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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Hongyan Yang, H. Kevin Steensma and Ting Ren

This paper aims to study how state ownership influences the innovation process in terms of allocating resources toward searching for new solutions and converting these…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study how state ownership influences the innovation process in terms of allocating resources toward searching for new solutions and converting these efforts into economic value. On one hand, deep pockets of the state provide slack resources that may facilitate risk taking and innovation. On the other hand, soft budgets can create incentive problems and dampen the efficient use of resources. The authors suggest how accounting for competitive context can disentangle these countervailing forces.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a panel of over 240,000 Chinese firms over the years 2004–2008. The broad sample and period afforded substantial variability in terms of state ownership within and across firms. The authors use a two-stage model and a within-firm (i.e. fixed-effects) design, controlling for all time-invariant firm characteristics and the problematic unobserved heterogeneity that can often lead to erroneous inferences. Furthermore, the relatively short window limits the likelihood of time-varying unobserved firm characteristics biasing the empirical results.

Findings

The authors found that private-sector competition has the opposite effect on the relationship between state ownership and the second step of the innovation process. In industries where there is robust private-sector competition, state ownership diminishes the firm’s ability to convert R&D efforts into economic value. Private-sector competition competes away any advantages state-owned firms may have in terms of developing or accessing the complementary resources needed for commercialization. Ultimately, the inefficiencies of state ownership in terms of relatively undisciplined selection and monitoring of R&D activities outweigh any potential resource advantages derived from state ownership.

Originality/value

The state remains a prominent player in many economies throughout the world. The authors explored how state ownership of firms influences the resources they expend in searching out new solutions, and their success in converting such resources into economically valuable new products and services. State ownership has potentially countervailing effects on innovation. The authors disentangle these countervailing effects through consideration of how accounting for competitive context could determine whether the beneficial effects of state ownership dominate its detrimental effects for both searching for new solutions and converting these efforts into economically valuable new products. With a focus of market competition as an external force that drives the difference in innovation between SOEs and the private-sector, this study serves as a parallel effort to Jia et al. (2019) who investigate the joint effect of public and corporate governance on SOEs’ innovation performance, and Zhou et al. (2017) who concern the balance of the institution and efficiency logics on the comparative advantage of SOEs over privately owned enterprises in innovation performance.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ting Ren, Ruolian Fang and Zhen Yang

This paper aims to investigate the impact of pay-for-performance (PFP) perception and pay level satisfaction on work attitudes (job satisfaction, turnover intention and…

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1379

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of pay-for-performance (PFP) perception and pay level satisfaction on work attitudes (job satisfaction, turnover intention and affective commitment) and extra-role behaviors (discretionary effort and interpersonal helping), and further, how three aspects of conditional factors – intrinsic motivation, leader–member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS) – moderate the main-effect relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted at a Chinese private-owned company in the beauty industry, and a survey was conducted with the frontline employees in each office, asking information about their perceptions and attitudes toward the PFP scheme implemented in the company, work attitudes and performance, individual characteristics and their perceptions of group and organizational characteristics.

Findings

Results show that PFP perception and pay level satisfaction are significant predictors of work attitudes and extra-role behaviors. Further, depending on the specific work outcome examined, the three conditioning factors are found to strengthen the hypothesized main-effect relationships. The findings of the study have important theoretical and practical implications for the implementation of PFP schemes in organizations.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the scholarship on PFP schemes in two ways. First, the findings show that PFP perception and pay level satisfaction are important for understanding employee work attitudes and extra-role behaviors. Second, the investigation of the moderating roles that intrinsic motivation, LMX and POS play in the relationships of PFP perception and pay level satisfaction with the work outcomes provides evidence to the limited understanding about the conditions that may strengthen or weaken the effectiveness of PFP schemes.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Ting Ren, Nan Liu, Hongyan Yang, Youzhi Xiao and Yijun Hu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and firm performance in the context of the Chinese economy. Specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and firm performance in the context of the Chinese economy. Specifically, it investigates the effects of ownership structures as an internal factor and of institutional environments (IE) as an external factor shaping this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies two-way fixed effect regression models to a sample of Chinese listed manufacturing firms for the period of 2010 to 2017. WCM is measured by cash conversion cycles (CCC); profitability is measured by core profit ratios; ownership structures are classified based on state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-SOEs; and IEs are measured from dimensions of factor markets (FM) and legal systems (LS).

Findings

First, the results show a negative relationship between CCC and firm performance. Second, the negative relationship between CCC and profitability is significant for non-SOEs but not for SOEs. Third, both the FM and LS strengthen the negative association between CCC and profitability. Fourth, the moderating effect of FMs and LSs is evident for non-SOEs only. The results hold when using alternative measures of WCM and profitability and while controlling for additional variables.

Originality/value

The current study shows that while WCM has a significant effect on the profitability of Chinese firms, such an effect greatly depends on the ownership structures and IE involved. The results thus offer important implications in helping the Chinese government create better IEs and in allowing manufacturing firms to improve upon their WCM practices.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Yuchao Zhang, Ting Ren and Xuanye Li

This paper aims to investigate the Chinese employment relationship under the framework of psychological contracts. The authors explored the effects of firm ownership (in…

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1035

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the Chinese employment relationship under the framework of psychological contracts. The authors explored the effects of firm ownership (in terms of state-owned and private enterprises) and employment type (in terms of permanent and temporary employees) on employee perceptions of psychological contract. In addition, the associations between fulfilled psychological contract and various dimensions of employee attitudes were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted a questionnaire as the primary instrument to investigate the impact of firm ownership and employment type on psychological contract perceptions and outcomes. The analysis was based on a Chinese sample of a size of 363 employees.

Findings

The results indicate that state-owned employees overall reported fewer promises (employer under-obligation promised psychological contract), while private employees tended to have more promises (mutual high obligation, employer over-obligation and quasi-spot obligation promise-based psychological contract). Permanent employees reported high fulfillment (employer over-obligation, mutual high obligation and employer under-obligation fulfilled psychological contract). In contrast, temporary employees presented many promises (mutual high obligation promised psychological contract) and low fulfillment (quasi-spot fulfilled psychological contract). In general, firm ownership had weak effects on permanent and temporary employees’ perceptions of promise-based psychological contract, but no significant influence on fulfillment-based psychological contract. Moreover, psychological contract fulfillment was positively related to employees’ fairness perception and job satisfaction, while negatively related to the intention to quit. The authors failed to find comprehensive statistical support for the moderating effects of firm ownership or employment type.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature through a number of ways. First, instead of psychological contract breach, the authors use psychological contract fulfillment as a direct measure to examine the relationship between psychological contract and employees’ attitudes. Second, they investigate the effects of firm ownership on employment relationship under the psychological contract framework, enriching the institutional lens of the issue. Third, while majority of psychological contract studies concerning employment type concentrate on either permanent or temporary employees, the authors take both types into account. Fourth, they integrate perspectives of firm ownership and employment type. Finally, the authors perform the study in the Chinese context, which offers extra evidence to the body of psychological contract literature.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2019

Tim Summers

The purpose of this paper is to examine economic relations between Hong Kong and the UK, especially since 2012, in order to shed light on the management of Hong Kong’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine economic relations between Hong Kong and the UK, especially since 2012, in order to shed light on the management of Hong Kong’s external relations.

Design/methodology/approach

The context for the research is discussion of “grey areas” between Hong Kong’s external relations and foreign affairs. Research is based on textual analysis of British and some Hong Kong policy documents, government statements and media reports, as well as personal discussions with many involved in UK-Hong Kong ties.

Findings

The paper finds that the UK-Hong Kong economic relationship is managed autonomously, demonstrating Hong Kong’s external economic affairs and bilateral exchanges being practised with a high degree of autonomy. It also shows the importance that the British government attaches to its economic relationship with Hong Kong in its own right, and the likely increase in that importance as Brexit unfolds.

Originality/value

The paper engages in detailed analysis of economic relations between the UK and Hong Kong, in contrast to most post-1997 studies which have focused on Hong Kong’s ties with the USA or European Union.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Ting Ren and Darla J. Hamann

Extant research has shown the positive effects of value congruence on individual attitudes, behaviors and performance. However, very few studies have been conducted to…

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1721

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research has shown the positive effects of value congruence on individual attitudes, behaviors and performance. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the difference in the relationship between value congruence and attitudinal outcomes across people of different attributes. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the relationships between employee-organization value congruence and job attitudes vary across different occupational groups, with the focus on different levels of nurses. The study provides evidence to organizations to adopt better approaches to harness the benefit from employees’ spontaneous work motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

Nursing homes provide a unique research context because of the different nursing occupations with varying degree of identifying characteristics including educational attainment, skill level, income and decision-making power. The present study thus examines how the relationships between nurses-home value congruence and nurses’ job attitudes vary across different nursing occupations, instrumented by a survey of nursing staff of nursing homes in a Midwestern state in the USA.

Findings

Consistent with prior research, value congruence is found positively associated with nurses’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but negatively with turnover intention. Consistent with the “diminishing marginal effect” argument, the relationships between value congruence and job satisfaction and organizational commitment are found more pronounced among nurses of lower occupational level.

Originality/value

The extant literature does not explicitly compare the effect of within-occupation value congruence on various attitudinal and behavioral outcomes across different occupations. As values have individual and social foundations, in a specific workplace context, it is impractical, if not impossible, to gain a comprehensive view of employees’ value profile and work-related consequences without looking further into the differences across types of employee. Although without sufficient existing literature to compare to, the present study does provide consistent results with theoretical predictions, and display a relatively clear picture of how the relationships between value congruence and job attitudes are unwrapped along the occupational dimension.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Ting Ren and Zheng Wang

This paper proposes an examination of the relationship between female participation in top management teams and firm performance in the emerging Chinese private economy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an examination of the relationship between female participation in top management teams and firm performance in the emerging Chinese private economy. It aims to examine the direct link between female participation in top management teams and firm performance. This is examined in the context of human capital and social capital associated with female top executives to investigate the origins and the contingencies of the linkage.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on resource dependence theory, the study develops and tests a set of hypotheses regarding the key relationships, using the data of listed private‐owned companies in China's security exchanges in 2008, with critical information on financial performance, corporate governance structure and the top management team composition of the companies. Regression analyses are conducted to test the direct relationship and the moderating effects.

Findings

The empirical analysis supports a positive relationship between the degree of female participation and firm performance in Chinese privately owned companies. The positive relationship is further strengthened by female top executives' human capital and social capital, consistent with the hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

The present study gains consistent results with research conducted in the Western context, suggesting that the top management behavior of Chinese private enterprises is similar to that of their Western counterparts, possibly due to the fact that they are less influenced by direct governmental control and are more profit‐driven than state‐owned companies.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that Chinese private companies can gain competitive advantages through identifying, attracting, and developing female managerial talents. And the female executives in the new era should be ones with systematic education and strong social connections. Both factors facilitate female executives to contribute better to their companies' performance.

Originality/value

The contribution of the present study is twofold. First, drawing on extant literature in the Western business context, the present study is the first to examine how female participation in top management influences firm performance in the context of the Chinese private sector, which contributes to the understanding of and offers insights to Chinese managerial practices. Second, the study enriches the extant literature by examining the moderating effects of female executives' human and social capitals.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Norafni @ Farlina binti Rahim

Islamic finance and Halal product sectors are thriving successfully. This chapter is a general review of the perception of Asian consumers on Islamic finance and Halal…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic finance and Halal product sectors are thriving successfully. This chapter is a general review of the perception of Asian consumers on Islamic finance and Halal sectors in the global Halal economy.

Methodology/approach

The first section will briefly describe the Halal concept in both Islamic finance and Halal industries, and the growth of both sectors in Asian countries. The second part highlights the review of Asian consumers’ perception towards Islamic finance products and Halal products.

Findings

The review found that the consumers’ perception towards the Islamic finance products and Halal products is distinctive. This is due to the diversity of Asian countries in terms of geography, religion, culture, ethnic, school of thoughts (madzahib), income per capita and government’s involvement.

Originality/value

The third part of the chapter concentrates on planning towards Halal marketing, which involves the move and future challenges in different layers of industries to gear up and strengthen the Halal economy.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

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Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Mu-Yen Chen, Min-Hsuan Fan, Ting-Hsuan Chen and Ren-Pao Hsieh

Given the maturation of the internet and virtual communities, an important emerging issue in the humanities and social sciences is how to accurately analyze the vast…

Abstract

Given the maturation of the internet and virtual communities, an important emerging issue in the humanities and social sciences is how to accurately analyze the vast quantity of documents on public and social network websites. Therefore, this chapter integrates political blogs and news articles to develop a public mood dynamic prediction model for the stock market, while referencing the behavioral finance perspective and online political community characteristics. The goal of this chapter is to apply a big data and opinion mining approach to a sentiment analysis for the relationship between political status and economic development in Taiwan. The proposed model is verified using experimental datasets collected from ChinaTimes.com, cnYES.com, Yahoo stock market news, and Google stock market news, covering the period from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017. The empirical results indicate the accuracy rate with which the proposed model forecasts stock prices.

Details

Politics and Technology in the Post-Truth Era
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-984-3

Keywords

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