Search results

1 – 10 of over 86000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2017

Abigail Davis and Matt Padley

The Minimum Income Standard (MIS) research gives an insight into living standards in the United Kingdom, and provides a way of tracking the adequacy of incomes over time…

Abstract

The Minimum Income Standard (MIS) research gives an insight into living standards in the United Kingdom, and provides a way of tracking the adequacy of incomes over time. As such it offers useful context for discussions of inequality. At the core of the research are deliberative groups held with members of the public who identify and discuss the goods and services that are considered necessary for a living standard that provides a socially acceptable minimum. Groups decide not only what is enough to maintain health and well-being, but also what is needed for social inclusion. This chapter begins with an outline of MIS before exploring what the qualitative data from the research tell us about how people conceptualise socially acceptable living standards. These data also reveal how particular items, opportunities and choices are considered important in enabling individuals to feel socially included and how that has changed over time. The chapter then looks at how this living standard relates to UK household incomes and at the adequacy of income relative to MIS, in the years following the recession. We identify the groups at greatest risk of having inadequate incomes and explore how this risk has changed during a period in which there has been a sustained decline in living standards. In combining qualitative and quantitative findings from a decade of research, this chapter provides rich insight into living standards and their relation to income within the United Kingdom.

Details

Inequalities in the UK
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-479-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Eleftherios Giovanis, Oznur Ozdamar and Burcu Özdaş

Unemployment can negatively affect individuals, their families and communities in various ways. When individuals are out of work may experience mental and physical health…

Abstract

Purpose

Unemployment can negatively affect individuals, their families and communities in various ways. When individuals are out of work may experience mental and physical health problems, material deprivation and poverty. This study aims to examine the impact of unemployment benefits on health and living standards in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a structural equation modelling (SEM) to consider the simultaneous relationships among the unemployment benefits and the latent variables of health and Standard of Living (SoL). We propose a fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Design (FRDD) and a Regression Kink Design (RKD) within the SEM framework to infer causality. For the empirical analysis, the authors employ the panel Income and Living Conditions Survey (ILCS) in 2007–2015.

Findings

The authors’ findings suggest that those who receive these benefits are more likely to report higher levels of health and improve their living standards compared to the non-recipients. Furthermore, unemployment benefits replacement rates are associated with improved levels in health and living standards. The authors’ results indicate a substantial heterogeneity on the impact of unemployment benefits since males, low educated individuals and those belonging to the lower levels of income are affected more in terms of their health status and living standards.

Originality/value

The majority of earlier studies have focused on the impact of unemployment benefits on labor outcomes. The originality of this study is that we implement the FRDD and RKD within the SEM framework to explore, simultaneously, the impact of unemployment insurance on health and living standards. Moreover, future research studies can implement this framework to infer causality and explore the impact of related policies and reforms.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Yan Xing, Moshe Semyonov and Yitchak Haberfeld

Remittances sent by immigrants have long been viewed as a means to combat poverty, to improve consumption, and to raise standard of living. The present study examines the…

Abstract

Remittances sent by immigrants have long been viewed as a means to combat poverty, to improve consumption, and to raise standard of living. The present study examines the impact of remittances on the economic well-being of Indian households. The analysis is conducted on a randomly selected representative sample of households in Rajasthan. Three types of households are examined: 575 households having current labor migrants, 162 never having migrants, and 232 not having migrants at present but sent migrants in the past. Analysis of the data reveals meaningful differences between the three types of households. Specifically, those having labor migrants are characterized by the highest household income and standard of living. Further analyses suggest that although remittances are likely to improve economic well-being and to secure a higher standard of living they do not have long lasting effect on the economic well-being of the families when migration ends.

Details

Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Donald Hirsch

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the voluntary living wage (LW) in the UK is set. It examines how this calculation relates to contemporary approaches to…

Downloads
2342

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the voluntary living wage (LW) in the UK is set. It examines how this calculation relates to contemporary approaches to setting wage floors, both in relation to their goal of supporting adequate living standards and in relation to the place of wage floors in the labour mark.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines how compulsory and voluntary wage floors are being determined, in the UK and in particular the role of public consensus in contributing to the calculation and adoption of a LW. It then reflects on the future sustainability of a system of wage floors in which the concept of the LW plays a significant role.

Findings

The central finding is that widespread support for wages delivering socially acceptable minimum living standards has transformed the context in which low pay is being addressed in the UK. The LW idea has stimulated more decisive efforts to do so; however, if a compulsory version of a LW were to reach a level shown to be harming jobs, this could seriously undermine such efforts. Moreover, the extent to which adequate wages are compatible with high employment levels can also be influenced by state support for households, especially tax credits and Universal Credit.

Originality/value

The paper clarifies how the setting of the UK LW contributes to objectives related both to living standards and to labour markets, and critically addresses some key issues raised.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Khee Giap Tan, Hui Yin Chuah and Nguyen Trieu Duong Luu

Malaysia and Singapore had parted more than five decades ago. Much of the existing literature concerned about the bilateral ties between two economies focusing on the…

Downloads
1550

Abstract

Purpose

Malaysia and Singapore had parted more than five decades ago. Much of the existing literature concerned about the bilateral ties between two economies focusing on the political economy perspective. This paper aims to provide insights on the economic development and prospects of Malaysia and Singapore at the national level. In addition, this paper also makes a pioneering attempt at conducting a comprehensive comparative analysis between Malaysia and Singapore at the city level.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a case study of Malaysia and Singapore by assessing their national economic competitiveness, urban standards of living and quality of life. The paper leverages on a series of indices such as the competitiveness index for ASEAN-10, the cost of living, wages and purchasing power of ordinary residents, as well as the liveable cities index to perform the analysis.

Findings

In terms of national competitiveness, the analysis shows that Singapore and Malaysia have been leading the ASEAN region from 2000 onwards, being the top- and second-ranked, respectively. Malaysia still lags Singapore in several aspects such as attractiveness to foreign investors and standard of living, education and social stability despite insignificant differences in the ranking. City-level analysis shows that the cost of living in Singapore is almost double of that in Kuala Lumpur, although living in Singapore is more affordable owing to the higher wage rate received by the ordinary citizens.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in several ways. First, this paper assesses economic development in Singapore and Malaysia instead of focusing on cross-straits relations. Second, the study reflects the view that the improvement of standards of living and quality of life for ordinary residents is paramount to economic development. The competitiveness index and city-level benchmarks used in the paper reflect the standards of living and the quality-of-life dimensions. Third, the focus on city-level analysis in addition to conventional national-level analysis helps to provide policymakers with practical policy implications against the backdrop of rapid urbanisation.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Oznur Ozdamar, Eleftherios Giovanis and Sahizer Samuk

In this study, we attempt to estimate the disability costs of households employing the Standard of Livings (SoL) approach and evaluate the impact of the Universal health…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we attempt to estimate the disability costs of households employing the Standard of Livings (SoL) approach and evaluate the impact of the Universal health system reform implemented in Turkey in 2008.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), which simultaneously estimates the disability and living standard equations, including unobserved latent variables. Moreover, we apply a difference-in-differences (DiD) framework to investigate the impact of the universal health insurance (UHI) system and the Green Card programme on living standards. The empirical analysis relies on data derived from the cross-sectional Household Budget Surveys (HBS) during the period 2002–2013.

Findings

Our findings suggest a negative and significant impact of disability on SoL, where disability costs reach the 23% of the household income, which is equivalent almost to $2,600 (USD). Furthermore, the disability costs are reduced from $4,450 to $2,260 due to the UHI and the Green Card programme.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the study is the data structure, which is based on repeated cross-sectional surveys. By using panel data, it is possible to follow the same individual across time and to implement panel data models to control for unobserved heterogeneity and omitted-variable bias.

Social implications

Disability has adverse effects on living standards. The estimation of the disability-related costs may provide a useful guide on policy planning and the design of social benefits.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is that it is the first study estimating the disability-related costs in Turkey. Furthermore, the contribution lies in the investigation of the 2008 health reform and the Green Card programme and its impact on disability costs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Edmund Heery, Deborah Hann and David Nash

This paper presents an account of the UK campaign for the voluntary Living Wage, an example of civil regulation. The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize…

Downloads
4397

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an account of the UK campaign for the voluntary Living Wage, an example of civil regulation. The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize the actors involved in the campaign, describe methods used and examine direct and indirect consequences of the campaign.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method design is employed, reflecting the broadly framed purpose of the research. The research used semi-structured interviews with campaigners, union representatives and employers, observation of campaign activities and the creation of a database of Living Wage employers.

Findings

The campaign originated in the community organizing movement, but has involved a broad range of labor market actors, both “new” and “old.” A continuum of campaigning methods has been used, stretching from community mobilization to appeals to employer self-interest and corporate social responsibility. The campaign has recruited 3,000 employers, led to wage increases for thousands of workers and registered indirect effects by shaping the policies of governments, employers and unions.

Originality/value

The research presents a novel account of the UK’s distinctive Living Wage campaign, a notable example of the civil regulation of the labor market.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Richard Cebula, Fabrizio Rossi and Jeff Clark

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether two specific forms of government policy influence entrepreneurship and hence the performance economy as a whole…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether two specific forms of government policy influence entrepreneurship and hence the performance economy as a whole. Performance is measured in terms of living standards and growth therein. The policies are, as follows: higher quality government regulation of businesses and higher levels of economic freedom.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first provides a basic model focussing upon the regulation and economic freedom variables. The study then adds a dummy variable for G8 nations, a tax burden variable, and the long-term interest rate and provides six estimates. The empirical analysis involves pooled time-series/cross-section data for the OECD over the period 2003-2007.

Findings

The findings indicate that for OECD nations, higher quality public regulation promotes entrepreneurial spirit and performance. Higher economic freedom does the same. The findings are that higher quality government regulation of business and higher levels of economic freedom lead to higher growth rates in the standard of living.

Originality/value

The time period studied, i.e., just prior to the Great Recession, the context of the OECD, the adoption of pooled time-series/cross-section data, and the specific choice of variables in the analysis, along with the estimation of possibly unique or close to unique specifications involving the growth rate of living standards per se make this study different.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Christopher Deeming

Peter Townsend is one of the greatest social scientists of the twentieth century and best known for his pioneering research into poverty. This paper aims to revisit…

Downloads
2365

Abstract

Purpose

Peter Townsend is one of the greatest social scientists of the twentieth century and best known for his pioneering research into poverty. This paper aims to revisit Townsend's early work discussing the measurement of poverty and attempts to operationalise his ideas for determining minimum income standards for healthy living.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based upon a secondary analysis of data taken from the UK Expenditure and Food Survey, a continuous cross‐sectional survey of household income, expenditure, and food consumption. Here, the sample has been restricted to an older population and the authors observe the relationship between household income and a healthy standard of living (indicated by diet) for people aged 60 years and over.

Findings

Minimum income requirements for healthy living, for this population in the UK, are 37 per cent greater than the British state pension for single pensioners and 37 per cent for pensioner couples. It is also appreciably greater than the official minimum income safety net (after means testing), the pension credit guarantee.

Practical implications

Objective evidence‐based assessment of living standards are practicable but do not presently provide a basis for social policy in the UK or elsewhere apparently. Such assessment could provide a credible basis for helping to establish minimum income standards in official policy.

Originality/value

Recent developments in the design of a British social survey have made it possible to operationalise Townsend's ideas for establishing minimum income standards over half a century after he proposed them.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Paul John Sellers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the value that UK trade unions now place on the living wage.

Downloads
8632

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the value that UK trade unions now place on the living wage.

Design/methodology/approach

The author is the TUC’s Pay Policy Officer and examines the issue from a practitioner’s perspective.

Findings

The living wage now has a well-established place within the hierarchy of pay demands adopted by UK trade unions. This continues a tradition of unions supporting norms and regulations as an adjunct to collective bargaining. However, support had to be achieved through a process of negotiation with the broader UK living wage campaign.

Practical implications

The paper concludes that there are good prospects for the living wage, and thus for the continued trade union support.

Social implications

The living wage standard is seen as having a strong moral basis, which often helps to win agreement with good employers. This results in a steady stream of workers out of in-work poverty. The credit for such pay increases is often shared between employers and trade unions.

Originality/value

The paper is written by a practitioner with inside knowledge and experience of the entire course of the living wage campaign in the UK and how it has been adopted and integrated by trade unions.

1 – 10 of over 86000