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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Humayun Akhter, Richard Reardon and Craig Andrews

A model based on representational thinking is presented to explain the role of environment in brand evaluation. With respect to retail settings, we conclude that the…

Abstract

A model based on representational thinking is presented to explain the role of environment in brand evaluation. With respect to retail settings, we conclude that the environment of a retail setting is not of critical importance in brand evaluation when consumers have elaborate representations of their target brands. When their representations for target brands are less elaborate, consumers' evaluations of these brands will be derived from their representations of either the physical or social environment, or both, to the extent that these representations are well elaborated. The strategic marketing implications of the above relationships are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Eeva Luhtakallio

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a…

Abstract

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a set of visual material, and the analysis of keying within these frames, the approach provides a tangible tool to analyze contextualized visual material sociologically. To illustrate the approach, the chapter analyzes visual representations of social movement contention in two local contexts, the cities of Lyon, France, and Helsinki, Finland. The material was collected during ethnographic fieldwork and consists of 505 images from local activist websites. The analysis asks how femininity, masculinity, and gender/sex ambiguity key visual representations of different aspects of contentious action, such as mass gatherings, violence, protest policing, and performativity. Strong converging features are found in the contents of the frames in the two contexts, yet differences also abound, in particular in the ways femininity keys different frames of contention in visual representations. The results show, first, that the visual frame analysis approach is a functioning tool for analyzing large sets of visual material with a qualitative emphasis, and second, that a comparison of local activism through visual representations calls into question many general assumptions of political cultures, repertoires of contention, and cultural gender systems, and highlights the importance for sociologists of looking closely enough for both differences and similarities.

Details

Advances in the Visual Analysis of Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-636-1

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2014

Peter J. Hubber

This chapter describes a successful research-developed representation construction approach to teaching and learning that links student learning and engagement with the…

Abstract

This chapter describes a successful research-developed representation construction approach to teaching and learning that links student learning and engagement with the epistemic practices of science. This approach involves challenging students to generate and negotiate the representations (text, graphs, models, diagrams) that constitute the discursive practices of science, rather than focusing on the text-based, definitional versions of concepts. The representation construction approach is based on sequences of representational challenges that involve students constructing representations to actively explore and make claims about phenomena. The key principles of the representation construction approach, considered a form of directed inquiry, are outlined with illustrations from case studies of whole topics in forces and astronomy within several middle-years’ science classrooms. This chapter also outlines the manner in which the representation construction approach has been translated into wider scale implementation through a large-scale Professional Development (PD) workshop program. Issues associated with wider scale implementation of the approach are discussed.

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Inquiry-based Learning for Faculty and Institutional Development: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-235-7

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Lorenzo Massa and Fredrik Hacklin

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many…

Abstract

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many of which are cognitive in nature. The received literature has variously suggested that one way to overcome challenges to BMI, including cognitive ones, and support the cognitive tasks is using visual representations. Against this background, we aim at offering a contribution to the emerging line of inquiry at the nexus between business models (BMs), cognition and visual representations. Specifically, we develop a new method for visual representation of the BM in support of simplification of the cognitive effort and neutralisation of cognitive barriers. The resulting representation – a network-based representation, anchored on the activity-system perspective and offering complementarity and centrality/periphery measures – allows to visually represent an existing BM as a network (nodes and linkages) of interdependent activities and to express information related to the degree of centrality/periphery of single activities (nodes) with respect to the rest of a BM configuration. This information, we argue, is potentially very valuable in supporting the cognitive tasks involved in business model reconfiguration (BMR). We guide the reader to progressively appreciate how the development of the proposed method for visual representation is anchored to two main characteristics of BMR, namely the discovery-driven nature of BMR and the path-dependent nature of BMR. We offer initial insights on the cognitive value of such a type of representation in relationship to the simplification of the cognitive effort and the neutralisation of cognitive barriers in BMR.

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Junying Chen, Zhanshe Guo, Fuqiang Zhou, Jiangwen Wan and Donghao Wang

As the limited energy of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy-efficient data-gathering algorithms are required. This paper proposes a compressive data-gathering…

Abstract

Purpose

As the limited energy of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy-efficient data-gathering algorithms are required. This paper proposes a compressive data-gathering algorithm based on double sparse structure dictionary learning (DSSDL). The purpose of this paper is to reduce the energy consumption of WSNs.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical data is used to construct a sparse representation base. In the dictionary-learning stage, the sparse representation matrix is decomposed into the product of double sparse matrices. Then, in the update stage of the dictionary, the sparse representation matrix is orthogonalized and unitized. The finally obtained double sparse structure dictionary is applied to the compressive data gathering in WSNs.

Findings

The dictionary obtained by the proposed algorithm has better sparse representation ability. The experimental results show that, the sparse representation error can be reduced by at least 3.6% compared with other dictionaries. In addition, the better sparse representation ability makes the WSNs achieve less measurement times under the same accuracy of data gathering, which means more energy saving. According to the results of simulation, the proposed algorithm can reduce the energy consumption by at least 2.7% compared with other compressive data-gathering methods under the same data-gathering accuracy.

Originality/value

In this paper, the double sparse structure dictionary is introduced into the compressive data-gathering algorithm in WSNs. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has good performance on energy consumption and sparse representation.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Trudie Walters, Najmeh Hassanli and Wiebke Finkler

Gender inequality is evident in many academic practices, but research has often focused on the male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender inequality is evident in many academic practices, but research has often focused on the male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study responds to calls for more work in the business disciplines which have been overlooked by comparison and focuses on academic conferences as a higher education practice. Conferences are manifestations of the research being conducted within the discipline, representing the type of knowledge that is considered valuable, and who the thought leaders are considered to be. This study investigates whether equal representation of women at such conferences really matters, to whom and why.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was designed using a critical feminist theory approach. An online survey was disseminated to academic staff and postgraduate students in the 25 top ranked business schools in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 452 responses were received, and thematic analysis was applied to open-ended responses.

Findings

Equal representation does matter, for two sets of reasons. The first align with feminist theory perspectives of “equal opportunity” (gender is neutral), “difference” (gender is celebrated) or “post-equity” (the social construction of gender itself is problematic). The second are pragmatic consequences, namely the importance of role modelling, career building and the respect and recognition that come with conference attendance and visible leadership roles.

Social implications

The findings have implications in regards to job satisfaction, productivity and the future recruitment and retention of women in academia. Furthermore, in areas where women are not researching, the questions and issues that are important to them are not receiving the attention they deserve, and this gender data gap has consequences for society at large.

Originality/value

This study moves beyond simply identifying the under-representation of women at academic conferences in yet another field, to investigate why equal representation is important and to whom. It provides valuable evidence of the consequences of under-representation, as perceived by academics themselves.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Joerg Leukel and Vijayan Sugumaran

Process models specific to the supply chain domain are an important tool for the analysis of interorganizational interfaces and requirements of information technology (IT…

Abstract

Purpose

Process models specific to the supply chain domain are an important tool for the analysis of interorganizational interfaces and requirements of information technology (IT) systems supporting supply chain decision-making. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of supply chain process models for novice analysts in conveying domain semantics compared to alternative textual representations.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment with graduate students as proxies for novice analysts was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to either the diagram group, which worked with “thread diagrams” created from the modeling grammar “Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) model”, or the text group, which worked with semantically equivalent textual representations. Domain understanding was measured using cognitively demanding information acquisition for two different domains.

Findings

Diagram users were more accurate in identifying product-related information and organizing this information in a graph compared to those using the textual representation. The authors found considerable improvements in domain understanding, and using the diagrams was perceived as easy as using the texts.

Originality/value

The study's findings are unique in providing empirical evidence for supply chain process models being an effective representation for novice analysts. Such evidence is lacking in prior research because of the evaluation methods used, which are limited to scenario, case study and informed argument. This study adds the diagram user's perspective to that literature and provides a rigorous empirical evaluation by contrasting diagrammatic and textual representations.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Andres Velez-Calle

To date, there has been little research about the degree of correspondence between partner equity ownership and partner representation on boards of joint ventures (JVs)…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, there has been little research about the degree of correspondence between partner equity ownership and partner representation on boards of joint ventures (JVs). It is generally assumed that partners’ share equals board representation in percentage. This paper aims to explore various instances of deviation from the above norm.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a unique database of 259 JV contracts extracted from the US Securities and Exchange Commission, and by drawing from resource dependency and transaction cost theories, this manuscript explores the factors that increase or decrease the deviation between equity share and board representation.

Findings

The results show that international JVs (IJVs) tend to deviate more, while JVs with a deadlock clause, a large board and based in a stable country deviate less from the degree of correspondence between equity share and board representation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the alliance and governance literatures by identifying factors that influence the degree of correspondence between partner investment (equity share) and control through board of director representation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Constance Mambet Doue, Oscar Navarro Carrascal, Diego Restrepo, Nathalie Krien, Delphine Rommel, Colin Lemee, Marie Coquet, Denis Mercier and Ghozlane Fleury-Bahi

Based on social representation theory, this study aims to evaluate and analyze the similarities and differences between social representations of climate change held by…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on social representation theory, this study aims to evaluate and analyze the similarities and differences between social representations of climate change held by people living in two territories, which have in common that they are exposed to coastal risks but have different socio-cultural contexts: on the one hand, Cartagena (Colombia) and on the other, Guadeloupe (French overseas department, France).

Design/methodology/approach

A double approach, both quantitative and qualitative, of social representation theory was adopted. The data collection was undertaken in two phases. First, the content and organization of social representation of climate change (SRCC) was examined with a quantitative study of 946 participants for both countries, followed by a qualitative study of 63 participants for both countries also.

Findings

The study finds unicity in the SRCC for the quantitative study. In contrast, the qualitative study highlights differences at the level of the institutional anchoring of the climate change phenomenon in these two different socioeconomic and political contexts.

Practical implications

These results are relevant for a reflection in terms of public policies for the prevention and management of collective natural risks, as well as for the promotion of ecological behavior adapted to political and ideological contexts.

Originality/value

The use of a multi-methodological approach (quantitative and qualitative) in the same research is valuable to confirm the importance of an in-depth study of the social representations of climate change because of the complexity of the phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Clotilde Coron

This work deals with social representations of gender equality in the workplace. Little academic work deals with the way workers define gender equality. My research also…

Abstract

Purpose

This work deals with social representations of gender equality in the workplace. Little academic work deals with the way workers define gender equality. My research also deals with the implications of this definition in terms of policy implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

This work is based on a mixed-method approach. A quantitative study based on an online survey conducted in 2015 at a French company is mobilized to identify and measure the main representations of gender equality among the workers. Then, a qualitative study is used to explore these representations in depth and to examine how they influence the implementation of policy on gender equality.

Findings

This work shows that for French workers, equal pay and equal access to responsibilities are the most important dimensions of gender equality, while gender diversity and work-life balance seem less important. The representation of gender equality varies according to gender, professional field and managerial status. These variations help to understand the difficulty of implementing such policy.

Practical implications

Managerially, these results would strongly indicate that companies in France, but also in other developed countries, should consider carrying out awareness campaigns aimed at employees in order to promote a common culture and definition of gender equality. Indeed, the coexistence of various representations of gender equality partly explains the insufficient implementation—and thus the poor performance and general effectiveness of gender equality policies, both in theoretical and practical terms. Companies should also consider introducing awareness campaigns that specifically target men, who grant less importance to gender equality than women.

Originality/value

This study deals with social representations of gender equality in France, a subject which has been largely neglected or overlooked in existing fields of gender research. The international literature on gender equality shows that variations in representations of gender equality constitute a major subject for research and policies about gender, whatever the country. However, this topic still remains inadequately addressed. This research aims to strengthen such research literature dedicated to the issue of gender equality.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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