Search results1 – 10 of over 2000
Several hundred German parents completed a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards pocket money and economic socialisation. In addition trait competitiveness and…
Several hundred German parents completed a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards pocket money and economic socialisation. In addition trait competitiveness and occupational stress were measured. Demographic variables were less predictive of competitiveness compared to psychological/attitudinal factors. The more competitive oriented parents displayed a distinct monetary attitude profile: they were less liberal, more structured and budget‐oriented. They used money significantly more as a reinforcer for educational purposes, e.g. educational or scholarly success, and as an instrument to teach autonomy. Subjectively perceived occupational stress was determined by diverse socio‐demographic variables, although the stress‐demographic relationship was moderated by gender. Older fathers and men from a poor social‐economic background (as children) tended to show greater job‐related stress. Conversely, mothers from “superior” SES, with more siblings, and fewer children of their own, reported more occupational stress.
The implementation of the policy of devolution in the government school system of Victoria, Australia, has significantly enhanced the opportunities for teachers to become…
The implementation of the policy of devolution in the government school system of Victoria, Australia, has significantly enhanced the opportunities for teachers to become involved in the decision making of schools. This article reports on a study designed to investigate the factors associated with involvement. Analysis of the data found teacher involvement in the decision making of schools to be associated with: gender; seniority and organizational responsibility; age and teaching experience; affiliation with the teachers association; the influence of the principal; the individual's sense of personal, political and professional efficacy; the individual's confidence and trust in the organization and its administration; the conflicting demands, anxiety and pressure of time; and the perceived effects of participation on curriculum and teaching practice.
Literature indicates that monetary reward or compensation impacts on the level of attraction, motivation, job satisfaction and retention of employees. The elements of…
Literature indicates that monetary reward or compensation impacts on the level of attraction, motivation, job satisfaction and retention of employees. The elements of compensation include salary, bonuses (allowances), gratuity and pension. The purpose of this study is to investigate how these four elements of compensation specifically influence the attraction, motivation, job satisfaction and retention of public sector construction employees of Jigawa State of Nigeria to inform how their employer can raise the current levels of satisfaction and retention of employees.
The Positivist paradigm guided the empirical research where a questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested and administered to 265 people using stratified random sampling. A total of 260 questionnaires were collected, representing a response rate of 98 per cent. The data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling.
The results established that construction employees in Jigawa State’s public sector were motivated by allowances and gratuity, attracted to the job by salary, pension and gratuity and remained in their jobs through the influences of gratuity and pension. Gratuity played a major role, as it impacted on all the four variables studied.
These findings are applicable to Jigawa State of Nigeria but can be extrapolated to other public sector construction employees in the whole country. The findings could also be generalized in other states where the pay scales are different within the ministries.
The impacts of four elements of monetary rewards on four employees’ variables were studied. The specifics of which elements of compensation influence the employees of Jigawa State’s Ministry of Works and Transport have been identified. The findings from this study showed that gratuity played a primary role, as it impacted highly on all the four variables of job attraction, motivation, satisfaction and retention. Pension also played a high role, as it impacted heavily on job attraction, satisfaction and retention. Comparatively salary and allowances had high impact on one variable each: job attraction and motivation, respectively.
Considers the changing financial marketplace and how taxation andcapital allowances assist in the realisation of long term fundingarrangements. Shows, using example…
Considers the changing financial marketplace and how taxation and capital allowances assist in the realisation of long term funding arrangements. Shows, using example projects, how the various requirements were met and how the appropriate solutions were adopted. Finally, examines the work that has been recently carried out on the development of computer programs which evaluate funding, development and hold and sell options.
Examines fiscal measures as a means of stimulating commercialdevelopment in inner city areas. Shows that the coupling together ofplanning and regeneration issues with…
Examines fiscal measures as a means of stimulating commercial development in inner city areas. Shows that the coupling together of planning and regeneration issues with financial policy stimulates the demand side by providing incentives to owner‐occupiers, investors and lessees. Analyses taxation profiles to indicate the potential saving available to the different actors and considers short‐term and longer‐term impact on the market.
IT was in last June of flaming memory that we posed the question “What will the Bullock Committee achieve?” Well, there is still a little hope that this committee, like so many others in the past, will produce a report that will simply be shelved. But this hope is very small.
The first Poor Laws date back to the 16th century. One would have to go back to 1495 and 1531 to locate the first legislation (displaying above all a repressive…
The first Poor Laws date back to the 16th century. One would have to go back to 1495 and 1531 to locate the first legislation (displaying above all a repressive character), in which vagabonds were punished, all public begging was outlawed and the poor were required to participate in public works. But an initial 1535 provision stipulated that the local authorities were required to provide for the subsistence of the sick poor. The laws of 1572, 1575, 1597 and 1601 (Tawney & Power, 1924, Vol. 2, pp. 328–329, 346–354) marked a decisive step towards the extension of assistance to the ‘deserving poor’ within the context of the parish. Throughout the whole of the 17th century, the coercive aspect continued to dominate. The law on place of residence (the Act of Settlement and Removal) of 1662 added new constraints to the old provisions attaching the poor to their respective parishes. The creation of workhouses beginning in the mid-17th century (via parliamentary decrees in 1647 and 1649) represented the most important stage in the establishment of these repressive measures. The objective was to make the poor more useful and less costly to society; the 18th century would see an increase in the number of workhouses, reaching a total of approximately 200 by the end of the century. Beginning in 1722, the parish authorities were able to create workhouses and conclude agreements with the central government for the upkeep of the poor; those who refused to participate in these institutions lost all rights to assistance.
LESS than three weeks after Sir Geoffrey Howe presented his Budget to a packed House of Commons and a population fearful of what he might demand from them it becomes evident that it was a help (as well as a pointer) to better things to come.
The Content Theories of Motivation — those of Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfer — yielded four criteria by which alternate promotion structures in N.S.W. High Schools could be…
The Content Theories of Motivation — those of Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfer — yielded four criteria by which alternate promotion structures in N.S.W. High Schools could be evaluated. The four criteria are the extent to which the promotion structure: 1. Acts as a source of intrinsic motivation; 2. Is a source of job enrichment; 3. Allows for and encourages participative management; and 4. Offers non‐administrative career paths. The four criteria were used to evaluate the existing promotion structure in N.S.W. High Schools, the structure proposed in A Discussion Paper, the proposal of the N.S.W. Institute of Inspectors, and the promotion structure policies of the N.S.W. Teachers Federation. It was concluded that the existing promotion structure failed to satisfy any of the criteria. The proposal contained in A Discussion Paper advocated measures to meet all of the criteria except non‐administrative career paths, yet did not incorporate practical means of achieving such objectives. The policies of the N.S.W. Teachers Federation cannot be fully appraised until they are formulated into a concrete proposal. The proposal of the Institute of Inspectors went closest towards satisfying all criteria except that of participative management.
Scarce resources can be allocated to budget categories by processing a set of goals to be achieved, alternative budget categories and relations between each budget category and each goal expressed in whatever terms with which the user is comfortable. A concrete example is given involving the allocating of a $500,000 budget to the police and the courts in the light of the goals of crime reduction and fair procedure in separating the innocent from the guilty. The police do better than the courts on crime reduction, but the courts do better than the police on fair procedure. Fair procedure, it is suggested, is considered more important than crime reduction. With that tentative assumption one can determine what proportion of the budget should be allocated to the police and what proportion to the courts. Initial allocations may be changed in the light of whatever constraints exist concerning minimum amounts that need to be allocated to the police or the courts. The initial allocations can also be subjected to a sensitivity analysis, to see how responsive they are to changes in the inputs concerning the relative importance of the goals and the nature of the relationships between each budget category and each goal.