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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

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The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Casey J. Dawkins

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two…

Abstract

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two decades of increasing economic segregation, many metropolitan neighborhoods saw declines in economic segregation, particularly those neighborhoods located within central cities and rural areas. This paper adapts the Spatial Ordering Index proposed by Dawkins (2007b) to explore these trends.

Methodology/Approach – Using US Census data, I calculate economic segregation indices for a sample of 205 US metropolitan areas in 1990 and 2000 and decompose changes in the indices into portions attributable to changes in the spatial distribution of households and portions capturing changes in the spatial distribution of aggregate income. I also examine regional variations in the decompositions.

Findings – The results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of households and of income each influenced metropolitan economic segregation in different ways during the 1990s. Furthermore, the spatial dynamics of income segregation exhibited significant regional heterogeneity.

Originality/Value of paper – This paper presents a new approach to measuring the dynamics of economic segregation.

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Occupational and Residential Segregation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-786-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Harvey J Iglarsh and Ronald Gage Allan

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic…

Abstract

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic expression for imputing the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt bonds using the tax-exempt interest income reported on individual income tax returns. To measure progressivity, Kakwani indices are calculated using three definitions of income and three measures of tax liability. In addition, the indices are computed by adding implicit income to the income measure. Examination of the Kakwani indices leads to the conclusion that the tax system is progressive for all measures of tax liability. Total tax (explicit plus implicit), measured against explicit plus implicit income, is more progressive than explicit tax measured against explicit income. Including the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt interest in the measurement of tax progressivity increases the level of progressivity of the tax system slightly.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

James F. Sepe and J. David Spiceland

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach…

Abstract

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach rich in content, but it also is an engaging pedagogical device. The article provides a broad outline and then fills in the details with discussion, information, and examples.

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Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2003

Jeffrey A Mills and Sourushe Zandvakili

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on…

Abstract

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on the number of exemptions, which correlates with household size, and the filing status, which correlates with the common forms of household structure, i.e. married, single, head of household. Detailed household income data are used to measure income inequality for both pre-tax/transfer and post-tax/transfer definitions of income. These decompositions provide information about the degree of inequality, both before and after taxes and transfers, which is due to household size and filing status. The bootstrap is employed to construct standard errors for the inequality measures and their decompositions, and hypothesis tests are conducted to determine whether the observed changes in the distribution of income are statistically significant.

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Fiscal Policy, Inequality and Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-212-2

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Fan Gao

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process…

Abstract

Purpose

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process presents three stylized facts: “Miraculous” achievements of poverty alleviation have been made on a global scale; the poverty alleviation achievements mainly occurred in the high growth stage after reform and opening up; the poverty alleviation process is accompanied by the structural transformation of the urban–rural dual economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, a logically consistent analytical framework should form among the structural transformation of the dual economy, economic growth and the achievements in poverty alleviation. In logical deduction, the structural transformation of the dual economy affects rural poverty alleviation through the effects of labor reallocation, agricultural productivity improvement, demographic change and fiscal resource allocation.

Findings

The first two refer to economic growth, and the latter two are alleviation policies. The combination of economic growth and poverty alleviation policies is the main cause for poverty alleviation performance. China's empirical evidence can support the four effects by which the structural transformation of the dual economy affects poverty alleviation.

Originality/value

China's socialist system and its economic system transformation after reform and opening up provide an institutional basis for the effects to come into play. After 2020, China's poverty alleviation strategies will enter the “second-half” phase, namely, the phase of solving the problems of relative poverty in urban and rural areas by adopting conventional methods and establishing long-term mechanisms. This requires the facilitation of the reconnection between poverty alleviation strategies and the structural transformation of the dual economy in terms of development ideas and policy directions.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Benjamin Aye Simon and Isaac Khambule

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced declining economic prospects and accompanying economic shocks present socioeconomic vulnerabilities for developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced declining economic prospects and accompanying economic shocks present socioeconomic vulnerabilities for developing economies at the tranches of poverty, unemployment and minimal social security. South Africa is one of the countries that have the most precarious societies in developing nations due to the triple challenges of unemployment, poverty and inequality. As such, this paper investigates the impact of the pandemic on South African livelihoods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses secondary data obtained from the National Income Dynamics Study – Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) Wave 1 dataset to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on South African livelihoods.

Findings

The findings reveal that COVID-19 amplified the country's poor and vulnerable population's socioeconomic conditions because of the stringent Level 5 lockdown regulations that barred low-income households from making a livelihood. It further revealed that low-income households, who are the least educated, Black African, female and marginalized, were disproportionally socioeconomically affected by losing the main household income.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in that it used secondary quantitative data that relied on a telephonic survey during the COVID-19 lockdown period.

Practical implications

This study offers a policy suggestion that increasing social grants during the pandemic will not have any significant impact on the livelihoods of many South Africans unless distributional inequalities are reduced.

Social implications

The government needs to develop welfarist policies to protect the most vulnerable in society to limit the socioeconomic impact of pandemics and take proactive policy measures to reduce unemployment and income inequalities in the country.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understanding the precarious nature of low-income households.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Sara Fernández-López, Djamila Daoudi and Lucía Rey-Ares

This paper aims to explore the linkage between households' social interactions and credit context and how these interactions may influence household borrowing decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the linkage between households' social interactions and credit context and how these interactions may influence household borrowing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 45,907 individuals referred to 18 countries, drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, different probit regressions are used to test the four hypotheses proposed.

Findings

Empirical evidence confirms that intensive and extensive sociability are positively related to consumer debt holding. However, when social activities are considered separately, there is weak evidence that they are also related to mortgage debt holding and over-indebtedness. Moreover, at this level of analysis, the different nature of the social activities in which the individual participates in may condition the relationship with borrowing behaviour. The findings also show that relative income plays a passive role in household borrowing behaviour, since low-income households are more likely to hold mortgage and informal loans or to be over-indebted in highly indebted countries.

Originality/value

First, this paper extends the knowledge of the relationship between social interactions and borrowing behaviour by considering not only the intensity and diversity of the social activities in which the individual participates, but also the different nature of these activities. Second, it proposes that social interactions may play a passive role on borrowing decision, suggesting that household's behaviour might be passively affected by the density of borrowers surrounding it. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been any attempt to test this issue regarding household borrowing decisions. Third, unlike the few empirical papers on the topic, the paper also analyses previous issues by distinguishing between different types of debts; a distinction that revels the different role played by social interactions.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Giang Thi Huong Tran, Teruaki Nanseki, Yosuke Chomei and Ly Thi Nguyen

The demand for clean vegetables has rapidly increased, many farmers gradually turn to vegetable cultivation to increase income; therefore, agricultural cooperative…

Abstract

Purpose

The demand for clean vegetables has rapidly increased, many farmers gradually turn to vegetable cultivation to increase income; therefore, agricultural cooperative mobilized farmers group to facilitate them access to technical training and enhance compliance with the Vietnamese Good Agricultural Practices (VietGAP) standards. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impacts of the participation on farmer’s income as well as the major factors that affect the participation in cooperatives by the vegetable farmers in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used primary data collected from vegetable farmers in Vietnam. This study utilized propensity score matching to avoid initial selection bias. The differences between participants and nonparticipants will be adjusted by matching each membership individual to a nonmember based on similar observable characteristics by summarizing the conditional probability of a member given pretreatment characteristics.

Findings

This study demonstrates that participation in cooperatives is significantly affected by ethnicity, age of household head, labor involving vegetable production and extension service access. The results of this study also confirm that agricultural cooperatives have positive effects on member farmers to enhance income and that participants – on average – have a higher income than nonparticipants.

Research limitations/implications

The method cannot rule out the possibility of selection bias due to unobserved differences between participants and even an appropriate comparison group.

Originality/value

This study contributes to an improved understanding about impacts of cooperatives on farmers’ income in developing and emerging economies. Moreover, research also upgrades knowledge regarding the effectiveness of agricultural cooperatives in Vietnam, as well as guides policymakers in supporting the cooperatives in expanding the market and other necessary changes.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Shreya Kapoor and Sanjeev Kapoor

Doubling farming households’ income through occupational diversification to the non-farm sector has been advocated to be of paramount importance in an agrarian economy…

Abstract

Purpose

Doubling farming households’ income through occupational diversification to the non-farm sector has been advocated to be of paramount importance in an agrarian economy such as India. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of non-farm activities on rural household incomes in four different Indian states by using a propensity score matching technique and developing an endogenous switching model.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on secondary data taken from four quinquennial rounds of employment and unemployment surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization.

Findings

The matching results indicate a maximum monthly rise in per capita income of Rs. 60 in Gujarat and a minimum increase of Rs. 18 in Rajasthan among rural households employed in the non-farm sector as compared to the farm sector. The findings confirm that rural non-farm structural diversification cannot be viewed as a blueprint for increasing rural household incomes in different states. Further, it suggests the need to segmenting the different states on the basis of agricultural development for increasing rural incomes.

Research limitations/implications

The study argues that Indian states with a strongly developed farm sector i.e. Gujarat and Punjab are not ideally suited to undergo structural changes in their economic pursuit. The estimates suggest that the transition of rural households from farm to non-farm-sector activities is a very weak strategy in agriculturally developed states of Gujarat and Punjab, whereas non-farm diversification becomes a pivotal strategy for increasing rural household incomes in less agriculturally developed states such as Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. A contrasting point that arises from these evidence is that although diversification to the non-farm sector leads to higher income, but the resultant figures are very scanty.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence and policy implications on rural non-farm diversification in India and its impact on the rural household income. The study can help the policymakers in framing policies aiming at increasing the income of the rural household through the structural transition of the rural economy.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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