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1 – 10 of 11
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Muhammad Aqeel, Rafia Komal and Tanvir Akhtar

The purpose of this paper is to inspect the potential mediation pathways among emotional empathy, personality traits and coping strategies in orphan and non-orphan students…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inspect the potential mediation pathways among emotional empathy, personality traits and coping strategies in orphan and non-orphan students. Additionally, it designed to investigate the association of coping strategies with emotional empathy and personality traits.

Design/methodology/approach

Purposive sampling technique and cross-sectional design were employed in current study. The data of 130 adolescents (institutionalized orphans, n= 62; school students, n=68) were included from different high schools and orphanages of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, in 2017. Three instruments, emotional empathy scale (Mehrabian and Epstein, 1972; Shazia, 2004), coping of problem experience (Carver, 1989; Akhtar, 2005), and Eysenck personality questionnaire (Naqvi and Kamal, 2010; Eysenck, 1964; Eysenck and Eysenck, 1994), were employed to measure personality traits, emotional empathy and coping strategies in orphan and non-orphan students.

Findings

Mediation analyses illustrated that personality traits relegated active avoidance coping strategy through emotional empathy in orphan students. On contrary, the study findings demonstrated that neurotic personality promoted positive coping strategy through emotional empathy in non-orphan students.

Research limitations/implications

The methodological limitations of this study are that the sample is of 130 participants that limits the generalizability of its results; furthermore, it was done on only the male orphans students of only one institute. Further research can be done on different orphanages to enhance the generalizability of results. This study included orphan and non-orphan students from the two cities of Pakistan; consequently, its findings may not be generalizable to the whole population. In the future, cross-sectional and experimental researches working with more assorted data could help elucidate the mechanisms by which interpersonal factors affect and stimulate coping strategies in orphans and high school students.

Practical implications

This paper exposes a number of ways for upcoming future studies. This study findings can be employed to enhance knowledge and offer assistance for orphans, on how to identify and get help from coping resources to tackle various problems and how to build new psychological preventions and interventions strategies in the Pakistani society. There still exists a need to find out the effect of emotion, empathy on personality types in relation to different environmental conditions. The findings have implications for pedagogical intervention as such improvements can be initiated in the pedagogical context.

Social implications

This study comprised only orphan and non-orphan students from two twin cities of Pakistan; consequently, its findings may not be applicable to the whole population. In future, cross-sectional and experimental researches with more assorted data will assist clarify the mechanism that interpersonal factors affect and stimulate coping strategies in high school students.

Originality/value

Study findings proposed that coping strategies can be promoted by interpersonal factors such as personality traits and empathy to tackle different orphan’s psychological problem in various negative situation.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Mahvia Gull, Muhammad Aqeel, Aniqa Kanwal, Kamran Khan and Tanvir Akhtar

Despite the fact that shame is recognized as a significant factor in clinical encounters, it is under-recognized, under-researched and under-theorized in health prevention…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the fact that shame is recognized as a significant factor in clinical encounters, it is under-recognized, under-researched and under-theorized in health prevention, assessment and cross-cultural contexts. Thus, this study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the most widely used scale, the “Other as Shamer Scale” (OAS), to assess the risk and proclivities of external shame in adults. As in health care, there is a barrier between what is known through research in one culture and what is acceptable in practice in another culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The Urdu version was prepared using the standard back-translation method, and the study was conducted from June 2021 to January 2022. The translation and adaptation were completed in four steps: forward translation, adaptation and translation, back translation, committee approach and cross-language validation. The sample, selected through the purposive sampling method, is comprised of 200 adults (men = 100 and women = 100), with an age range of 18–60 years (M = 28, SD = 5.5), spanning all stages of life. The Cronbach's alpha reliability and factorial validity of the OAS were assessed through confirmatory factor analysis and Pearson correlation analyses. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability (at a two-week interval) were used to evaluate the reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 22) software.

Findings

Preliminary analysis revealed that the overall instrument had good internal consistency (Urdu OAS a = 0.91; English OAS a = 0.92) as well as test–retest correlation coefficients for 15 days (r = 0.88). The factor loading of all items ranged from 0.69 to 0.9, which explained the significant level and indicated the model's overall goodness of fit.

Originality/value

Findings suggest that this scale has significant psychometric properties and the potential to be used as a valid, reliable and cost-effective clinical and research instrument. This study contributes to scientific knowledge and helps to develop and test indigenous cross-cultural instruments that can be used to examine external shame in Pakistani people.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Aneesa Azhar, Jaffar Abbas, Zhang Wenhong, Tanvir Akhtar and Muhammad Aqeel

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of marital status between infidelity and development of stress, anxiety and depression. Additionally, to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of marital status between infidelity and development of stress, anxiety and depression. Additionally, to investigate the relationship among infidelity, stress, anxiety and depression among married couples and divorced individual.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sampling technique was used based on cross-sectional design. In total, 200 participants (married couples, n=100; divorced individuals, n=100) were incorporated from different NGO’s and welfare organizations of Rawalpindi, and Islamabad, Pakistan. Age ranged from 20 to 60 years. Two scales were used to measure the infidelity, stress, anxiety and depression in married couples and divorced couples.

Findings

The result revealed that emotional infidelity was positively significant correlated with stress (r=0.39, p=0.001), anxiety (r=0.40, p=0.001) and depression (r=0.35, p=0.001) for married couples. The result also displayed that sexual infidelity was positively significant correlated with stress (r=0.39, p=0.001), anxiety (r=0.39, p=0.001) and depression (r=0.34, p=0.001) for married couples. The result further elaborated that emotional infidelity and sexual infidelities were positively non-significant correlated with stress, anxiety and depression for divorced individuals. The analysis results revealed that marital status was moderator between infidelity and development of stress, anxiety and depression.

Research limitations/implications

This paper consisted of sample from three basic cities of Pakistan; thus, this paper finding may not be applied on whole population. Consequently, explanatory, exploratory and descriptive studies would be useful to enlighten the infidelity’s mechanism in prolongation of psychological distress across married couples and divorced individual in detail. Local tools to measure gender-related issues would be helpful in prospect while it combine cultural aspects as well.

Social implications

This study would be helpful in clinical settings to raise the awareness to effectively deal with their children.

Originality/value

The study recommended that those divorced individuals who had experienced either sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity were more likely to develop psychological problems as compared to married couples. This study would be helpful in clinical settings to raise the awareness to effectively deal with their children.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Muhammad Aqeel, Ammar Ahmed and Tanvir Akhtar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of psychological problems (stress, anxiety, depression) between hearing impairment (HI) and tinnitus in tinnitus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of psychological problems (stress, anxiety, depression) between hearing impairment (HI) and tinnitus in tinnitus patients. Sample comprised of 110 patients (male, n=70; female, n=40).

Design/methodology/approach

The purposive sampling technique was used based on correlational design. Two scales, tinnitus handicap inventory developed by Newman et al. (1996), and depression, anxiety and stress scale developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995), were employed to assess tinnitus, anxiety, stress and depression among tinnitus patients.

Findings

The study revealed that tinnitus was positively significant correlated with depression (r=0.55, p<0.001), anxiety (r=0.63, p<0.001), stress (r=0.54, p<0.001) and hearing loss (r=0.81, p<0.001). The results also revealed that hearing loss was positively significant predictor for tinnitus (β=20.72, p<0.001). Further, it was revealed that tinnitus was positively significant predicted by anxiety (β=2.62, p<0.001), stress (β=2.33, p<0.001) and depression (β=2.71, p<0.001); the interaction between psychological symptoms and hearing loss was negatively significant predictor for stress (β=−0.51, p<0.001), anxiety (β=−0.57, p<0.001) and depression (β=−0.62, p<0.001). Moreover, it was revealed that female tinnitus patients were more predisposed to stress, anxiety and depression as compared to male tinnitus patients. Results also elaborated that those tinnitus patient who had profound HI were less inclined toward psychological problems as compared to those tinnitus patients who had mild to moderate level of HI. This study would be helpful for the clinical setting to tackle the psychological problems of tinnitus patients.

Research limitations/implications

This study consisted on population from urban cities of Pakistan; therefore, the findings cannot be generalized on overall population. In future, descriptive as well as experimental studies will be beneficial to describe the mechanism of tinnitus across gender in detail. Native tool for measuring gender-related problems would be effective in future as it integrates cultural aspects as well.

Originality/value

There is a consensus across researchers that tinnitus is one of the most important biological problem which initiates various other psychological problem (Minen et al., 2014; Vogel et al., 2014). Numerous studies have been conducted to find out the relationship of tinnitus with various psychological and biological factors (Boi et al., 2012; Li et al., 2014; Marciano et al., 2003; McCormack et al., 2015; Møller et al., 2010; Udupi et al., 2013; Zöger et al., 2006).

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Muhammad Haroon Rasheed, Amir Rafique, Tayyaba Zahid and Muhammad Waqar Akhtar

The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact of two most commonly used heuristics, namely, representative bias and availability bias on investment decision making and to…

4615

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact of two most commonly used heuristics, namely, representative bias and availability bias on investment decision making and to check that either locus of control interact with the said relations through theoretical proposal and then verification through empirical evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a quantitative research using a survey questionnaire for its data collection. Data are collected from 227 investors operating at Islamabad, Lahore, and Sargodha in Pakistan and analyzed using structural equation modeling while the interaction effect is analyzed through simple linear regression following the rules set by Baron and Kenny (1986).

Findings

The results reveal that both of the heuristics under study significantly cause investors to deviate from rational decision making while the locus of control have no significant moderating effect.

Originality/value

The proposed model provides insight on how the behavioral factors can lead investors to suboptimal decision making. This study is first of its kind to quantify the degree of irrationality caused by these factors. The findings of this study are practically useful for individual investors, investment managers, and also for policy makers.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Fatima Akhtar and Niladri Das

The purpose of this study is to analyse the mediation effect of psychological biases, namely, financial risk tolerance (FRT) and financial overconfidence on the relationship…

1625

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the mediation effect of psychological biases, namely, financial risk tolerance (FRT) and financial overconfidence on the relationship between personality traits of individual investors and their investment performance (perceived) in the context of a developing financial market such as Indian Capital Markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses both quantitative and cross-sectional approach to collect response from 983 individual investors through a questionnaire. The questionnaire had segments that were designed to assess their personality traits, investment performance and psychological traits. The personality traits were assessed through Big-Five personality inventory (TIPI), the psychological traits, i.e. FRT was measured through FRT scale, whereas financial overconfidence was measured through three basic concepts, namely, over-precision, over-placement and overestimation. Investment performance was assessed through perceived investment performance measures. The collected data was then analysed through AMOS and SPSS to validate the hypothesised relationship.

Findings

Findings of the study depict that personality traits of individual investors are related with their FRT, financial overconfidence and perceived investment performance. In addition, FRT and financial overconfidence are negatively related to perceived investment performance. Furthermore, mediation analysis showed that the two psychological traits were found to fully mediate the relationship between personality traits and investment performance.

Research limitations/implications

There are still certain limitations of the present study. First, the questionnaire pre-testing and sampling technique allowed for only for those investors who had an experience of investment in financial markets; however, the quantification of actual investment performance for each investor was impossible, and thus the actual investment performance was not determined. Second, this study focusses on the mediating role of financial overconfidence and financial risk-taking, as such it is known that levels of financial overconfidence and risk-taking depend on many other extraneous factors such as socio-economic status and financial knowledge.

Practical implications

The findings of the present study is useful for financial companies, policymakers as well as issuers of financial securities, who can keep a watch on these behaviour-related traits before issuing a security in the financial market and for the financial service providers; this study would be beneficial to design a “behavioural portfolio” according to the personality and psychological traits of their clients.

Social implications

Through this study, the investors can recognise their personality traits and psychological biases and take sound and good investment decisions and can also maximise their level of overconfidence. This increased level of overconfidence will propel them further to actively and frequently participate in financial markets and make financial gains.

Originality/value

The essence of this paper lies in the identification of personality traits and psychological traits of individual investors, and their relationship with investment performance. Studies such as this are less prevalent in the context of a developing country such as India. Moreover, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is first of its kind to study the meditating effect of psychological biases in the relationship between personality traits and investment performance.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Nazia Rafiq, Ambreen Sarwar and Maria Rasheed

The fear of COVID-19, being an emerging research variable and a parcel of the ongoing pandemic, has not yet been fully studied with respect to leadership and employee family life…

Abstract

Purpose

The fear of COVID-19, being an emerging research variable and a parcel of the ongoing pandemic, has not yet been fully studied with respect to leadership and employee family life. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between despotic leadership and work-family conflict under the context of fear prevailing due to COVID-19. The paper also highlights the mediating role of emotional exhaustion between the two variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in two waves by using a time-lagged design from 225 nurses from hospitals in the Central Punjab region in Pakistan. Analysis was done through process macro in SPSS.

Findings

Results showed that despotic leadership is positively related to work-family conflict directly and through emotional exhaustion indirectly. Furthermore, the moderation of fear of COVID-19 has also been noted such that its increase strengthened the direct as well as the indirect relationship between despotic leadership and work-family conflict.

Originality/value

During the days of COVID-19, the pandemic posed a strong threat to employees' family lives, especially in the presence of despotic leaders at the workplace. Amidst the widespread fear and harmful effects of COVID-19 on economies and organizations, this study provides novel implications for policymakers, researchers and practitioners for mitigating the impact of despotic leadership on employees' family lives.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 52 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2023

Anshita Bihari, Manoranjan Dash, Kamalakanta Muduli, Anil Kumar, Eyob Mulat-Weldemeskel and Sunil Luthra

Current research in the field of behavioural finance has attempted to discover behavioural biases and their characteristics in individual investors’ irrational decision-making…

Abstract

Purpose

Current research in the field of behavioural finance has attempted to discover behavioural biases and their characteristics in individual investors’ irrational decision-making. This study aims to find out how biases in information based on knowledge affect decisions about investments.

Design/methodology/approach

In step one, through existing research and consultation with specialists, 13 relevant items covering major aspects of bias were determined. In the second step, multiple linear regression and artificial neural network were used to analyse the data of 337 retail investors.

Findings

The investment choice was heavily impacted by regret aversion, followed by loss aversion, overconfidence and the Barnum effect. It was observed that the Barnum effect has a statistically significant negative link with investing choices. The research also found that investors’ fear of making mistakes and their tendency to be too sure of themselves were the most significant factors in their decisions about where to put their money.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the expansion of the knowledge base in behavioural finance theory by highlighting the significance of cognitive psychological traits in how leading investors end up making irrational decisions. Portfolio managers, financial institutions and investors in developing markets may all significantly benefit from the information offered.

Originality/value

This research is a one-of-a-kind study, as it analyses the emotional biases along with the cognitive biases of investor decision-making. Investor decisions generally consider the shadowy side of knowledge management.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2023

Sneha Badola, Aditya Kumar Sahu and Amit Adlakha

This study aims to systematically review various behavioral biases that impact an investor’s decision-making process. The prime objective of this paper is to thematically explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to systematically review various behavioral biases that impact an investor’s decision-making process. The prime objective of this paper is to thematically explore the behavioral bias literature and propose a comprehensive framework that can elucidate a more reasonable explanation of changes in financial markets and investors’ behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review (SLR) methodology is applied to a portfolio of 71 peer-reviewed articles collected from different electronic databases between 2007 and 2021. Content analysis of the extant literature is performed to identify the research themes and existing gaps in the literature.

Findings

This research identifies publication trends of the behavioral biases literature and uncovers 24 different biases that impact individual investors’ decision-making. Through thematic analysis, an attribute–consequence–impact framework is proposed that explains different biases leading to individual investors’ irrationality. The study further proposes directions for future research by applying the theory–characteristics–context–methodology framework.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this research will help scholars and practitioners in understanding the existence of various behavioral biases and assist them in identifying potential strategies which can evade the negative effects of these biases. The findings will further help the financial service providers to understand these biases and improve the landscape of financial services.

Originality/value

The essence of the current paper is the application of the SLR method on 24 biases in the area of behavioral finance. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first attempt of its kind which provides a methodical and comprehensive compilation of both cognitive and emotional behavioral biases that affect the individual investor’s decision-making.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2023

Nicolas de Oliveira Cardoso, Eduarda Zorgi Salvador, Gustavo Broch, Frederike Monika Budiner Mette, Claudia Emiko Yoshinaga and Wagner de Lara Machado

This paper aims to identify the impacts of sociodemographic covariates on behavioural biases (BB) scores; the psychometric evidence of the BB measurement instruments; and the main…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the impacts of sociodemographic covariates on behavioural biases (BB) scores; the psychometric evidence of the BB measurement instruments; and the main BB that influences the decision-making of individual investors.

Design/methodology/approach

Papers were retrieved through search using keywords in ten databases. This systematic review is based on 69 peer-reviewed papers, most of which were published between 2017 and 2021. The relevance of the included papers was assessed through the analysis of statistical/psychometric methods used, and content analysis of the BB literature and its sociodemographic correlations.

Findings

Overconfidence is higher in men and not related to age. There was no consensus regarding the relationship between BB and other sociodemographic variables. Most measuring instruments are ad hoc, showing ≤ 4 types of psychometric evidence and assessing ≤ 9 BB. Therefore, the findings demonstrate that there is no gold standard instrument for measuring investors’ BB. Furthermore, 37 BB were cited as influencers of individual investors’ decision-making and overconfidence, herding, anchoring, representativeness and loss aversion were the most prevalent.

Research limitations/implications

Considering that very few systematic reviews have been published in the behavioural finance area, this paper highlights the current state-of-the-art and identifies significant gaps in the literature that can be explored by further research.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review that analyses the psychometric properties of instruments used for individual investors BB assessment.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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