar social.

Implicaciones prácticas (límite 100 palabras)

Este estudio se centra en la integración del turismo y la salud pública para ofrecer a las partes interesadas recomendaciones relativas a la gestión de los destinos y la recuperación de la industria turística en medio de COVID-19.

Originalidad/valor (límite 100 palabras)

Este trabajo representa un estudio de frontera, que descubre de forma crítica una serie de direcciones innovadoras de investigación interdisciplinaria y oportunidades de colaboración centradas en el turismo en relación con COVID-19.

Palabras clave

Palabras clave Ciencias médicas, ciencias sociales, salud pública, gestión del turismo, investigación interdisciplinaria, COVID-19

Tipo de artículo

Investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2023

Shilei Zhang, Teng Zhao, Xinyi Liu, Chunhao Wei and Sijun Liu

Building on the broaden-and-build theory and incorporating a self-regulatory perspective, this study examines the relationship between trait gratitude and subjective career…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the broaden-and-build theory and incorporating a self-regulatory perspective, this study examines the relationship between trait gratitude and subjective career success and investigates the mediating roles of growth mindset of work and career network breadth.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged data were collected in three waves from a sample of 314 employees in China. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that trait gratitude is positively related to SCS, mediated by growth mindset of work as an indicator of psychological resources and career network breadth as an indicator of social resources. Trait gratitude is more strongly associated with network breadth (i.e., social resources) than with growth mindset (i.e., psychological resources).

Practical implications

Organizations may find trait gratitude an applicable addition to the selection criteria during the recruitment process.

Originality/value

By identifying trait gratitude as an antecedent of SCS and revealing its underlying mechanisms, the current study points to a new perspective on the study of career success.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2023

Dan Huang, Qiurong Chen, Songshan (Sam) Huang and Xinyi Liu

Drawing on the cognitive–affective–conative framework, this study aims to develop a model of service robot acceptance in the hospitality sector by incorporating both cognitive…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the cognitive–affective–conative framework, this study aims to develop a model of service robot acceptance in the hospitality sector by incorporating both cognitive evaluations and affective responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method approach combining qualitative and quantitative methods was used to develop measurement and test research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that five cognitive evaluations (i.e. cuteness, coolness, courtesy, utility and autonomy) significantly influence consumers’ positive affect, leading to customer acceptance intention. Four cognitive evaluations (cuteness, interactivity, courtesy and utility) significantly influence consumers’ negative affect, which in turn positively affects consumer acceptance intention.

Practical implications

This study provides significant implications for the design and implementation of service robots in the hospitality and tourism sector.

Originality/value

Different from traditional technology acceptance models, this study proposed a model based on the hierarchical relationships of cognition, affect and conation to enhance knowledge about human–robot interactions.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Jianhua Ren, Junjie Zhao and Xinyi Liu

With the twin screw extruder being widely used, there are a lot of parameters considered in the method, and the extruder’s volume is an important parameter of twin screw extruders…

Abstract

Purpose

With the twin screw extruder being widely used, there are a lot of parameters considered in the method, and the extruder’s volume is an important parameter of twin screw extruders among them. In this paper, some of the extruder parameters such as the impacting extruder volume are introduced, and the mathematical relationship in these parameters is interpreted. The minimum power consumption is the goal of the authors’ structural design.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper further applies genetic algorithm, a kind of intelligent optimization methods, to obtain the most optimized design dimension, and power consumption function related to unit output of extruder is used as the optimizing target. Meanwhile, this paper takes channel depth of feeding section, channel depth of extrusion section affecting the energy consumption, the width of flight top and helix angle as design variables.

Findings

By using genetic algorithm, the optimal structure size is obtained, and the power consumption is minimum.

Originality/value

With the use of optimizing the structure, the power of consumption is reduced. This method has important economic significance and important social significance on energy saving.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Huiru Li, Xinyi Liu, Hengli Zhou and Zhiyong Li

A proliferation of articles surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic is calling for new insights through review. This paper aims to bibliometrically analyze the current progress of…

Abstract

Purpose

A proliferation of articles surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic is calling for new insights through review. This paper aims to bibliometrically analyze the current progress of research around hospitality and tourism to define the research directions on herd immunity and the prevention of disease under the “new normal.”

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzed 326 articles regarding COVID-19 published in SSCI hospitality, leisure and tourism journals in 2020 and 2021 by combining manual analysis and bibliometrics to reveal research topics and to gain insight into research structures.

Findings

The results of this paper summarized topics related to stakeholders’ mentality and behavior, responses of travel suppliers to the COVID-19 pandemic, economic impact and demand forecasting, social issues of human rights and racism and reflection on tourism and transformation of the industry. More research is called for in the future to focus on a better response to the crisis, including crisis management education and training and the improving the resilience of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

Research limitations/implications

A three-dimensional consideration was proposed to promote the sustainable development of hospitality and tourism.

Originality/value

In the “new normal” phase of herd immunity and disease prevention, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that provides an up-to-date systematic overview of the evolution of COVID-19 research in tourism and hospitality and encourages more conceptual, practical and futuristic studies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Dan Huang, Xinyi Liu, Dan Lai and Zhiyong Li

To better understand what inhibits people from participating in collaborative consumption, this paper aims to develop research models of users and non-users to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

To better understand what inhibits people from participating in collaborative consumption, this paper aims to develop research models of users and non-users to examine the relationship between perceived risks and intentions to use peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation. Moreover, differences of risk perceptions and behavioral intentions between P2P accommodation users and non-users were identified.

Design/methodology/approach

The method of convenience sampling was used to collect data. Excluding the invalid questionnaires, 520 were kept for further analysis. In this paper, SPSS and partial least squares (PLS) were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings highlighted the important role of perceived risks in determining tourists’ intentions to use P2P accommodation. The results showed that non-users have higher perceived risks in regards to all four risk dimensions (psychological risk, physical risk, performance risk and social risk), and they also have significantly lower behavioral intentions to use P2P accommodation than the users. For users, only the psychological risk has significant negative effects on behavioral intentions, while for non-users, both psychological and physical risks are important inhibitors.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a better understanding of the antecedents that influence consumers’ participation in collaborative consumption in the P2P accommodation domain. Second, it extends the literature on perceived risk by discussing users and non-users in this market. Finally, this research provides insights into the P2P accommodation market in China, which enables online travel platforms to develop targeted marketing strategies.

研究目的

为更好了解协同消费的顾客参与,本论文构建了使用者和非使用者模型来检验其感知风险和使用P2P住宿行为意向的关系。此外,本论文也试图探讨使用者和非使用者在感知风险和行为意向方面的差异。

研究设计/方法/途径

研究样本采取方便抽样方式,共回收520份有效问卷。本论文采用SPSS和偏最小二乘法(PLS)分析数据。

研究结果

研究结果凸显了感知风险对影响游客使用P2P住宿的重要作用。P2P 住宿非使用者不仅有更高的感知风险(表现在四个风险维度上:心理风险,身体风险,性能风险和社会风险),而且比使用者有更低的使用意向。对于使用者来说,只有心理风险对行为意向有显著地影响作用;对于非使用者,心理风险和身体风险都是影响行为意向的因素。

研究原创性/价值

本论文对于阻碍P2P住宿的参与因素进行了深入探讨。其次,本论文通过讨论使用者和非使用者的差异拓展了感知风险相关研究。最后,本论文研究了P2P住宿业在中国的市场情况,为在线旅行平台开发目标市场策略提供了启示。

关键词

P2P 住宿,Airbnb, 感知风险,使用者和非使用者,行为意向

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Xinyi Xu

People's conciliation is a grass‐roots effort for conflict management in China. It settles civil disputes without characterizing them as conflicts between blameworthy adversaries…

Abstract

People's conciliation is a grass‐roots effort for conflict management in China. It settles civil disputes without characterizing them as conflicts between blameworthy adversaries. It does not take legal effect. But with support from the people's court and government, it is generally honored as an institution to maintain and promote mutual confidence and reciprocal relations among rural villagers, urban residents, and work unit employees. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of people's conciliation. The origin, development, and organization are approached in relation to conciliation in Chinese history as well as other forms of intervention such as self‐conducted, lawyer‐assisted, administrative, and judicial conciliation. Case variety, principle, prohibition, strategy, procedure, and conciliator training are examined Illustrative cases are provided. Ideological and institutional aspects are analyzed in light of Maoism, political economy, culture and community, and public attitude in China.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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