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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

T.C. Pennock

New technologies bring new challenges to those who have to convert hand‐made prototype printed circuit boards into a robust, reliable, large volume manufacturing technique. The…

Abstract

New technologies bring new challenges to those who have to convert hand‐made prototype printed circuit boards into a robust, reliable, large volume manufacturing technique. The adoption by many electronic equipment producers of surface mount technology has demanded that production managers develop and understand new skills to increase yields and obtain the maximum reliability from the product. This paper describes in some detail the methods used, many of them empirical, to obtain the best performance. Of specific interest is the importance of selecting the optimum solder mask system to increase yields and provide reliability, and the reasons for selecting a high conformance thin film solder mask are discussed. Each process is examined step‐by‐step to highlight the pitfalls, suggestions are made as to how these can be overcome and the paper concludes with the author's view of how the new technology will evolve in the future—to present further challenges to the manufacturing processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2018

Suparerk Lekwijit and Daricha Sutivong

Prediction markets are techniques to aggregate dispersed public opinions via market mechanisms to predict uncertain future events’ outcome. Many experiments have shown that…

Abstract

Purpose

Prediction markets are techniques to aggregate dispersed public opinions via market mechanisms to predict uncertain future events’ outcome. Many experiments have shown that prediction markets outperform other traditional forecasting methods in terms of accuracy. Logarithmic market scoring rules (LMSR) is one of the most simple and widely used market mechanisms; however, market makers have to confront crucial design decisions including the setting of the parameter “b” or the “liquidity parameter” in the price functions. As the liquidity parameter has significant effects on the market performance, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive basis for the setting of the parameter.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses include the effects of the liquidity parameter on the forecast standard error and the amount of time for the market price to converge to the true value. These experiments use artificial prediction markets, the proposed simulation models that mimic real prediction markets.

Findings

The simulation results indicate that prediction market’s forecast standard error decreases as the value of the liquidity parameter increases. Moreover, for any given number of traders in the market, there exists an optimal liquidity parameter value that yields appropriate price adaptability and leads to the fastest price convergence.

Originality/value

Understanding these tradeoffs, the market makers can effectively determine the liquidity parameter value under various objectives on the standard error, the time to convergence and cost.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1906

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good, and the British public may be congratulated on the salutary, if rude, awakening which the gale raised in Chicago has given them…

Abstract

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good, and the British public may be congratulated on the salutary, if rude, awakening which the gale raised in Chicago has given them. Peacefully slumbering, and content for years to accept as gospel truths the asseverations of all sorts and conditions of food‐fakers, both of home and foreign growth, the “Britisher” has suddenly received a shock from which it will take him a long time to recover. The abominable crime of milk‐adulteration—striking as it does at helpless infancy and at the vitality of the infirm and the weak; the “doctoring” of food products with a variety of pernicious drugs on the pleas of “preservation” and of meeting “public wants,” but in reality done for the sake of sordid gain; the gigantic meat and butter frauds, whereby largely the agricultural interest of this country has been brought to its present pass; the faking of beer and the wholesale arsenical poisoning which was one of its direct consequences; the denaturing of other foods by abstraction, substitution, and sophistication—all these things have been regarded by the “man in the street” with a sort of languid interest; have, at most, called forth passing comment from the lay press, and cheap sneers about faddery and faddists from various ignorant scribblers; while a succession of lethargic and feeble administrations have shelved the reports of their own Committees and Commissions, and, except under rare and abnormal pressure, have been content to adopt a policy of laissez faire.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 8 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1900

The food standards of the Indiana State Board of Health, which appear on another page, show that it is quite possible to lay down official definitions of various articles of food;…

Abstract

The food standards of the Indiana State Board of Health, which appear on another page, show that it is quite possible to lay down official definitions of various articles of food; and a study of these regulations may be of assistance to those authorities who are striving to arrive at some form of order out of the chaos which at present exists in this country in matters relating to food standards. With reference to milk, it will be seen that not only is the question of composition dealt with, but strict directions are given that milk derived from a cow which can in any way be considered as diseased is regarded as impure, and must therefore, says the Board, be considered as adulterated. In regard to butter and margarine, limits are given for the total amount of fat—which must consist entirely of milk‐fat in the case of the former substance—water, and salt; and not only are all preservatives forbidden, but the colouring matters are restricted, only certain vegetable colouring matters and some few coal‐tar colours being permitted. All cheese containing less than 10 per cent, of fat derived from milk must be plainly labelled as “ skim‐milk cheese”; and if it contains fat other than milk‐fat, it must be described as “ filled cheese.” Some exception is taken to the use of preservatives in cheese, inasmuch as it appears that cheese may contain a preservative if the name of such preservative is duly notified upon the label ; and the rules for the colouring of cheese are the same as those which apply to butter and margarine. All articles of food containing preservatives are considered as adulterated unless the package bears a label, printed in plain type and quite visible to the purchaser, stating that a preservative is present, and also giving the name of the preservative which has been used. Articles of confectionery must not contain any ingredient deleterious to health, such as terra alba, barytes, talc, or other mineral substance, nor may they contain poisonous colours or flavours.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1905

Less than half a century ago almost the entire population of the United States lived upon food that was home‐grown and home‐prepared. With the exception of a few articles…

Abstract

Less than half a century ago almost the entire population of the United States lived upon food that was home‐grown and home‐prepared. With the exception of a few articles requiring a different climate than our own for their production, such as coffee, tea, sugar, spices, and chocolate, the inhabitants of the country lived exclusively upon food of their own producing, while the dealers of the city were supplied with the products of the neighbouring farms. Provisions of all kinds were supplied in an unprepared condition, and their preservation or preparation for the table was accomplished at the home.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 7 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

John N. Moye

Abstract

Details

The Psychophysics of Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-113-7

Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2016

Heather M. Rintoul and Duncan MacLellan

In the last two decades Ontario’s universities have been experiencing major financial and administrative re-structuring resulting in decision-making challenges, specifically in…

Abstract

In the last two decades Ontario’s universities have been experiencing major financial and administrative re-structuring resulting in decision-making challenges, specifically in relation to a decreasing focus on ethical leadership and good governance. Ethical decision-making in Ontario universities is multifaceted because of the variety and complexity of demands placed on the senior administrative units and the bicameral structure of many universities, which is composed of a Board of Governors and a Senate. The authors propose approaches to improve ethical leadership and governance that focus on servant leadership, reflection, and stewardship within the bicameral process to support greater trust amongst elected and appointed senior decision-makers in Ontario’s university sector.

Details

The Dark Side of Leadership: Identifying and Overcoming Unethical Practice in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-499-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Ravi K. Perry and Aaron D. Camp

The lived experience of HIV+ Black MSM (men who have sex with men) in the South exposes persistent racialized inequality. With the highest rates of HIV diagnosis in the country…

Abstract

The lived experience of HIV+ Black MSM (men who have sex with men) in the South exposes persistent racialized inequality. With the highest rates of HIV diagnosis in the country, Black MSM are made to feel unequal within the US LGBTQ community, thereby perpetuating long-standing inequalities between the groups. We argue that Whites' and Blacks' differing conceptions of racial equality serve to limit the extent to which comprehensive LGBTQ equality is possible as whiteness frames the LGBTQ experience in the United States. Examining how the country's racist story of nonaccess, representation, and exclusion has stymied coalition building to eliminate inequalities, findings reveal the structural impediments toward racial parity. Utilizing the case study of HIV+ Black MSM in the South, we examine the persistence of inequality amid the thrice interwoven intramarginalization of feeling excluded from sociopolitical spaces, having limited political representation, and engaging with racist body politics.

Details

The Politics of Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-363-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2022

Yixiao Li, Yaoqi Hu and Shuiqing Yang

The aim of this study is to investigate how social media users' experience of seeking emergency information affects their engagement intention toward emergency information with a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate how social media users' experience of seeking emergency information affects their engagement intention toward emergency information with a reciprocity framework integrated with information adoption model.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on reciprocity theory, indebtedness theory, and information adoption model, an integrative research model is developed. This study employs a questionnaire survey to collect data of 325 social media users in China. Structural equation modeling analyses are conducted to test the proposed theoretical model.

Findings

Social media users' experience of seeking emergency information has a strong effect on their perceived information usefulness and indebtedness, while perceived information usefulness further influences community norm, indebtedness, and engagement intention. The authors also found that perceived information usefulness mediates the relationships between experience of seeking emergency information and community norm/indebtedness.

Originality/value

This study offers a new perspective to explain social media users' engagement intention in the diffusion of emergency information. This study contributes to the literature by extending the theoretical framework of reciprocity and applying it to the context of emergency information diffusion. The findings of this study could benefit the practitioners who wish to leverage social media tools for emergency response purposes.

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Lærke Højgaard Christiansen and Jochem J. Kroezen

Organizations are increasingly confronted with legitimacy threats related to the perceived social costs of their business activities. Despite a significant amount of research on…

Abstract

Organizations are increasingly confronted with legitimacy threats related to the perceived social costs of their business activities. Despite a significant amount of research on the responses of individual organizations, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to the collective activities firms may engage to address such issues. In this paper, we use institutional theory as a lens for an exploratory case study of Issue-Based Industry Collective (IBIC) action in the alcohol industry. Our findings identify a new organizational form, the IBIC and inspire new research avenues at the intersection of business collective action, social issues, and institutional theory.

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