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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Abstract

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The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Todd J. Weber, Golnaz Sadri and William A. Gentry

The global nature of today’s business environment, coupled with technological advances, has resulted in leaders working with an increasingly diverse workforce worldwide. An

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Abstract

Purpose

The global nature of today’s business environment, coupled with technological advances, has resulted in leaders working with an increasingly diverse workforce worldwide. An emerging stream of research examines the beliefs that individuals, groups, and organizations have regarding diversity. The purpose of this paper is to add to this work by looking at subordinate perceptions of a leader’s beliefs about diversity and how that relates to a leader’s performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using archival data, the authors examine 33,976 leaders (from 36 different countries and more than 4,000 companies). This study includes performance ratings from each leader’s supervisor as well as perceptual measures of diversity beliefs from their direct reports and a measure of national culture as a moderator.

Findings

The research finds that employee perceptions of a leader’s diversity beliefs are related to supervisor ratings of the target leader’s performance. In addition, the relationship between a leader’s diversity beliefs and the target leader’s performance rating is stronger in cultures high in performance orientation (PO) than in cultures low in PO.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations include the use of an archival data set as well as an assigned country score for our measure of culture.

Originality/value

While existing research has examined the impact of self-rated measures of diversity beliefs, there is little empirical research that examines how employee perceptions of a leader’s diversity beliefs will impact performance. The authors address this need by examining whether employee-rated perceptions of the leader’s diversity beliefs are related to a supervisor-rated measure of leader performance. In addition, the authors examine the moderating influence of societal culture on this relationship.

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Robert Zinko, William A. Gentry and Mary Dana Laird

The current, established scale used to measure personal reputation treats the construct as a unidimensional measure. For example, the scale fails to distinguish between…

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Abstract

Purpose

The current, established scale used to measure personal reputation treats the construct as a unidimensional measure. For example, the scale fails to distinguish between individuals who are known for being socially popular versus those who are known for being experts in their field. This study aims to address this issue by developing a multidimensional personal reputation scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on existing theory, a scale is developed and validated against existing, similar constructs. First, a panel of three academic experts who have done research on personal reputation, and also two professional experts who have rich experience in the management field, evaluated the items for face validity. Then 112 working adults were asked to rate the reputation of a co-worker. Each dimension of personal reputation was validated against an existing, similar scale (e.g. social reputation was validated against an existing “popularity” scale).

Findings

A multi-dimensional, personal reputation scale is presented. This measure purports that personal reputation has three dimensions: task, social and integrity.

Originality/value

The presented scale allows researchers to distinguish different types of reputations in the workplace. This is significant because both anecdotal evidence and empirical findings suggest that to simply assume that reputation based upon being a person of high integrity and upon being an expert at a specific task will present the same outcomes is a fallacy. To further the knowledge of personal reputation, a need exists to be able to measure the different dimensions of reputation.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

William A. Gentry, Jean B. Leslie, David C. Gilmore, B. Parker Ellen III, Gerald R. Ferris and Darren C. Treadway

Although individual difference variables are important in the prediction of leadership effectiveness, comparatively little empirical research has examined distal and proximal…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although individual difference variables are important in the prediction of leadership effectiveness, comparatively little empirical research has examined distal and proximal traits/characteristics that help managers lead effectively in organizations. The aim of this paper is to extend previous research by examining whether and how specific distal, narrow personality traits and the more proximal characteristic of political skill are related to decisiveness, a specific competency of leadership effectiveness, as rated from direct reports and peers.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-report data on political skill and personality traits (i.e. perceptiveness and affability) from 225 practicing managers from the US, together with other-report (i.e. peer and subordinate) ratings of their leadership effectiveness (i.e. decisiveness) were used to test the mediating effects of political skill.

Findings

Results show that political skill (i.e. the social astuteness dimension) mediated the relationships between narrow personality traits and evaluations of leadership effectiveness as rated by some, but not other rater sources. Specifically, the social astuteness dimension of political skill mediated the relationship between perceptiveness and decisiveness ratings from direct reports but not for ratings from peers, and the full political skill composite measure mediated the relationship between affability and decisiveness ratings from peers but not for ratings from direct reports.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the availability of only two narrow personality traits, which constrained the scope of the possible mediation tests of all individual dimensions of political skill.

Practical implications

Political skill is shown to be a more proximal predictor of leadership effectiveness than personality dimensions. Thus, political skill should be considered over personality for emerging leaders. Further, differences in ratings due to source (i.e. peer and subordinate) indicate the need for organizational leaders to consider the source when evaluating effectiveness reports.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to integrate the Ferris et al. model of political skill and the Zaccaro et al. distal-proximal trait model of leadership effectiveness.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

William A. Gentry, Lauren S. Harris, Becca A. Baker and Jean Brittain Leslie

This paper aims to show how changes in the workplace may have coincided with shifts in the importance of managerial skills over the past 15 years and to identify managerial skills…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show how changes in the workplace may have coincided with shifts in the importance of managerial skills over the past 15 years and to identify managerial skills needed at different levels and functions in today's work context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study, using survey methodology, is within the context of field research using 7,389 managers from 1988‐1992 and 7,410 managers from 2004‐2006.

Findings

Managerial skills important in the 1980s are relevant today. However, the importance of “relationships,” “administrative/organizational ability” and “time management” shifted over the last 15 years. This paper also identifies which managerial skills are important at different levels and across different functions of an organization in today's work environment.

Research limitations/implications

Asking managers to choose which skills are important, rather than asking how important each skill is, may be a limitation. Future research should also consider the importance of managerial skills from a boss, peer, or direct report perspective.

Practical implications

The results have implications for training and development, selection and succession planning.

Originality/value

This study is unique since it uses the opinions of practicing managers totaling more than 14,000 over two distinct time periods to determine whether certain skills important (or not important) in the past are still important (or not important) today, and whether the importance of certain managerial skills has changed over a 15‐year period, and what skills are important across managerial levels and functions in today's organizational and work context.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

William A. Gentry, Scott P. Mondore and Brennan D. Cox

This research has the purpose of examining whether personality preferences and type from the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are related to managerial derailment.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research has the purpose of examining whether personality preferences and type from the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are related to managerial derailment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is within the context of field research, using 6,124 managers undergoing leadership development processes. Survey methodology was used to assess a manager's self‐ratings of MBTI type and preference, and observer ratings (peer, boss, direct report) of managerial derailment characteristics.

Findings

Different MBTI preferences of managers are likely to display derailment characteristics as judged by observer perspectives. In an exploratory manner, the MBTI preferences and types are also examined in accordance with different managerial derailment clusters.

Research limitations/implications

The MBTI's conceptual foundation and psychometrics may be viewed as a limitation, and other personality theories like “The Big Five” could be used. Limitations of the study also include the fact that managers going through a leadership development process may be different to managers in general, and derailment characteristics do not necessarily mean actual managerial derailment.

Practical implications

Regardless of MBTI type or preference, managers can decrease their chances of managerial derailment through examining job fit, increasing self‐awareness, and through other mechanisms mentioned in the paper.

Originality/value

This study is unique, since MBTI preferences and types could signal whether managers display derailment characteristics to their co‐workers. Additionally, this paper gives insight into how managers can prevent derailment, regardless of their MBTI type and preference, thereby having special value for managers and those who study managerial development.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

William A. Gentry, Karl W. Kuhnert, Scott P. Mondore and Erin E. Page

Using “districts” nested within “regions”, this multi‐level analysis research aims to examine whether a climate of supervisory‐support at a “district”‐level (as measured by…

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Abstract

Purpose

Using “districts” nested within “regions”, this multi‐level analysis research aims to examine whether a climate of supervisory‐support at a “district”‐level (as measured by perceived supervisor support (PSS)), and “region”‐level unemployment rates were related to “district”‐level retention rates of blue‐collar part‐time employees (PTEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Blue‐collar PTE retention rates (from company records) and PSS levels (from a company‐wide survey) of a large global service provider were gathered. “Regional” unemployment rates were collected via publicly‐accessible government statistics.

Findings

The study finds that PSS levels of blue‐collar PTEs were related to retention rates. Additionally, through the nested relationship of the study, the “region”‐level unemployment rate was also related to PTE retention levels.

Research limitation/implications

Limitations of the study included generalization to other companies, inability to collect demographic data, sample size and sampling issues, and concerns about the measurement of retention.

Practical implications

This study revealed that supervisory‐support climate was important in PTE retention. This paper gives mechanisms that managers can use to improve PSS levels of employees. Additionally, since organizations exist in environments, results show that the external environment may affect organizational outcomes, no matter what occurs internally in the organization.

Originality/value

This study is unique since it focused specifically on blue‐collar PTEs, a much‐needed group of people to research. The paper gave ways for managers to enhance their relationship with PTEs, thereby having special value for managers and those who study managerial development. Additionally, the study gave evidence that organizations exist in environments, and factors outside the organization may affect retention within organizations.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Abstract

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Dan Bogart and Gary Richardson

A new database demonstrates that between 1600 and 1830, Parliament passed thousands of acts restructuring rights to real and equitable estates. These estate acts enabled…

Abstract

A new database demonstrates that between 1600 and 1830, Parliament passed thousands of acts restructuring rights to real and equitable estates. These estate acts enabled individuals and families to sell, mortgage, lease, exchange, and improve land previously bound by landholding and inheritance laws. This essay provides a factual foundation for research on this important topic: the law and economics of property rights during the period preceding the Industrial Revolution. Tables present time-series, cross-sectional, and panel data that should serve as a foundation for empirical analysis. Preliminary analysis indicates ways in which this new evidence may shape our understanding of British economic and social history. The data demonstrate that Parliament facilitated the reallocation of resources to new and more productive uses by adapting property rights to modern economic conditions. Reallocation surged in the decades following the Glorious Revolution and was concentrated in areas undergoing urbanization and industrialization. The process was open to landowners of all classes, not just the privileged groups who sat in the Houses of Lords and Commons. Parliament's rhetoric about improving the realm appears to have been consistent with its actions concerning rights to land and resources.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-771-4

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Alex Brayson

The experimental parliamentary subsidy on knights' fees and freehold incomes from lands and rents of 1431 was the only English direct lay tax of the Middle Ages which broke down…

Abstract

The experimental parliamentary subsidy on knights' fees and freehold incomes from lands and rents of 1431 was the only English direct lay tax of the Middle Ages which broke down. As such, this subsidy has a clear historiographical significance, yet previous scholars have tended to overlook it on the grounds that parliament's annulment act of 1432 mandated the destruction of all fiscal administrative evidence. Many county assessments from 1431–1432 do, however, survive and are examined for the first time in this article as part of a detailed assessment of the fiscal and administrative context of the knights' fees and incomes tax. This impost constituted a royal response to excess expenditures associated with Henry VI's “Coronation Expedition” of 1429–1431, the scale of which marked a decisive break from the fiscal-military strategy of the 1420s. Widespread confusion regarding whether taxpayers ought to pay the feudal or the non-feudal component of the 1431 subsidy characterized its botched administration. Industrial scale under-assessment, moreover, emerged as a serious problem. Officials' attempts to provide a measure of fiscal compensation by unlawfully double-assessing many taxpayers served to increase administrative confusion and resulted in parliament's annulment act of 1432. This had serious consequences for the crown's finances, since the regime was saddled with budgetary and debt problems which would ultimately undermine the solvency of the Lancastrian state.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-880-7

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