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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Stuart S. Nagel

Scarce resources can be allocated to budget categories byprocessing a set of goals to be achieved, alternative budget categoriesand relations between each budget category…

Abstract

Scarce resources can be allocated to budget categories by processing a set of goals to be achieved, alternative budget categories and relations between each budget category and each goal expressed in whatever terms with which the user is comfortable. A concrete example is given involving the allocating of a $500,000 budget to the police and the courts in the light of the goals of crime reduction and fair procedure in separating the innocent from the guilty. The police do better than the courts on crime reduction, but the courts do better than the police on fair procedure. Fair procedure, it is suggested, is considered more important than crime reduction. With that tentative assumption one can determine what proportion of the budget should be allocated to the police and what proportion to the courts. Initial allocations may be changed in the light of whatever constraints exist concerning minimum amounts that need to be allocated to the police or the courts. The initial allocations can also be subjected to a sensitivity analysis, to see how responsive they are to changes in the inputs concerning the relative importance of the goals and the nature of the relationships between each budget category and each goal.

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International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Stuart S. Nagel

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Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

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Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

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Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Stuart Nagel

Win‐win analysis involves finding alternatives to policy and other problems so that conservatives, liberals and other major viewpoints can all come out ahead of their best…

Abstract

Win‐win analysis involves finding alternatives to policy and other problems so that conservatives, liberals and other major viewpoints can all come out ahead of their best initial expectations. Win‐win thinking is increasing, due to such developments as the end of the Cold War, free trade, growth economics and new computerized technologies that provide increased benefits while reducing costs. But above all it is driven by the knowledge that everyone benefits from consensus, and that alternative systems of conflict‐resolution have not served us well in the past.

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Foresight, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2006

Ferrel Heady

Public administration as an aspect of governmental activity has existed as long as political systems have been functioning and trying to achieve program objectives set by…

Abstract

Public administration as an aspect of governmental activity has existed as long as political systems have been functioning and trying to achieve program objectives set by the political decision-makers. Public administration as a field of systematic study is much more recent. Advisers to rulers and commentators on the workings of government have recorded their observations from time to time in sources as varied as Kautilya's Arthasastra in ancient India, the Bible, Aristotle's Politics, and Machiavelli's The Prince, but it was not until the eighteenth century that cameralism, concerned with the systematic management of governmental affairs, became a specialty of German scholars in Western Europe. In the United States, such a development did not take place until the latter part of the nineteenth century, with the publication in 1887 of Woodrow Wilson's famous essay, “The Study of Administration,” generally considered the starting point. Since that time, public administration has become a well-recognized area of specialized interest, either as a subfield of political science or as an academic discipline in its own right.

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Comparative Public Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-453-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Thomas Köllen

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are…

Abstract

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often related to organizational hierarchies, employees frequently hold positions of dominance and subordination at the same time. Thus, a given individual’s coping strategies (or coping behavior) in terms of minority stress due to organizational processes of hierarchization, marginalization, and discrimination, are very often a simultaneous coping in terms of more than one demographic. Research on minority stress mostly focuses on single demographics representing only single facets of workforce diversity. By integrating the demographics of age, disability status, nationality, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and religion into one framework, the intersectional model proposed in this chapter broadens the perspective on minorities and related minority stress in the workplace. It is shown that coping with minority stress because of one demographic must always be interpreted in relation to the other demographics. The manifestation of one demographic can limit or broaden one’s coping resources for coping with minority stress because of another dimension. Thus, the manifestation of one demographic can determine the coping opportunities and coping behavior one applies to situations because of the minority status of another demographic. This coping behavior can include disclosure decisions about invisible demographics. Therefore, organizational interventions aiming to create a supportive workplace environment and equal opportunities for every employee (e.g., diversity management approaches) should include more demographics instead of focusing only on few.

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The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

Cheryl Hunter and Tsooane Molapo

This chapter examines the similarities and differences in teacher education between Botswana and Lesotho to unravel “best fit” strategies specific to the needs of teacher…

Abstract

This chapter examines the similarities and differences in teacher education between Botswana and Lesotho to unravel “best fit” strategies specific to the needs of teacher education in different locals or populations within these two countries. We begin with an overview of the social, political, and economic contexts of each country as a lens by which to understand some of the current challenges teachers face within each country. We review the research literature to understand what teacher preparation looks like at the tertiary level and how teachers in the field maintain current knowledge and pedagogical skills in regard the content they teach. We will argue that when teaching pedagogy at the tertiary level maintains an authoritarian model of teaching with content centered, didactic instruction, and teacher-centered pedagogy there is little ability for national change in education. Likewise, if teacher education does not embed the concept of life-long learning and is not supported by both a national and local commitment to support teacher’s continued professional development the ability to sustain any change in education is thwarted.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Savannah (Yuanyuan) Guo, Sabrina Chi and Kirsten A. Cook

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over…

Abstract

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over retail investors, and high short-interest levels are a bearish signal of targeted stock prices. As a result, when short-interest levels are high, managers have been shown to take actions to minimize the negative effect of high short interest on firms’ stock prices. Tax-avoidance activities may convey a signal of bad news (i.e., high stock price crash risk). We predict that, when short-interest levels are high, managers possess incentives to reduce firm tax avoidance in order to reduce the associated stock price crash risk. Consistent with this prediction, we find that short interest is negatively associated with subsequent tax-avoidance levels. This effect is incremental to other factors identified by prior research. We conclude that short selling significantly constrains corporate tax avoidance.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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