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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Humayun Akhter, Richard Reardon and Craig Andrews

A model based on representational thinking is presented to explain the role of environment in brand evaluation. With respect to retail settings, we conclude that the…

1076

Abstract

A model based on representational thinking is presented to explain the role of environment in brand evaluation. With respect to retail settings, we conclude that the environment of a retail setting is not of critical importance in brand evaluation when consumers have elaborate representations of their target brands. When their representations for target brands are less elaborate, consumers' evaluations of these brands will be derived from their representations of either the physical or social environment, or both, to the extent that these representations are well elaborated. The strategic marketing implications of the above relationships are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

John T. Addison and Paulino Teixeira

Using data from the 2013 European Company Survey, this chapter operationalizes the representation gap as the desire for greater employee involvement in decision-making…

Abstract

Using data from the 2013 European Company Survey, this chapter operationalizes the representation gap as the desire for greater employee involvement in decision-making expressed by the representative of the leading employee representative body at the workplace. According to this measure, there is evidence of a substantial shortfall in employee involvement in the European Union, not dissimilar to that reported for the United States. The chapter proceeds to investigate how the size of this representation gap varies by type of representative structure, information provided by management, the resource base available to the representatives, and the status of trust between the parties. Perceived deficits are found to be smaller where workplace representation is via works councils rather than union bodies. Furthermore, the desire for greater involvement is reduced where information provided the employee representative on a range of establishment issues is judged satisfactory. A higher frequency of meetings with management also appears to mitigate the expressed desire for greater involvement. Each of these results is robust to estimation over different country clusters. However, unlike the other arguments, the conclusion that shortfalls in employee involvement representation are smaller under works councils than union bodies is nullified where trust in management is lacking.

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Eeva Luhtakallio

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a…

Abstract

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a set of visual material, and the analysis of keying within these frames, the approach provides a tangible tool to analyze contextualized visual material sociologically. To illustrate the approach, the chapter analyzes visual representations of social movement contention in two local contexts, the cities of Lyon, France, and Helsinki, Finland. The material was collected during ethnographic fieldwork and consists of 505 images from local activist websites. The analysis asks how femininity, masculinity, and gender/sex ambiguity key visual representations of different aspects of contentious action, such as mass gatherings, violence, protest policing, and performativity. Strong converging features are found in the contents of the frames in the two contexts, yet differences also abound, in particular in the ways femininity keys different frames of contention in visual representations. The results show, first, that the visual frame analysis approach is a functioning tool for analyzing large sets of visual material with a qualitative emphasis, and second, that a comparison of local activism through visual representations calls into question many general assumptions of political cultures, repertoires of contention, and cultural gender systems, and highlights the importance for sociologists of looking closely enough for both differences and similarities.

Details

Advances in the Visual Analysis of Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-636-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

Natalie A. Mitchell, Tony Stovall and David Avalos

This paper aims to assess the representation of women of color (WOC) in the top 3 fashion magazines and explore the implications of underrepresentation within marketing…

57

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the representation of women of color (WOC) in the top 3 fashion magazines and explore the implications of underrepresentation within marketing communications. The authors draw from diffusion theory and marketplace omission and commission to situate the research focus and highlight its application to the study findings.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis was conducted on 481 cover models on the top three fashion magazines of 2018 – Vogue, Cosmopolitan and Vanity Fair during 2006–2018.

Findings

The findings indicate WOC are underrepresented despite the strides of inclusion in the marketplace in America during a postracial period. Representation is as follows: white – 412 (86%); black – 41 (9%); Latina – 19 (3.9%); biracial 7 (1.5%); Asian – 1 (0.2%); and Native American – 1 (0.2%). Latina models had the lowest representation. Native and Asian women were completely excluded. When they do appear, black and Latina cover models are more likely than white models to be shown wearing sexually suggestive attire.

Practical implications

This study makes four recommendations to promote antiracism in marketing: diversify staff hiring and editorial decision-makers for public-facing talent; solicit counsel from multicultural marketing agencies; create antiracist marketing curriculum; and cultivate a pipeline of diverse talent for future hiring.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper centers its contribution to the dearth research investigating representation implications within the fashion marketing industry during an alleged post-racial period, and a longer time span. It also presents structured antiracist marketing solutions to mitigate underrepresentation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2014

Peter J. Hubber

This chapter describes a successful research-developed representation construction approach to teaching and learning that links student learning and engagement with the…

Abstract

This chapter describes a successful research-developed representation construction approach to teaching and learning that links student learning and engagement with the epistemic practices of science. This approach involves challenging students to generate and negotiate the representations (text, graphs, models, diagrams) that constitute the discursive practices of science, rather than focusing on the text-based, definitional versions of concepts. The representation construction approach is based on sequences of representational challenges that involve students constructing representations to actively explore and make claims about phenomena. The key principles of the representation construction approach, considered a form of directed inquiry, are outlined with illustrations from case studies of whole topics in forces and astronomy within several middle-years’ science classrooms. This chapter also outlines the manner in which the representation construction approach has been translated into wider scale implementation through a large-scale Professional Development (PD) workshop program. Issues associated with wider scale implementation of the approach are discussed.

Details

Inquiry-based Learning for Faculty and Institutional Development: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-235-7

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Lorenzo Massa and Fredrik Hacklin

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many…

Abstract

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many of which are cognitive in nature. The received literature has variously suggested that one way to overcome challenges to BMI, including cognitive ones, and support the cognitive tasks is using visual representations. Against this background, we aim at offering a contribution to the emerging line of inquiry at the nexus between business models (BMs), cognition and visual representations. Specifically, we develop a new method for visual representation of the BM in support of simplification of the cognitive effort and neutralisation of cognitive barriers. The resulting representation – a network-based representation, anchored on the activity-system perspective and offering complementarity and centrality/periphery measures – allows to visually represent an existing BM as a network (nodes and linkages) of interdependent activities and to express information related to the degree of centrality/periphery of single activities (nodes) with respect to the rest of a BM configuration. This information, we argue, is potentially very valuable in supporting the cognitive tasks involved in business model reconfiguration (BMR). We guide the reader to progressively appreciate how the development of the proposed method for visual representation is anchored to two main characteristics of BMR, namely the discovery-driven nature of BMR and the path-dependent nature of BMR. We offer initial insights on the cognitive value of such a type of representation in relationship to the simplification of the cognitive effort and the neutralisation of cognitive barriers in BMR.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Veronica Johansson and Jörgen Stenlund

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can…

661

Abstract

Purpose

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can provide a full, objective account of “temporal reality”, they are also biased and political: reproducing and reinforcing certain views and values at the expense of alternative ones. This conceptual paper aims to explore expressions of temporal bias and politics in data visualisation, along with possibly mitigating user approaches and design strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a theoretical framework rooted in a sociotechnical view of representations as biased and political, combined with perspectives from critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design. The framework provides a basis for discussion of various types and effects of temporal bias in visualisation. Empirical examples from previous research and public resources illustrate the arguments.

Findings

Four types of political effects of temporal bias in visualisations are presented, expressed as limitation of view, disregard of variation, oppression of social groups and misrepresentation of topic and suggest that appropriate critical and radical literacy approaches require users and designers to critique, contextualise, counter and cross beyond expressions of the same. Supporting critical design strategies involve the inclusion of multiple datasets and representations; broad access to flexible tools; and inclusive participation of marginalised groups.

Originality/value

The paper draws attention to a vital, yet little researched problem of temporal representation in visualisations of data. It offers a pioneering bridging of critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design and emphasises mutual rather than contradictory interests of the empirical sciences and humanities.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 78 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2022

Chuanming Yu, Zhengang Zhang, Lu An and Gang Li

In recent years, knowledge graph completion has gained increasing research focus and shown significant improvements. However, most existing models only use the structures…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, knowledge graph completion has gained increasing research focus and shown significant improvements. However, most existing models only use the structures of knowledge graph triples when obtaining the entity and relationship representations. In contrast, the integration of the entity description and the knowledge graph network structure has been ignored. This paper aims to investigate how to leverage both the entity description and the network structure to enhance the knowledge graph completion with a high generalization ability among different datasets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an entity-description augmented knowledge graph completion model (EDA-KGC), which incorporates the entity description and network structure. It consists of three modules, i.e. representation initialization, deep interaction and reasoning. The representation initialization module utilizes entity descriptions to obtain the pre-trained representation of entities. The deep interaction module acquires the features of the deep interaction between entities and relationships. The reasoning component performs matrix manipulations with the deep interaction feature vector and entity representation matrix, thus obtaining the probability distribution of target entities. The authors conduct intensive experiments on the FB15K, WN18, FB15K-237 and WN18RR data sets to validate the effect of the proposed model.

Findings

The experiments demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the traditional structure-based knowledge graph completion model and the entity-description-enhanced knowledge graph completion model. The experiments also suggest that the model has greater feasibility in different scenarios such as sparse data, dynamic entities and limited training epochs. The study shows that the integration of entity description and network structure can significantly increase the effect of the knowledge graph completion task.

Originality/value

The research has a significant reference for completing the missing information in the knowledge graph and improving the application effect of the knowledge graph in information retrieval, question answering and other fields.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Junying Chen, Zhanshe Guo, Fuqiang Zhou, Jiangwen Wan and Donghao Wang

As the limited energy of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy-efficient data-gathering algorithms are required. This paper proposes a compressive data-gathering…

Abstract

Purpose

As the limited energy of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy-efficient data-gathering algorithms are required. This paper proposes a compressive data-gathering algorithm based on double sparse structure dictionary learning (DSSDL). The purpose of this paper is to reduce the energy consumption of WSNs.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical data is used to construct a sparse representation base. In the dictionary-learning stage, the sparse representation matrix is decomposed into the product of double sparse matrices. Then, in the update stage of the dictionary, the sparse representation matrix is orthogonalized and unitized. The finally obtained double sparse structure dictionary is applied to the compressive data gathering in WSNs.

Findings

The dictionary obtained by the proposed algorithm has better sparse representation ability. The experimental results show that, the sparse representation error can be reduced by at least 3.6% compared with other dictionaries. In addition, the better sparse representation ability makes the WSNs achieve less measurement times under the same accuracy of data gathering, which means more energy saving. According to the results of simulation, the proposed algorithm can reduce the energy consumption by at least 2.7% compared with other compressive data-gathering methods under the same data-gathering accuracy.

Originality/value

In this paper, the double sparse structure dictionary is introduced into the compressive data-gathering algorithm in WSNs. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has good performance on energy consumption and sparse representation.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Trudie Walters, Najmeh Hassanli and Wiebke Finkler

Gender inequality is evident in many academic practices, but research has often focused on the male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender inequality is evident in many academic practices, but research has often focused on the male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study responds to calls for more work in the business disciplines which have been overlooked by comparison and focuses on academic conferences as a higher education practice. Conferences are manifestations of the research being conducted within the discipline, representing the type of knowledge that is considered valuable, and who the thought leaders are considered to be. This study investigates whether equal representation of women at such conferences really matters, to whom and why.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was designed using a critical feminist theory approach. An online survey was disseminated to academic staff and postgraduate students in the 25 top ranked business schools in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 452 responses were received, and thematic analysis was applied to open-ended responses.

Findings

Equal representation does matter, for two sets of reasons. The first align with feminist theory perspectives of “equal opportunity” (gender is neutral), “difference” (gender is celebrated) or “post-equity” (the social construction of gender itself is problematic). The second are pragmatic consequences, namely the importance of role modelling, career building and the respect and recognition that come with conference attendance and visible leadership roles.

Social implications

The findings have implications in regards to job satisfaction, productivity and the future recruitment and retention of women in academia. Furthermore, in areas where women are not researching, the questions and issues that are important to them are not receiving the attention they deserve, and this gender data gap has consequences for society at large.

Originality/value

This study moves beyond simply identifying the under-representation of women at academic conferences in yet another field, to investigate why equal representation is important and to whom. It provides valuable evidence of the consequences of under-representation, as perceived by academics themselves.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 78000