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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2021

Zoleikha Abbasi, Jon Billsberry and Mathew Todres

The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be applied to workplace outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that draws upon the work values, political values and cultural values literatures and the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses to advocate an integrative conceptual model spanning these constructs.

Findings

Integrating the three types of values with the underlying hypotheses of “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion”, an internally consistent two-factor model of values is developed. This heuristic model argues that one set of factors causes value congruence and its associated outcomes and a different set of factors causes value incongruence and its associated outcomes. By conceptualizing value congruence and value incongruence as a two-factor theory, the idea is advanced that people do not assess value similarity and value dissimilarity unidimensionally, but these are two separate dimensions supported by different theoretical hypotheses and processes.

Originality/value

Previous conceptual work on values has isolated different types of values and considered them separately. A contribution is made by integrating the three main streams of values research. The paper is the first to advocate a two-factor theory to values and the first to incorporate the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses. The model repositions the focus for future research on value congruence and incongruence.

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Leping You and Linda C. Hon

This study developed and tested a consumer relations model to determine linkages among brand identity, reputation and value congruence with positive Word-of- Mouth (WOM…

Abstract

Purpose

This study developed and tested a consumer relations model to determine linkages among brand identity, reputation and value congruence with positive Word-of- Mouth (WOM) intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

An intercept survey was conducted during which 350 participants were asked about their perceptions of the store from where they are most likely to purchase coffee among options including multi-national corporations (MNCs) that have global brand identity and small to medium enterprises (SMEs) with local brand identity.

Findings

Reputation and value congruence were positively related to positive WOM intentions. Unexpectedly, respondents indicated more positive WOM intentions toward SMEs than MNCs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggested that value congruence and reputation are positively associated with WOM intentions. Yet, consumers indicated greater WOM intentions toward SMEs than MNCs, which implies that SMEs may be unique and have the ability to create more emotional attachment between businesses and consumers.

Practical implications

To promote consumers' positive WOM intentions, corporate/brand communication practitioners need to build a favorable reputation through effective communication that externalizes organizational values among consumers and includes companies' commitment to the communities in which they operate.

Originality/value

Like SMEs, MNCs should build quality relationships with the local community where they conduct business. Also, based on definitions of values and values congruence in the research literature, an original five-item scale of value congruence was developed and validated to measure the congruence between consumers' personal values and their perceptions of a company's values in the context of consumer relationship management.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Jie Tang, Li Mo and Wen-Bin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of person-organization (P-O) value congruence on employees’ coping with organizational change and to test the moderating…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of person-organization (P-O) value congruence on employees’ coping with organizational change and to test the moderating effect of change event attributes vis-à-vis value congruence and coping strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a four-dimensional design to examine relationships between P-O value congruence and employees’ coping strategies. It discusses moderating effects of change attributes based on an elaboration likelihood model. The sample includes 242 employees from 34 organizations in China. Data are analyzed by a structural equation model, dominance analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

This paper provides empirical evidence that the four dimensions of P-O value congruence have different impacts on employees’ coping strategies with change; and the effects are moderated by employees’ perceived scope of change.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should collect data at different time points during change processes to better understand the influence of value congruence on coping processes. To generalize robustly beyond this case-study requires research across a larger number of individuals and organizations.

Practical implications

According to this paper, value congruence between employees and organizations could be better ensured by considering it as an important factor in the recruitment and selection processes, which is more effective in the long run. This is particularly pertinent for those organizations which experience frequent changes.

Originality/value

First, this paper considers the influences of stable organizational factors and attributes of change events on employees’ coping abilities; these are both ignored in previous studies. Second, it develops a four-dimensional coping with change structure and a two-dimensional measure of change attributes in a Chinese context which are reliable and can thus be employed in future studies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Todd J. Weber and James B. Avey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of both value congruence between employees and supervisors as well as the important role of employee voice for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of both value congruence between employees and supervisors as well as the important role of employee voice for optimal outcomes in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A heterogeneous sample of 495 working adults across business sectors completed instruments on value fit, voice, citizenship behaviors, commitment and psychological well-being.

Findings

Results suggest when employees experience value fit with their immediate supervisor, they express voice in organizations. Employee voice partially mediated the effects of value congruence on citizenship behaviors, commitment and psychological well-being.

Originality/value

While it is common for employees and supervisors to share and observe personal values at work, few studies have considered the effects of alignment between these values. Further, this is one of the very few studies that have considered the employee consequences of this value congruence.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Ting Ren and Darla J. Hamann

Extant research has shown the positive effects of value congruence on individual attitudes, behaviors and performance. However, very few studies have been conducted to…

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1733

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research has shown the positive effects of value congruence on individual attitudes, behaviors and performance. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the difference in the relationship between value congruence and attitudinal outcomes across people of different attributes. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the relationships between employee-organization value congruence and job attitudes vary across different occupational groups, with the focus on different levels of nurses. The study provides evidence to organizations to adopt better approaches to harness the benefit from employees’ spontaneous work motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

Nursing homes provide a unique research context because of the different nursing occupations with varying degree of identifying characteristics including educational attainment, skill level, income and decision-making power. The present study thus examines how the relationships between nurses-home value congruence and nurses’ job attitudes vary across different nursing occupations, instrumented by a survey of nursing staff of nursing homes in a Midwestern state in the USA.

Findings

Consistent with prior research, value congruence is found positively associated with nurses’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but negatively with turnover intention. Consistent with the “diminishing marginal effect” argument, the relationships between value congruence and job satisfaction and organizational commitment are found more pronounced among nurses of lower occupational level.

Originality/value

The extant literature does not explicitly compare the effect of within-occupation value congruence on various attitudinal and behavioral outcomes across different occupations. As values have individual and social foundations, in a specific workplace context, it is impractical, if not impossible, to gain a comprehensive view of employees’ value profile and work-related consequences without looking further into the differences across types of employee. Although without sufficient existing literature to compare to, the present study does provide consistent results with theoretical predictions, and display a relatively clear picture of how the relationships between value congruence and job attitudes are unwrapped along the occupational dimension.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Denis Lajoie, Jean-Sébastien Boudrias, Vincent Rousseau and Éric Brunelle

Using the substitute for leadership framework, the purpose of this paper is to verify whether employees’ perceived value congruence with their organization can act as a…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the substitute for leadership framework, the purpose of this paper is to verify whether employees’ perceived value congruence with their organization can act as a moderator of the relationship between transformational leadership and empowered behaviors. A triple moderation hypothesis, wherein value congruence could both enhance or substitute leadership practices depending on employee tenure, is tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-reported data were collected from 1,934 employees of a large public organization.

Findings

Hierarchical regressions show that value congruence enhances transformational leadership’s effectiveness in new employees, but plays either a substitute role or no role at all in more tenured employees.

Research limitations/implications

Findings suggest that the substitutes for leadership framework are useful in understanding both the enhancing and substitute role of value congruence with regards to transformational leadership. This study also underlines this framework’s complexity and the need for additional research that goes beyond bivariate models to further our understanding of transformational leadership moderators.

Practical implications

The knowledge of when leadership practices are enhanced or substituted could help leaders focus their efforts to maximize empowered behaviors.

Originality/value

This study verifies the theorized moderating role of value congruence in transformational leadership, which has been largely ignored in research. Additionally this study shows that this role can fluctuate according to tenure.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Shaifali Chauhan, Richa Banerjee, Chinmay Chakraborty, Mohit Mittal, Atul Shiva and Vinayakumar Ravi

This study aims to investigate the shopping behaviour of consumers, mainly in fashion apparels, and intends to understand consumer buying patterns in Indian context. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the shopping behaviour of consumers, mainly in fashion apparels, and intends to understand consumer buying patterns in Indian context. The study was designed to determine the level of consumer's sense of belonging towards apparel shopping by applying the concept of self-congruence.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used variance-based partial least squares structural equational modelling (PLS-SEM) on a cross-sectional study conducted on 569 consumers. The study was conducted by using questionnaire to collect the responses from the central zone of India. The results support most of the projected hypotheses.

Findings

The study focused on the shopping behaviour of consumer such as self-congruence, impulse buying, hedonic values and consumer satisfaction. The results of the study highlight the association of constructs and analysed the mediation relation of hedonic and impulse buying constructs. The results revealed a positive association among the constructs and also found a partial mediation effect in their relation with constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are outcomes of an empirical study conducted in the fashion apparel industry of India based on the sample set of urban consumers. The study is restricted to the direct and indirect relationship of constructs. Further, research can examine by using moderating constructs like demographic factors (gender, age, income, etc.) and other shopping behaviours (like brand loyalty, brand love, brand attachment) for more clarity in results. Moreover, the study limited is with fashion apparel, whereas there are many categories in the fashion industry like accessories, perfumes, cosmetic products, footwear and also other products industry.

Practical implications

The study provided valuable inputs to the literature of marketing where self-congruence affects consumer shopping behaviour such as impulse buying, hedonic values and consumer satisfaction. The study proposes a practical approach that can help the marketing professionals and product developers to have a deep understanding about consumer shopping behaviour for facilitating consumer-oriented goods in the Indian fashion industry.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies in the fashion industry to test the association of self-congruence with hedonic value and consumer satisfaction. This relation is not tested in context of fashion apparel. Additionally, this study also examined the mediating effect of hedonic value and impulse buying in relation with self-congruence and consumer satisfaction in the Indian context.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2019

Junwei Zheng, Guangdong Wu, Hongtao Xie and Hongyang Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the joint congruence effect of leadership styles and organizational culture on project members’ innovative behaviors in the…

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2772

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the joint congruence effect of leadership styles and organizational culture on project members’ innovative behaviors in the construction projects setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed hypotheses are tested using polynomial regression with a sample of 217 project managers and employees of different construction projects in China, and plotted through response surface analysis.

Findings

The results of polynomial regressions support the congruence effect hypothesis, indicating that more innovative behaviors of the project members could be elicited by a high level of congruence between transformational or transactional leadership styles and organizational culture. Furthermore, asymmetrical incongruence effects are found wherein project members with lower levels of innovative behaviors when project organizational culture is stronger as compared with when two leadership styles are at higher levels. Specifically, the condition is found under the innovation dimension of organization culture, but higher level of innovative behavior conversely displays when the harmony culture is weaker than two leadership styles.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual model and hypotheses are examined by analyzing cross-sectional and self-reported data collected in China. The findings could be further examined through multi-source or longitudinal, more systematic research.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the pivotal role played by the value congruence of leaders-organizations in motivating employees to be innovative in project organizations. This paper provides knowledge for project managers to help them understand whether and how project members’ innovative behaviors are better motivated by the fit or misfit between the styles of leadership and project organizational cultures. Besides, this study provides the approach or direction for the project leaders training.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the joint effects of leadership styles and organizational culture on innovative behavior based on the person-organization fit theory and from the perspective of value congruence.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Venkat R. Krishnan

Effects of leader‐member exchange, transformational leadership, and perceived value system congruence between leader and follower on follower's six upward influence…

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12848

Abstract

Effects of leader‐member exchange, transformational leadership, and perceived value system congruence between leader and follower on follower's six upward influence strategies‐assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning were studied using a sample of 281 managers working in various organizations in India. Results show that transformational leadership mediates the relationship between LMX and congruence. Both LMX and transformational leadership are related positively to friendliness and reasoning, and negatively to higher authority. Congruence is not related to influence strategies. Transformational leadership is the best predictor of friendliness, and neither LMX nor congruence explains significant additional variance in friendliness. Similarly, LMX is the best predictor of reasoning, and neither transformational leadership nor congruence explains significant additional variance in reasoning. Controlling for transformational leadership makes the relationship between LMX and higher authority non‐significant and controlling for LMX makes the relationship between transformational leadership and higher authority non‐significant.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Gregory Thrasher, Marcus Dickson, Benjamin Biermeier-Hanson and Anwar Najor-Durack

This study aims to integrate social identity and leader–member exchange (LMX) theory to investigate the processes and boundary conditions around LMX–performance…

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1667

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to integrate social identity and leader–member exchange (LMX) theory to investigate the processes and boundary conditions around LMX–performance relationships. Through the application of two leader–follower subsamples, the authors test three main objectives. What is the effect of multi-dimensional dyad value-congruence on LMX and how does congruence on these dimensions differentially influence leader and follower perceptions of LMX? In a subsample of followers including supervisor-rated performance, the authors develop a model that examines how individual values moderate the effect of dyad contact on supervisor-rated job performance mediated by follower LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants for this study include graduate and undergraduate social work students who were taking part in a one-year work placement within a social work organization as well as their immediate supervisors. Across a four-month period, participants filled out measures of their supervisor contact, work values and LMX. Supervisor-rated performance was also included.

Findings

Findings from the dyadic subsample show that growth value congruence is a predictor of follower-rated LMX, with value congruence across all values having no effect on leader-rated LMX. Within a subsample of followers, findings suggest that follower-rated LMX mediates the relationship between dyad contact and supervisor-rated job performance, with individual work values moderating this effect.

Originality/value

The current study offers several contributions to the literature on LMX and job performance. First, in this study’s dyadic leader–follower sample, the authors extend propositions made by social identity theory around value congruence and LMX by offering support for a multi-dimensional and multi-target approach to questions of values and LMX. Second, within this study’s larger non-dyadic sample, the authors offer insights into previous conflicting findings around dyad contact and LMX, by offering support for the indirect effect of dyad contact on supervisor-rated performance via LMX. Third, within this second sample, the authors also extend the literature on values and LMX to show that the process through which LMX influences job performance is dependent on follower values.

Details

Organization Management Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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