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Perinatal health is a good indicator of both maternal health status and the level of socioeconomic status attained in any community. This article presents part of the…
Perinatal health is a good indicator of both maternal health status and the level of socioeconomic status attained in any community. This article presents part of the findings of a research project conducted in 1997 by the author to look at the determinants of maternal and perinatal health in Kisumu district of Kenya. Data were collected from four health facilities within the district which were selected through purposive sampling to act as sentinel centres. In total, 1,455 obstetric cases were enumerated and those with perinatal complications were isolated. Perinatal health status was measured by the frequency of low birth weights, neonatal deaths, still‐births, and early neonatal morbidity. Cross‐tabulations and multivariate analysis have been used to identify the major risk factors of the perinatal health problems identified in the study area. Among other things, the study reveals that the risk of most perinatal complications is significantly increased by maternal and environmental factors. These include poor pregnancy care, malaria and anaemia during pregnancy, poor socioeconomic conditions of the mother and poor sanitary conditions in the household. Any policy measure aimed at promoting perinatal health should seek to address all these factors.
Between the 6th and 10th of August 2011, a number of cities in England experienced serious civil disorders now commonly referred to as the English riots. The riots are…
Between the 6th and 10th of August 2011, a number of cities in England experienced serious civil disorders now commonly referred to as the English riots. The riots are being regarded by many as the most serious disturbances in the UK since the Brixton riots of the early 1980s, resulting in over 3,000 arrests and by mid‐September, over 300 convictions. Whilst the post‐mortem into the “causes” for the English riots continues, the Criminal Justice System (CJS) is rapidly dispensing severe punishments upon those who have been identified. Yet, despite the “informed” commentary and assertions espoused within the national and local media, there is still little information about those who were processed though the CJS as a consequence of their “involvement” in the riots. Arguably, the social, political, and media reactions have impeded a clear and considered exploration of the rioters (characteristics and previous experiences) and what factors may have contributed to their involvement.
Drawing upon a specially configured dataset, incorporating social, economic, and criminogenic information of those convicted and sentenced by the courts in the initial weeks following the riots in Manchester, this paper is concerned with providing a case study of the individuals involved. In doing so, it inevitably explores the potential limits of any data constructed through the lens of the CJS.
The emerging profile demonstrates that the individuals convicted as “rioters” are often assessed as having multiple and entrenched issues around housing, employment, finances, and mental health. Agencies such as the Probation Service must now carefully reflect upon such profile information in developing their response to this type of offending behaviour, understanding the risks such individuals may pose but also the potential for the “rioters” to establish an offence‐free life on completion of their order or prison sentence.
Whilst acknowledging its limitations, the findings from this analysis make an early contribution to an important debate regarding the response of CJS agencies supervising the “rioters”.
Surveys and analyses developments in the Western Australia education system between 1983 and 1989, a period of dramatic and unprecedented change. Demonstrates that…
Surveys and analyses developments in the Western Australia education system between 1983 and 1989, a period of dramatic and unprecedented change. Demonstrates that patterns of control are underpinned and shaped by ideologies which exist in a wider socio‐political context. The main changes during this period are shown to proceed from two almost opposite ideological strands: a social imperative and an economic imperative. While reconcilable in theory, the attempt in Western Australia at the simultaneous implementation of changes driven by these imperatives resulted in the social imperative being subjugated to the politically‐based economic imperative. Concludes that this outcome occurred through intervening factors associated with patterns of control.
Presents a personal view of a typical librarian’s career in contemporary Hungary. For a deeper understanding of the country’s peculiar circumstances, a more detailed…
Presents a personal view of a typical librarian’s career in contemporary Hungary. For a deeper understanding of the country’s peculiar circumstances, a more detailed overview is given about the position, general state and financial conditions of Hungarian libraries, their loss as attractive places of employment and the declining social status of the librarian. The causes that lie behind this are briefly discussed as well as the librarian’s view of possible solutions. A scheme and short explanation of Hungarian librarian training is followed by the author’s personal example. Helped by favourable factors while a student and later as an employee at a prestigious library, she is now the information officer of an international organization in Budapest and is actively involved in promoting international ties for Hungarian librarians.
Sino‐foreign joint ventures have been the major form of foreign directinvestment in China since the economic reform in late 1978. Among themany problems faced by the…
Sino‐foreign joint ventures have been the major form of foreign direct investment in China since the economic reform in late 1978. Among the many problems faced by the foreign partner of a joint venture, human resource management (HRM) is one of the most often cited. Offers a comprehensive review of the major HRM problems, namely recruitment, dismissal, remuneration, labour discipline, managerial skills, training and trade unions. In order to understand the nature of the problems better, an effort is made to trace the origin of these problems back to the former centrally planned economy and the Chinese culture. The discussion covers the entire Chinese workforce consisting of both workers and managers. Cites survey results and real life cases for illustration. In addition to analysing the problems, offers some practical solutions.
If there is such a thing as the “public library movement”, where is it today and where is it going? Discusses the motive forces that shape its values and beliefs and how they differ from those of our predecessors, if at all. Examines whether there is a public library ideology which commands majority support on whether each public librarian needs to establish his/her own. Looks at modern political, economic and social systems and whether the traditional values of the free public library′s founding fathers are redundant or whether they will still be relevant in the millennium. Speculates on the shape and state of public libraries in 2002 and how some people will react.
Argues that the high job mobility observed most prominently amongworkers in Japanese firms is consistent with the behaviour ofrisk‐averse individuals when neither private…
Argues that the high job mobility observed most prominently among workers in Japanese firms is consistent with the behaviour of risk‐averse individuals when neither private nor public income insurance is widely available to displaced workers. Laissez faire is suboptimal and involves higher job mobility than is socially optimal. Public provision of income insurance yields a Pareto improvement and reduces job rotation. Government job training schemes may push rotation levels even higher than the levels under laissez faire and could, therefore, be counterproductive.
A comparison of state‐regulated provision of continuing vocational training in France with the voluntarist British model highlights Britain′s poor record in the 1980s and 1990s. The widespread well‐financed training culture in France contrasts with piecemeal provision in Britain where TECs have little room for manoeuvre. The FORCE programme encourages innovation and good practice in ongoing training in the workplace throughout the European Union but there is no move towards legislating for compulsory training rights, which would benefit British workers as levelling up would take place. Europe needs a coordinated training policy, to maintain competitiveness as its industrial base becomes increasingly service‐dominated.
Considers the social, cultural and nutritional aspects of foodconsumption among low income families. For over a hundred years concernhas been expressed about the diet of…
Considers the social, cultural and nutritional aspects of food consumption among low income families. For over a hundred years concern has been expressed about the diet of poor families. Qualitative research with 48 low income families is reported which investigated their food purchasing and consumption behaviour in order to understand their managing and coping strategies better. Rather than radically alter their diets, families adopt a cheaper imitation of conventional eating patterns. To do otherwise would entail an unacceptable risk of waste that could not be afforded. Further research is reported which indicates that families on income support cannot afford to purchase a healthy and socially acceptable diet.
It is estimated that by the turn of the millennium the world human population could exceed ten billion. Scientists inevitably are searching for effective alternative methods of food preservation. Accordingly, ionization radiation, discovered nearly a hundred years ago when it was first shown to kill micro‐organisms in foods, is being increasingly encouraged as an alternative method of food preservation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared irradiation to be “a powerful tool against preventable food losses and food borne illnesses”. Low dose irradiation, up to 10KGy dose, has been shown to delay ripening, enhance shelf‐life, kill bacteria such as salmonella, listeria, etc., destroy insect infestation, eliminate unwanted sprouting, and in many cases improve flavour and texture of foods. The consumer may not be aware, but a staggering tonnage of food is already being irradiated around the world. Irradiation does not impart any radioactivity to the food and the irradiated food has been shown to be safe for human consumption. The technique offers yet another possibility of extending choice in new exotics for the consumer.