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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2005

Warren J. Samuels

This is the second set of lecture notes from courses in public finance published in an archival volume in this series. Volume 19-C (2001) was entirely devoted to notes…

Abstract

This is the second set of lecture notes from courses in public finance published in an archival volume in this series. Volume 19-C (2001) was entirely devoted to notes from lectures by E. R. A. Seligman at Columbia University. Two differences mark Seligman’s lectures and the lectures by Henry C. Simons at Chicago, as reported below. Seligman seems to have been lecturing primarily to students in tax administration, hence he presented very little economic theory; whereas Simons was lecturing to graduate students in economics, and presented relatively more theory. Seligman did not refrain from some passing of judgment but his lectures were largely descriptive and non-judgmental; whereas Simons has no hesitation in presenting his own normative approach on various issues. These issues tended strongly to focus on inequality, tax justice, and progressivity.

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Documents from F. Taylor Ostrander
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-165-1

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Jukka Sivonen

This study examines how the effects of three predictors, namely left–right political orientation, generalized trust and political trust, on fossil fuel taxation attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the effects of three predictors, namely left–right political orientation, generalized trust and political trust, on fossil fuel taxation attitudes vary between post-communist and other European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

By using European Social Survey (ESS) Round 8 data and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, this paper studied the effects of the hypothesized predictors on fossil fuel taxation attitudes across post-communist and other European countries. The countries were analyzed both in group and individually.

Findings

The results showed that stronger left-wing orientation, higher generalized trust and higher political trust predict more support for fossil fuel taxation at the country group level in both post-communist and other Europe. However, the effects were generally speaking less consistent and significant in the countries of the post-communist Europe. By and large, the effect of political trust was the most significant and universal.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the understanding how left–right political orientation and generalized trust have somewhat distinct effects on fossil fuel taxation attitudes in different European country contexts, while the effect of political trust is more universal across the continent.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Catherine Pilkington and Sue Farron

The OECD is currently grappling with the problem posed by the rapid growth of e‐commerce, which undermines existing international taxation principles of source residency…

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1257

Abstract

The OECD is currently grappling with the problem posed by the rapid growth of e‐commerce, which undermines existing international taxation principles of source residency and permanent establishment. Although the OECD is examining the problem, its solutions to date fall short of suggesting significant changes to the basis of international taxation. It is argued in this paper that the existing conceptual basis of international taxation is inadequate to cope with the challenges presented by e‐commerce, and that new conceptual approaches are needed urgently. In this paper, we set out the nature of the challenge which e‐commerce presents to taxing authorities in respect of direct taxation, and we examine the nature of the OECD responses to the problem. We suggest that the basis of a new conceptual approach may be found in the examination of marketing principles, and proceed to construct a model of web site based economic activity. Our model, and the principles upon which it is based, suggest that international taxation of e‐commerce should be based upon the concept of ‘substantial economic presence’, and that this concept should replace the notions of residence and establishment.

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Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Lucy M. Nyabwengi and Owiti A K’Akumu

This study aims to evaluate the property tax base under the local government property taxation in Nairobi City and its implication on revenue adequacy of the city. Nairobi…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the property tax base under the local government property taxation in Nairobi City and its implication on revenue adequacy of the city. Nairobi has grown both in population and in physical extent resulting to increased demand for urban services. The city faces challenges of adequate infrastructure service provision against increasing demand. Property taxation if fully exploited can be a major source of city government revenue, which has been dwindling.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review of property tax bases in the world and examination of best practices was done to highlight the inadequacies of property tax base administration in Nairobi. Primary data were gathered through interviews of officers in Nairobi City involved in the land rating process. Secondary data were obtained through documentary search and field survey of the study area.

Findings

The study established that Nairobi relies on a dual system of taxation, namely, site value rating and area rating. Tax is on vacant land only and excludes improvements. There are many legal exemptions and administrative exclusions from the tax base. The property tax registers do not include all the taxable properties and there is no regular updating of the tax registers. Nairobi relies on an outdated valuation roll whose values have no relation to the current market values.

Research limitations/implications

These factors have resulted to a narrow tax base, which affects the revenue potential of the city and its ability to adequately provide infrastructure services.

Originality/value

This is an original research, which relied mainly on primary data. To establish the property tax bases and the exempt properties in Nairobi, the researchers interviewed the officers at the Nairobi city land valuation and property management directorate using structured questionnaires. To address the third objective on whether the property tax base is complete and all-inclusive, the research relied on primary data. The research population was residential properties in Buruburu, Kilimani and Riruta areas of Nairobi city. The sample data on property details were collected from the Ministry of Land and Physical Planning (MLPP). The researchers then examined the records at the Nairobi City to evaluate whether the properties, which are registered at the MLPP, are charged land rates at the city level and at what amounts. This included properties under site value rating and area rating.

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Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

A. McKee

Justice in taxation depends on implementing the principle ofproportionately equal burden on all, where one has no choice but to usethe devices of cardinally measurable…

Abstract

Justice in taxation depends on implementing the principle of proportionately equal burden on all, where one has no choice but to use the devices of cardinally measurable utility and interpersonal comparisons. Despite levies by multiple levels of government and subdivision into different taxes, the overall principle applies of equal burden. This stands despite connecting up with two related enquiries – equity in allocating public goods and services, and fair distribution of income and wealth after taxation and return of public goods. The elements introduced into the argument are not new, but they are fitted into an overview of just allocation of direct and indirect taxation. While the principles of equity stand in distributing the burden of taxation and benefits of public goods, their translation into practice depends on democratic debate and decision in the free society, so that it is a never‐ending exercise evolving along with the economy and society in question.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Asheer Jaywant Ram

The Bitcoin has experienced wide popularity in academic and commercial spheres during the years following 2012. Research has been conducted in respect of information…

Abstract

Purpose

The Bitcoin has experienced wide popularity in academic and commercial spheres during the years following 2012. Research has been conducted in respect of information technology, finance and reporting paradigms, but there has been little research into the taxation of the Bitcoin. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual approach for developing a taxation policy for the Bitcoin, using a multi-jurisdictional analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive mixed-method approach is followed. The traits of the Bitcoin are determined through a review of the literature, followed by the determination of key taxation themes using a multi-jurisdictional view where the jurisdictions were determined using the largest Bitcoin exchanges. These form the row and column headings of the correspondence table research instrument, respectively. The correspondence table was completed by 40 tax experts. Correspondence analysis (a multivariate statistical technique) was then used to determine correlations between the Bitcoin traits and taxation themes, further used to present initial insights into developing a taxation policy for the Bitcoin.

Findings

The correspondence analysis reveals that, contrary to current tax laws, the manner of acquisition as opposed to the reason (intention) for acquisition is key in determining how the Bitcoin is to be taxed. For taxing purposes, Bitcoin is seen as being distinct from currency, given that transactions with the Bitcoin are seen as barter transactions. Finally, because of the unique characteristics of the Bitcoin, it is shown that exchanges and the Bitcoin need to be regulated in the same manner as a currency.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on income tax including capital gains tax and consumption taxes and was conducted with a sample of purposefully selected South African tax experts, given that the Bitcoin is experiencing enhanced popularity in South Africa. As a result, this research does not provide generalisable positivist conclusions and does not purport to represent the views of all tax practitioners. This paper does, however, provide an initial mechanism to develop taxation treatments for transactions not covered by existing legislation.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to provide normative recommendations on the taxation of the Bitcoin. Using correspondence analysis, this paper offers an innovative approach for developing taxation policies when a transaction is not specifically included in the extant legislation. Further value is added through the use of a third dimension in the correspondence analysis which enhances the exploratory potential of the research.

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Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1978

ALISTAIR ULPH and BEN SMITH

This paper uses simple examples and diagrams to illustrate some of the more important propositions relating to producer taxation which have emerged from the literature on…

Abstract

This paper uses simple examples and diagrams to illustrate some of the more important propositions relating to producer taxation which have emerged from the literature on optimal taxation. Although a few less complex surveys of this literature are now available (Bradford and Rosen, 1976; Sandmo, 1974), most of the debate is still to be found in relatively technical papers. Since the four propositions here examined are important, we feel that their separation from the technical literature may serve a useful pedagogical purpose.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ana Dinis, António Martins and Cidália Maria Lopes

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the…

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1361

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the autonomous taxation of expenses (ATE)? Are receipts derived from autonomous taxes so relevant that what began as an exception is gradually becoming a permanent feature of the income tax? Given the constitutional principle that corporate taxation should be fundamentally based on income, is the taxation of expenses unconstitutional? Is Portugal an international outlier, in applying this type of taxation to corporate expenses?

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the paper is a blend of legal research method and case study analysis. The interpretation of legal texts and the ratio legis discussion (hermeneutical side), the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of autonomous taxes (argumentative approach) and the use of aggregate data to gauge an impression of autonomous taxes’ impact on global tax receipts (empirical side) will, jointly, be used to analyse the topic. Autonomous taxation is a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an European Union (EU) country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

Findings

The authors conclude that autonomous taxation is a relevant source of revenue and its elimination is not foreseeable, at least in the medium term. Moreover, the extension of the tax base is gradually transforming CIT in a kind of dual tax, by charging profits and some expenses. The Constitutional Court, stressing the equity principle, has not ruled autonomous taxation unconstitutional, invoking usefulness against tax evasion. Finally, with the exception of some Portuguese-speaking countries, no other comparable international experience is observed.

Practical implications

The autonomous taxes (ATE) and its progressive enlargement imply, on the one hand, that the CIT has been slowly, but inexorably, losing its sole purpose of taxing profits, and imposing a tax penalty on an increasing set of accounting expenses. On the other hand, the growing number of expenses subjected to taxation leads some authors to ponder if the Portuguese tax regime is losing attractiveness. By increasing ATE’s scope, the effective rate tends to move upwards, countering reductions in the statutory rate. Finally, tax law will increasingly influence managers’ daily decisions, given the set of expenses targeted by autonomous taxes.

Originality/value

Taking into account the aim of this study, the discussion of a Portuguese particular feature of corporate taxation can highlight useful policy points to a broader audience. Many Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries face a dire situation in public finances. Therefore, given the pressure to increase tax receipts, the ATE can be a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an EU country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

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International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2013

Paul Gordon Dickinson

This article aims to examine academic literature and the taxation regulatory environment in Estonia in relation to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The objective of…

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18002

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine academic literature and the taxation regulatory environment in Estonia in relation to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The objective of the paper is to identify key areas of the taxation regulatory environment which affects SMEs and assess and link important academic literature in relation to those areas with the empirical research. In effect to explore that business reality including Estonia's Soviet historical background and compliance with her EU membership taxation obligations.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory paper makes use of World Bank Surveys and primary tax law sources, together with qualitative empirical research from an SME manager and a taxation law firm, both from within the country assessed.

Findings

It confirms the correlation between economic growth and taxation and identifies the “key” aspects of the taxation regulatory environment for an SME through academic literature reviewed which is linked with the empirical research. This qualitative research provides in‐depth information and fills gaps from previous quantitative research. It emphasises a very positive progression including significant electronic development and compliance with EU directives and regulations has been made by Estonia encouraging SME activity.

Practical implications

This research demonstrates the business reality of the Estonian taxation regulatory environment. Unofficial costs, a legacy from the Soviet period, are virtually non‐existent within the Estonian taxation system. Gaps within World Bank Surveys are filled by the interviews, which give a grass‐roots perspective on taxation regulation affecting an SME.

Originality/value

The research highlights the importance of the taxation regulatory environment and the reality of the regulation and compliance work for SMEs within a relatively new EU member state. Estonia is an important country within Europe's “Northern Dimension” and a former member of the Soviet Union. Consequently, any assessment of its taxation environment can be used as a guideline/model for others from similar backgrounds with similar aspirations.

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International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Anthony Rausch and Junichiro Koji

This chapter outlines and critiques Japan’s Furusato Nozei tax program from an economic anthropological perspective. This chapter first introduces the socio-political…

Abstract

This chapter outlines and critiques Japan’s Furusato Nozei tax program from an economic anthropological perspective. This chapter first introduces the socio-political organization of taxes together with the social-scientific paradigms that have been brought to analyze taxation within anthropological thinking. The chapter then outlines Japan’s tax history and the Furusato Nozei, or Hometown Tax program, before critiquing the program on the basis of these social science and anthropological. This critique confirms the validity of evaluating this Japanese tax program in its orientation and operation from an anthropologic viewpoint, while also calling into question the validity of such an approach to taxation from a broader societal view, thereby contributing to a new area of research within the Anthropology of Taxation.

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Anthropological Enquiries into Policy, Debt, Business, and Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-659-4

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